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Pembrokeshire 
Parishes, Places & People 
Cemais Hundred 



© Basil H J Hughes 2014 




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Table of Contents 

Kernes -Cemais 19 

Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales by Thomas Nicholas 
1872 19 

Kemes - State of Education in Wales 1847 19 

Bayvil 21 

A topographical Dictionary of Wales - S. Lewis. 1834. Bayvill, 21 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St Andrew the Apostle RCAM 21 

St Andrew, Bayvil Church History 21 

Pembrokeshire Parsons. Church of St. Andrew the Apostle 22 

Clergy 22 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate Evans J T 1905 23 

Education - 1847 - The Blue Book - State of Education in Wales 23 

Names connected with the Parish 23 

Nonconformist Chapels: 27 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1923 28 

Roman Find 29 

RCAHMW 29 

Castlebythe 31 

Castlebythe, Castle-Bigh, Castle-Beith 31 

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales S Lewis 1849 31 

RCAM Pembroke 1914 No 136 The Church 31 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate Evans J T 1905 31 

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter (1994) 32 

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons 32 



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Clergy 32 

Castebigh Hearth Tax 1670 33 

Nonconformist Chapels: None found 34 

State of Education in Wales 1847 34 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 35 

Pare Castell Earthwork 35 

Dinas 38 

Topographical Dictionary of Wales Dinas 1839 Lewis 38 

RCAM The old Parish Church dedicated to St Brynach 39 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 40 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 41 

Clergy 41 

Nonconformist Chapels: 43 

Cwm-Yr-Eglwys;Dinas Harbour 44 

State of Education in Wales 1847 44 

Dinas Names for Jottings 45 

Old Sailors Public House 51 

Mines Pen Dinas 51 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments RCAM 51 

Dinas Island Camps 53 

Finds - 56 

Wrecks 56 

Eglwyswrw 57 

1811 Fenton Tours Eglwywerw 57 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire 58 

Eglwyswrw St Cristiolis 58 



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The parish church - St Eirw ? RCAM 1914 59 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 59 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 60 

Clergy 60 

Nonconformist Chapels: 63 

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales 1849 S Lewis 63 

State of Education in Wales 1847 64 

Eglwyswrw - Eglsorow names for Jottings 65 

Eglsorow Parish Hearth Tax 1670 69 

Places of Historical Interest 72 

Fishguard and Goodwick 75 

Fishguard (Aberwaun) 76 

Fishguard & Social ~ The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales - Benj Heath 
Malkin 1804 76 

1811 Fenton Tours Fishguard 76 

The Fishguard Fort 77 

Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 1839 Fishguard 78 

1844 Fishguard Pigot & Co. South Wales directory for 1844 82 

St Mary's Church - 1850 August 2 Glynne Arch Camb 1888 83 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 83 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 84 

Clergy 85 

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons 86 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 87 

Nonconformist Chapels: 88 

The French Invasion 94 



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Acc/to Journal 1885 Vol XLI of the Congress of British Archaeological Society 96 

Fishguard names for Jottings 97 

State of Education in Wales 1 847 109 

Sites of Interest - Fishguard 1 1 1 

Castle Point Old Fort; Fishguard Fort 116 

Goodwick 117 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 117 

Henry's Moat 124 

1811 Fenton Tours Henry's Moat 124 

1839 Henry's Moat Topographical Dictionary of Wales, Lewis 124 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Brynach Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 124 

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales -- Mike Salter 1994 125 

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons 125 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 126 

Nonconformist Chapels: 127 

State of Education in Wales 1847 128 

Henry's Moat names for Jottings 128 

Sites of Interest 132 

Little Newcastle 135 

1811 Fenton Tours Little Newcastle 135 

1839 Little Newcastle Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 135 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 135 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St David? Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 136 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Peter? 136 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 137 

Clergy from the Clergy of the C of E database 137 



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Nonconformist Chapels: 138 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 138 

Little Newcastle Names for Jottings 139 

State of Education in Wales 1847 144 

Sites of Interest — Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 145 

Llandilo (Llandeilo) 147 

1834 Acc/to the Topographical Dictionary of Wales - S. Lewis 147 

1847 State of Education in Wales 147 

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons 147 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 148 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St Teilo 149 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 149 

Nonconformist Chapels: 150 

Landilo Hearth Tax 1670 150 

Sites of Interest 151 

St Teilo's well and skull RCAM 151 

According to information from Llandeilo Llwydiarth - The Well and the Skull by Kemmis 
Buckley MBE, DL, MA 152 

The Prescelly Group Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 153 

Llanfair Nant Gwjai 155 

State of Education in Wales 1 847 155 

1839 Llanvair NantgW5ai (Llan-Fair-Y-Nant-Gw5ai)Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 
155 

Church St Mary's 155 

Mining Llanfair nant gwyn 156 

Sites of Interest 156 

Llanfyrnach 158 



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1811 Fenton Tours Llanvymach 158 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 159 

Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 1833 159 

Parish Church dedicated to St Brynach Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 160 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 161 

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles 161 

Non Conformist 1 62 

State of Education in Wales 1 847 163 

Mining Llanfyrnach 163 

Llanfymach names for Jottings 165 

Llanvirnach Hearth Tax 1670 166 

Sites of Interest 168 

Llangolman 172 

1839 Llangolman (Llan-Gohnan) Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 172 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 172 

Quakers 172 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 172 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Colman 173 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 173 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 173 

Nonconformist Chapel 174 

State of Education in Wales 1 847 174 

Sites of Interest 176 

Llangolman Slate Quarries 178 

Llanllawer (Llanhawer) 179 

State of Education in Wales 1 847 179 



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Topographical Dictionary of Wales 1839 Lewis 179 

1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales 179 

Church St David 179 

Parish Church dedicated to St David Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 180 

The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 1 994 181 

Redundant Church Church of St David, Llanllawer 181 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 181 

Clergy CCEd Llanchlwydog with Llanllawer 1 82 

Nonconformist Chapels: None found 183 

Llanllawer Names for Jottings 1 83 

Hearth Tax 184 

Sites of Interest 186 

Llanwnda 188 

1833 Lewis' Topographical Dictionary of Wales 188 

1847 State of Education in Wales 190 

Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 190 

Church St Gwyndaf 191 

1921 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1921 The Parish Church Dedicated to St 
Gwyndaf 192 

Crosses 192 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 194 

Clergy CCEd 196 

Nonconformist Chapels: 197 

Names for Llanwnda 198 

Mining Llanwnda 200 

Sites of Interest 200 



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1921 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments - Parish of Llanwnda 201 

1811 Fenton' 202 

Finds 212 

RCAHMW 213 

Goodwick Moor; Battle Of PwUgwdig; Battle Of Llanwnda, Near Fishguard 213 

Trehilyn farmhouse 214 

Llanychaer, 214 

1872 Parish church of St David's Llanchaer Glynne July 9th 1872 Arch Camb 214 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments The Parish Church dedicated to St David 216 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 217 

Clergy 217 

Non Conformist 218 

Llanychaer names for Jottings 218 

Llanychaeth Parish Hearth Tax 1670 219 

Sites of Interest 220 

State of Education in Wales 1847 222 

School Building, St David's Church, Llanychaer 222 

Llanychlwydog 225 

1811 Llanchlwydog Fenton Tours 225 

Clergy CCEd 225 

State of Education in Wales 1847 227 

Llanichloydog Hearth Tax 1670 227 

Pembrokeshire Church Plalate J T Evans 228 

Maenclochog 229 

1811 Fenton Tours Manclochog 229 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 229 



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The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles 230 

History of Maenclochog 230 

The Castle site 232 

1839 Mary's St otherwise Maenclochog (Maen-CIochog) Lewis Topographical dictionary of 
Wales 233 

Vorlan, 234 

Rosebush 234 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St Mary - Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 238 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 239 

Clergy 240 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 241 

Nonconformist Chapels: 241 

Education 241 

State of Education in Wales 1847 241 

Raihvay 242 

Maenclochog names from Jottings 243 

Sites of Interest 245 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1915 & 1920 246 

RCAHMW 247 

Meline 252 

1839 Topographical Dictionry of Wales 252 

1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Meline: 
252 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Dogmael - Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments. 252 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 253 

Clergy 253 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 254 



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Meline Hearth Tax 1670 254 

State of Education in Wales 1847 257 

Sites of Interest 257 

RCAM 257 

Finds 259 

RCAHMW 260 

Monington 261 

1811 Fenton Tours Monington 261 

1839 Monington Lewis Topographical Dictionary of Wales 261 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Nicholas Royal Commission of Ancient Monuments 261 

1994 The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 261 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 262 

Pembrokeshire Church plate J T Evans 262 

Moninton Parish Hearth Tax 1670 262 

Nonconformist Chapels: 263 

State of Education in Wales 1847 263 

Sites of interest - Royal Commission of Ancient Monuments 263 

Morfil- Morvil 265 

1847 State of Education in Wales 265 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 265 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St John the Baptist 266 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J.T. Evans 266 

Clergy 267 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994 268 

Nonconformist Chapels: None found 268 

Some names associated with Morvil 268 



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Morvil Hearth Tax 1670 269 

Sites of Interest 269 

Moylegrove 272 

State of Education in Wales 1847 272 

1603 George Owen (original spelling) 272 

1839 Moylgrove Topographical Dictionary ofWales Lewis 272 

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillw)^! Miles 273 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 273 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 274 

Clergy Moylgrove Parish Church, with Baj^il 275 

Nonconformist Chapels: 276 

Moilgrove Parish Hearth Tax 1670 276 

Sites of Interest 277 

Moylegrove Mining 278 

Mynachlogddu 279 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 279 

1839 Mynachlogdu (Monachlog-Du Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 279 

1291 The Monastic Order in South Wales 1066 -1348 F G Cowley 279 

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillw)ai Miles 280 

1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Walesdescribed 
Mynachlog Ddu 280 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Dogmael. Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments... 280 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 281 

Clergy 282 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 283 

Nonconformist Chapels: 283 



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Monachlogddy Hearth Tax 283 

Education 285 

State of Education in Wales 1847 285 

Industry 286 

Sites of Interest 287 

Cam Menyn 'BLUESTONE' Outcrops Of Spotted Dolerite;Cam Meini RCAHMW 291 

Nevem 294 

Nevin, or Nevy 294 

1603 George Owen (Spelling as per) 294 

1811 Fenton Tours Nevem 295 

1839 Nevern - Topographical Dictionary of Wales 296 

1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales 297 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 298 

State of Education in Wales 1847 300 

1859 Parish Church of Nevem (St Brynach) August 3rd Glynne 301 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St Br5aiach~ Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments.. 3 02 

The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 1994 303 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 303 

Clergy CCED 305 

Extract for Nevern Parish Church The Religious census of 1851 305 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 306 

Nonconformist Chapels : 307 

Inscribed Crosses 309 

1859 The great cross in Nevem Churchyard --Arch Camb 1860 p 58 J.O. Westwood 309 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1923 St Brynach's Cross 31 1 

1603 Nevem Castle George Owen 314 



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Nevem Castle Owen 1603 Laws 1895 314 

1803 Fenton 1914 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments Castell Nanhyfer, Nevem 
Castle 314 

Castell Nanhyfer; Nevem Castle 315 

BBC Report 201 1 October 4th 316 

Names for Jottings Nevem 317 

Names Nevem Parish Hearth Tax 1670 324 

Nevem mining 33 1 

Sites of interest 331 

RCAM 1914 331 

Nevem - Trefael 12th Febraary 2014 336 

Houses 341 

Finds 343 

Newport 351 

1811 Fenton Tours Newport 351 

1839 Newport Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 352 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 354 

Charter Of The Town Of Newport, A.D. 1215 357 

Burgages and the town 357 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments -Newport Castle 358 

1909 Edwards, Emily Hewlett Castles and strongholds of Pembrokeshire Tenby 359 

Newport Castle - Tony Roberts 1989 359 

Church St Marys 360 

1810 R. Fenton Pembrokeshire edition 1903 p 299 360 

1914 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 361 

1994 Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 362 



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Pembrokeshire Parsons 362 

Clergy 363 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate 365 

Nonconformist Chapels: 365 

State of Education in Wales 1847 366 

People of the town 367 

Records of Newport 1434 & 1594 B G Charles -NLW Cyf rh 2(gaeafl951) 367 

Records of the Borough of Newport B G Charles NLW Journal Vol VII 399 

Newport Names from Jottings 409 

Newport Parish Hearth Tax 1670 418 

1844 Newport Pigot & Co. South Wales directory 421 

Parrog 427 

Sites of interest 428 

Mining Newport 434 

Pontfaen 435 

1839 Pontvaen (Pont-Faen) Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 435 

Pembrokeshire Antiquities Arch Camb 1865 St Brynach Church Pontfaen 435 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Brynach Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 437 

Old Parish Churches - Salter 438 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 438 

Grants 438 

1406 Episcopal Registers p 369 439 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 439 

Clergy CCED 439 

Nonconformist Chapels: None found 441 

Incised Crosses RCAM 441 



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State of Education in Wales 1847 No Report 441 

Pontvain Hearth Tax 1670 441 

Pontfaen. Major Francis Jones - late Wales Herald Extraordinary 442 

Sites of Interest 445 

Puncheston 447 

1839 Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 447 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Mary. Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 447 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales -- Mike Salter 1994 448 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 449 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate 450 

Clergy 450 

Smjona Welsh Baptist Chapel, Puncheston 451 

Bethel Welsh Calvinist Methodist Chapel, Puncheston 452 

Quakers Burial Ground & Meeting House, Puncheston 453 

Royal Commission of Ancient Monuments Quakers Burial Ground Puncheston 453 

Some Quaker Records 454 

Poncheston Parish,Hearth Tax 1670 456 

Education 457 

State of Education in Wales 1847 457 

Sites of Interest 457 

St Dogmaels 459 

Notes 459 

Western Mail April 2002: 459 

1091 The battle of Llandudoch (St. Dogmaels) 459 

1604 St Dogmells Owen 460 

1802 Barber 460 



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1811 Fenton Tours St Dogmaels 461 

1839 Topographical Dictionary of Wales -Dogmael's, St. (St. Dogfael) Lewis 462 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 463 

1923 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments St Dogmaels 463 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments Church of St Thomas St Dogmaels 467 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 468 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 469 

Clergy 469 

1994 The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 470 

Nonconformist Chapels: 470 

Inscribed and Carved Stones. RCAM 472 

1859 St Dogmaels Abbey -Visit by Archaeology Cambrensis Association Report 473 

St Dogmael's Abbey. RCAM 474 

1914 St Dogmaels Abbey Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 476 

1917 The Benedictine Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - H M Vaughan F.S.A 477 

1402 St Dogmells Abbey 483 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 485 

State of Education in Wales 1847 492 

St Dogmell,s Parish Hearth Tax 1670 493 

Other Names St Dogmael's 496 

Pigot & Co. South Wales directory for 1830 506 

1 864 Caerau In The Parish Of St Dogmells Arch Cambl 864 508 

Mining- 519 

Sites of Interest 519 

Whitechurch 521 



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1811 Fenton Tours Whitechurch 521 

Whitechurch or Eglwys Wen 1839 Lewis 521 

1895 Nooks and Comers of Pembrokeshire Timmins 521 

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994 523 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 523 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 524 

Clergy Whitechurch 524 

Nonconformist Chapels: 525 

State of Education in Wales 1847 525 

Whitechurch Hearth Tax 526 

More Names Whitechurch 528 

Sites of Interest 530 



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Introduction 

Kernes -Cemais 

Annals and Antiquities of tlie Counties and County Families of Wales by Thomas Nicholas 
1872 

The conquest of Cemaes was effected about 1094 by Martin de Tours, a knight who by his name 
is marked as having originally come from Tours in France. He had settled at first in 
Devonshire, and came thence to the conquest of this district (see Baronia de Kemqs, p. 8). 
Newport before that time was called only by the name which still clings to it in the Welsh- 
Trifdraeth, and received the new name of Novo-Burgus, since modified into Newport, from 
the new possessor . Martin de Tours, on the conquest being effected, was invested with the 
usual attributes of a Lord Marcher; he and his successors were summoned to the sovereign's 
council as barons, holding in capite from the English Plantagenet king; the territory was 
constituted a lordship marcher, having regalia and courts of its own, where all matters affecting 
life and property were tried; and the barons of Cemmaes continued to be "lordes of the 
Parliamente of England " up to the time when the lordship came by descent to the Audeleys, whoe 
of themselves before were lordes of the Parliamente, and soe the place of Kernes was 
drowned in that respecte. But whiles itcont5niued in the names of the Martins, the first 
lordes thereof, and untillitcametotheLordeAudeley they were lordes of Parliamente by the 
name of Lordes of Cemeis" (Baronia de Kemeys, p. 24). The third Lord of Cemmaes, Sir 
William Martin, married Angharad, daughter of the Lord Rhys, and thus the family became 
identified with the people of the country. Sir Thomas D. Lloyd Bart., a lineal descendant of 
the Martins, first Lords of Cemmaes, and as such himself lord of the lordship, is quite 
entitled to claim the name and rank of Baron of Cemmaes- the last Lord Marcher title now 
subsisting. 

The lordship marcher of Cemmaes, as described by the antiquary, George Owen of 
Henllys, himself its inheritor, extended along the sea-coast from the mouth of the Teivi to 
Fishguard, and thence southward by a line nearly direct to St. Dogwell's, where it took an 
eastern direction, passing Castle Henry, Maenclochog, Monachlog-ddu, to Llanfyrnach, its 
extreme eastern point, and thence northward, west of Frenni Fawr, to the Teivi, below Cilgerran 
Castle. 



Kemes - State of Education in Wales 1847 

This district includes all the northern coast of Pembrokeshire from Fishguard to Cardigan, and 
extends some miles to the south of the Precelly Mountain. On the southand west it is bounded by 
the Hundreds of Ddungleddy and Dewisland, and on the east by that of Kilgerran. It is quite as 
badly off for education as Dewisland. Of its 26 parishes containing a population of 15559, no less 



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than 13 parishes, containing a population of 3460, are without a day school at all; 14 parishes 
containing a population of 3773, are without a resident clergjmian; and 12 parishes containing a 
population of 2386 are without either a dayschool or resident clergyman. In the whole of the 
country between Fishguard and Dinas to the north, and the Precelly Mountain on the south, there is 
no day school. I rode over most of it. The population is scattered, and lives in a very poor manner. A 
great part of the country appeared to be hardly reclaimed. The schools most resorted to are the 
Sunday schools in Puncheston and Llanychlwydog. Some few children, who are within reach of 
Dinas, go to the day schools there; but, even putting poverty and the small inducements which such 
schools offer out of sight, the distance and the nature of the roads must prevent the young families 
of scattered cottagers from getting even thus much education during the greater part of the year. I 
had some conversation with the superintendent of Jabez Sunday School in Llanychlwydog, a better 
sort of farmer, living in a comfortable way, and apparently upward of 30 years old. He wrote a good 
hand, spoke English correctly, and appeared a shrewd intelligent man. He talked much of "the want 
of schools, and that the poor severely felt it", but he declared at the same time that "if a day school 
was to be under clerical control no children would attend it. There were no Church people in the 
parish. He was against religious instruction of any sort in day schools" 

The state of the churches exemplifies the neglect in which the population of these parishes is left. 
Churchwardens are never appointed. The churches at Llandilo and Maenchlochog are in ruins. I 
entered that at Morfyl. The pains of the chancel window were all out, and the inside of the church 
was as wet as if it had just been rinsed with water - as, indeed , it had been, for the afternoon was 
windy and rainy. 



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Bayvil 



A topographical Dictionary of Wales - S. Lewis. 1834. Bayvill, 

a parish in the hundred of KEMMES, 

County of Pembroke, South Wales, 3 miles (ENE) from Newport, containing 160 inhabitants. This 
small parish, which is situated in the northern part of the county, and within a short distance of the 
coast is intersected by a tributary stream, which rises to the north of the church, and falls into the 
river Nevem near its influx into the sea at Newport bay. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
consolidated with that of Moylgrove, in the archdeaconry of Cardigan, and diocese of St. David's, 
rated in the King's books at £5, and endowed with £800 royal bounty. The church is dedicated to St. 
Andrew. There is a place of worship for Independents. The poor are supported by an average annual 
assessment amounting to £24. 5. 

Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 

Beyond Nevem we pass near the lonely deserted chapel of Bajrvil 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St Andrew the Apostle RCAM 

The church consists of a single chamber, 45ft by 18ft with no structural division between nave and 
chancel. A double bett cote surmounts the western Gable. The windows have square wooden 
caements. The floor is flagged, the font is 20in square by Sin deep, internal measurements, and 
stands on a short circular pillar; the total height is 26in. The single bell is dated 1688. the 
churchyard is roughly circular. It is reported locally that the stone bearing the inscription 
VITALIANl EMERITO, which was removed from Cwm Gloyn farm to Nevem churchyard 
originally stood in Baj^il churchyard - Visited 24"^ June 1922. 



St. Andrew: circular churchyard containing tiny disused Georgian church - twin bellcote box pews 
and triple decker pulpit. 

St Andrew, Bayvil Church History 

St Andrew, Bayvil - "St Andrew's is thought to be an early nineteenth century rebuilding of a 
medieval church although no perceptible early fabric remains. Indeed the church is valued for its 
survival as a modest but evocative late Georgian Anglican box with Gothick windows, and a 
completely intact, single chamber interior." 

The Religious census of 1851 Ba5rvill Parish Church, with the Parish Church of Moylgrove David 
Evan Morgan, Minister 



The Welsh Church Year Book, 1929 St Brynach & St Mary (Cilgwyn) & Parish Church 



21 



(Ba3^il)Incumbent and Curates; D Davies 



Pembrokeshire Parsons. Church of St. Andrew the Apostle. 

This benefice was appropriated to the Abbey of St. Dogmaels in Kernes, probably by Robert Martin, 
Lord of the Lordship Marcher of Kernes. 

It is evident, however, that there was formerly a rectory here, as in 1493 Hugh ap Thomas was 
presented to the Rectory of Baj^il by the Abbot of St. Dogmaeh.-Episcopal Register. 

On the 7th May, 1691, Griffith Rice, curate of Bayvil and Moylgrove, subscribed to the King's 
Supremacy. {Watsons's Subscrip) 

It would appear from this that Bayvil and Moylgrove parishes were probably at that time united, 
and continued so until 22 March, 1879, when they were disunited under an Order in Council. 

Bavyle. - Viearia ibidem es coUaeione abbatis Sancti Dogmaelis unde Johannes ... est vicarius 
valet communibus annis 60s. Inde decima 6s. {Valor Eccl.) 

Under heading Living Discharged :Bayvill V. with Moylgrove (St. Andrew) Abb. St. Dogmael s 
Propr. The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly value, £6 10s; £20 King's Books, £5.- {Bacon's Liber 
Regis.) 

In 1714 the living was sequestrated, and David Parry was then curate.- {Visitation Book.) 



Clergy 
Rectors 

1493 David Jevan. 

1493. Nov. 25. Hugh ap Thomas vice David Jevas, deceased. 
Vicars 

1535-6 John 

1691 Griffith Rice. 

1739. Aug. 1. Morgan Gwynne. 

1783. Mar. 21. Lewis Walters, vice Morgan Gw5nine, deceased. 



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1809. Jul. 21. Daniel Davies, B.D. vice Lewis Walters deceased. 

1846. Jan. 14. David Evan Morgan, vice Daniel Davies, D. D., deceased. 

1867. Jul. 26. Thomas Richardson, M.A., vice David Evan Morgan, deceased 

1879. Sep. 11. Isaac Hughes Jones, vice Thomas Richardson, resigned. 

1893. Oct. 30. John Owen Evans, vice Isaac Hughes Jones, who died on 12 June, 1893, 

1911. Oct. 30. Lewis Roderick, vice John Owen Evans, deceased, died on 26 March, 1911 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate Evans J T 1905 

Bayvil (S. Andrew). — There is no plate now belonging to this parish excepting a pewter Paten, 
upon which there are no marks 

Education - 1847 - The Blue Book - State of Education in Wales 

The parish has no resident Clergyman, it is agricultural but the rates of wages is unknown It is 
stated that the moral character of the population is good. There are no resident landed proprietors 
and they do not subscribe to the maintenance of Schools. There are no farmers paying more than 
£100 per annum in rent. The people for the most part cannot read or write. The means of education 
for the poor are not sufficient and the number of children going to no school could not be 
ascertained - No remedial plan was suggested by the Informant; Vicar of the Parish the Rev David 
Evan Morgan of Moylgrove Cardigan 



Names connected with the Parish 

ap Owen William 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax. 

ap Owen William David 1670 Bayvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 1670 

ap Thomas Hugh 1493 Nov 25 Rector Baj^ill Pembrokeshire Parsons 

Bevan Henry 1670 Bayvill H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Bevan Lewis 1670 Bajrvill H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



23 



Cantington Howell 1370 who held in Bayvill in 1370. Howell,, according to the Golden 
Grove Book, had a son 



Cantington Philip who married Broughton,Elizabeth of Llangwarren. and had a 
daughter and heiress 



Cantington Elizabeth who married Thomas, Rees David. 



David Jane 1670 Bayvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David Parry 1714 curate living was sequestrated Visitation Book Baj^ill Pembrokeshire 
Parsons 



Davies Daniel BD 1809 Jul 21 vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire Parsons 



Edward George 1670 Bayvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evans John Owen 1893 Oct 30 died on 26 March 1911 vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire 
Parsons. 



Gilbert WiUiam 1670 Bayvill H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Griffith Rice 7th May 1691 .curate of Bayvil and Moylgrove subscribed to the Kings 
Supremacy 



Gwynne Morgan 1 73 9 Aug 1 vicar Ba5rvill Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



24 



Hugh John 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Huten James 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Jevan David 1493 Bayvill - Rector Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



John Griffith 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Morice 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Thomas 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Jones Isaac Hughes 1879 Sep 11 died on 12 June 1893 vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire 
Parsons. 



Lloyd Lodwicke 1670 Bayvill H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Morgan David Evan 1846 Jan 14 vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire parsons 



Owen Dorothy 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



Rees Evan 1670 Bayvill H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Rice Griffith 1691 vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire parsons. 



Richard David 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



25 



Richardson Thomas 1867 Jul 26 M A vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire parsons 



Roderick Lewis 1911 Oct 30 vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire parsons. 



Rowland James ,1700 , Quaker, gentleman, of Rhos y Bayvil, , emigrated Quaker, 
Immigrated to Pennsylvania Glenn 's Welsh, Founders of Pennsylvania 



Rowland John , Quaker, Bayvil brother, of James Rowland emigrated before 1715., 
Quaker, Immigrated to Pennsylvania Glenn 's Welsh, Founders of Pennsylvania 



Rowland William 1670 Bayvill H 2 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Sily Anne 1670 .Ba5rvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas Evan 1670 Bayvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas Evan 1670 Bayvill H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas Herbert 1670 Bayvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Walters Lewis 1783 Mar 21 vicar Bayvill Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



William David 1670 Bayvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



WUliam Edward 1670 Bayvill P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



26 



William John 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



WUliam Miricke 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



William Rees 1670 Bayvill H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



William Rees 1670 Bayvill H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Young Rees 1670 Bayvill P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Nonconformist Chapels: 



Penuel Baptist chapel, Rhydymaen / Cemmaes Built 1824, rebuilt 1860.Still open 1998): 



1851 College Green Ind Erected in 1791 Evan Lewis, Minister, Brjoiberian, Eglwyswrw 

College Green (Yr Hen Gapel), in Felindre [Independent, 1810]. Still in use 1993 Yr Hen Gapel 

was built in 1791 and rebuilt in 1810. In 1857 it was converted into a Sunday School and in the 
later nineteenth century into the vestry of the Cana Chapel, it has rubble stone, formerly 
whitewashed walls, with an imitation slate roof and long-wall entry plan. Yr Hen Gapel is now 
Grade 2 Listed as a rare small early nineteenth century chapel. RCAHMW, May 2010 



Cana Welsh Independent Chapel, Felindre Farchog, Bayvil;Felindre Farchog;College Green 

Cana Independent Chapel was built in 1810 and rebuilt in 1857. The present chapel, dated 1857, is 
built in the Simple Gothic style of the gable entry type. Cana is now Grade 2 Listed. RCAHMW, 
November 2010 still open Dec 2006 



27 



Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1923 
Pant y groes Mound 

This is a circular mound, probably sepulchral, placed about 300 yds south east of Pant y groes 
farmstead in the parish of Moylgrove, the boundary line of the parish running between. The mound 
has a circumference of 300ft, 

and a height of 5ft. It is grass grown and presents no appearance of disturbance, other than by the 
ploughing of the field which has doubtless reduced its height - visited 23'^'^ June 1914 



Crugiau Cemes RCAM 

This group of sepulchral mounds consists of what George Owen, the historian of Pembrokeshire, 
writing about the year 1600, calls "four little tumps of earth and yet can been 40mls off, viz fi-om 
Penpljmion [Pen Pljoilumon]" 



Fenton in his Historical Tour refers to the mounds as follows:- 1 come to Crugiau Cemaes, a very 
large group of tumuli, very conspicuous, perfect and untouched, but the greater number so altered 
by the intersection of hedges and the repeated process of the plough, that it requires an eye much in 
the habit of examining such elevations to discover them: this cluster with an exception to that on 
Dry Barrows and the adjoining fields near Orielton, is the largest I have found in the county. About 
a century or more [ ie circa 1690] one of them was opened, and by the selection still appearing there 
is every reason to suppose without any sort of judgement to direct operations" 



In Gibsons edition of Camden's Britannia (1695) is the following by Edward Lhuyd :- @ In this 
county there are divers ancient tumuli or artificial mounds for urn burial, whereof the most notable 
I have seen are those four called Krigeu Kemaes, or the Barrows of Kemaes. One of which a 
gentleman of the neighbourhood, Mr Lloyd of Kwn Gloin, out of curiosity, and for the satisfaction 
of some triends, caused latelyto be dug: and discovered therin five urns which contained a 
considerable quantity of burnt bones and ashes. One of these, together with the bones and ashes it 
contained was lately presented to the Ashmolean Repository at Oxford" 

At the present time six mounds are clearly discemable; the existance of others may be 
suspected. Of them the following is a more particular account, beginning with the most southerly, 
over which passes the boundary between Bayvil and Nevern parishes. 

1] Circumference 150ft height 4ft flat to grass covered 



28 



2] In the hedge of the field next to that bearing OS.bench mark 562.5; circumference 300ft height 
10ft gorse covered; disturbed; small white quartz stones scattered around. 

3] At OS bench mark 642 and 20 ds from 2]; circumference 50ft; height 10ft; gorse covered; 
disturbed top and west. 

4] At aboutof 3] at the junction of the parishes of Ba5rvil Moylgrove and Nevem; circumference 300 
ft height 8 ft corse covered ? Disturbed. 

5] Ten yds east of 4] and just within Nevem parish: circumference 350ft height 10ft gorse covered; 
disturbed fi-om summit; small white stones about. 

6] Ten yds north east of 5] circumference 200ft height 5ft; gorse covered; much disturbed 



Roman Find 

Lewis Morris states that a medal of the Roman Emperor Otho (ad 69) was found at Creigiau Kemes 
about the middle of the 18c ( Cambrian Register 1796) but no further particulars relating to the 
discovery have been traced - Visited 24* June 1914 



YGaer 

This is an oval shaped enclosure on a farm named Plas y merchant, having a length of 200ft and a 
bredth of 100ft. The bank has disappeared in places, but at the northem end of the enclosure has an 
exterior fall of about 3 ft to a shallow ditch. Elsewhere the enclosed area is almost on a level with 
the top of the bank. The entrance was probablt on the south west. 

On the 26* May 1920, our Inspecting Officer 
visited the position to see a stone lined grave which had been revealed by the plough a few days 
previous. The interment had been made directly within the earthen bank, and slightly to the east of 
north. The grave measured 6ft by 15in by 12in deep, and was formed of flat stones of good size. It 
was orientated east and west. A portion of a human cranium was found at the west end and two 
phalanges at the east end but nothing was discovered to give date to the interment. The size and 
orientation of the grave point to a comparative late period. The bank showed signs of two other 
graves , which had fallen in or been crushed by ploughing - visited 26* May 1920 



RCAHMW 

Y Gaer, Bayvil;Caer Bayvil Hillfort 



29 



A ploughed-out oval earthwork enclosure, about 50m north-south by 30m, set upon the tip of a 
gentle west- facing spur & showing a south-west facing entrance: limited excavation, in 1979, 
showed that the current earthworks represented a ditched & ramparted circuit, the rampart being 
stone -revetted internally; this had replaced an earlier circuit, defined by parallel pallisade trenches; 
structural features, associated with these circuits, were noted in the interuior & a single possible 
later prehistoric pot sherd was recovered; the enclosure proved to be filled by grave-cuts, generally 
oriented east-west, some containg cists; a skeletal fragment yielded an uncalibrated radio-carbon 
date centring on the 7th century AD.The trial excavation carried out by Dyfed Archaeological 
Archaeological Trust, September 1979 

Source: James 1987 (Arch. Cam. 136), 51-76.J.Wiles 08.03.05 



St Andrew's, Bayvil, Cropmark Enclosure 

80m SE of Bayvil church, partially underlying modem hedgebank. Enclosure; circular; uncertain 
completeness. c50m diameter. Defined by a single segmented ditch, formed of regular butt-ended 
sections. First noted by RCAHMW during summer aerial reconnaissance in 1996. RCAHMW 



30 



Castlebythe 



Castlebythe, Casde-Bigh, Castle-Beith. 

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales S Lewis 1849 

CASTLE-BIGH (CASTLE-BEITH), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, 
county of Pembroke, South Wales, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 266 
inhabitants. The parish occupies some high ground, near the source of a tributary of the Western 
Cleddau river. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6, and in the 
patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the church is dedicated to St. Michael. On the border of the 
parish are the remains of a Roman encampment, through which runs the high road separating the 
parishes of CastleBigh and Ambleston, and which is minutely described in the account of the latter 
place. There is another encampment near the church, fortified with double ramparts, and occupying 
about four acres of ground. A house in the parish, called "Poll-Tax Inn," received its name from 
having been the place where that tax was collected. 

RCAM Pembroke 1914 No 136 The Church 

The Church consists of a chancel, nave and double bell-cote above the west gable. It was practically 
rebuilt on the old foundations in the year 1875. Some of the steps to the rood loft remain; also a 
small piscina and aumbry. The font bowl is modem; the pillar may be original but it has been 
redressed- Visited 21 October 1914. 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate Evans J T 1905 

CastleBythe otherwise Castle Bigh (S. Michael). — Here in present use as a Chalice is a rare and 
beautiful Beaker Cup of the time of Charles I. The hall mark indicates the year 1630, the maker's 
mark (not given in O. E. P.) being R A with fleur-de-lys beneath in a plain heraldic shield. It was 
probably made for secular purposes as the date of donation is 79 years later. Around the middle of 
the cup is the following inscription " Communion Cup for Castle b^h parish. David Richard 
Churchwarden in ye yeare 1709". The cup is richly decorated with ornamental moulding, belts and 
scrolls, treated with great softness. This parish is to be congratulated upon possessing a piece of 
plate of great value and interest. There is a beaker used as a chalice at Llanfyllin, N. Wales, 1598;at 
Stickney, Lines., 1608, and another in Armathwaite, Cumberland, 1609. In Scotland this shaped 
Communion Cup was not incommon in the 17th century. 

There is also a plain electro-plated Paten of Pre-Reformation design, 5 in. in diameter leather with a 
pewter Plate. 



31 



Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter (1994) 

The plain pointed chancel arch dates from cl200. The chancel was later widened southwards and 
given a recess on that side. There was much rebuilding in 1875 but the building is now derelict 

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons 

This living is a rectory, formerly in the patronage of the Perrot family of Haroldston, near 
Haverfordwest, being an appendage of their manor of Castlebigh, but now in the gift of the 
Crown. 

Under the name of Castro Pulch, this church was assessed in 1291 at £6 13S. 4d.—Taxatio. 

Castell Bygh. — Ecclesia ibidem ex coUacione Johannis Parrot armigeri, domini hujus manerii, unde 
Johannes Arnold, clericus, est rector valet communibus annis clare £6. Inde decima ns.— Valor Eccl. 

Under the heading ' I,ivings Discharged: ' — CastleBurgh alias High R. (St. Michael). John Parrott, 
Esq., 1535; The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly value, £23 King's Books, £6. — Bacon's Liber Regis. 

1851 Castle Bythe Parish Church "This return is missing" 

1929 St Brynach & Parish Church (Castle Bythe)Incumbent and Curates; A W Jones 



Clergy 

Rice, David 


1677 Rector 


Rees, David 


1692 Rector 


Rice, David 


1714 


Rector 


Philipps, Samuel 


1716 


Rector 


Rice, David 


1716 


Rector 


Philipps, Samuel 


1720 


Rector 


Phillips, Thomas 


1730 


Rector 


Lloyd, John 


1736 


Curate 


Adam , Thomas 


1741 


Curate 


Jenkins, William 


1746 


Curate 


Morris, David 


1749 


Rector 


Phillips, Thomas 


1749 


(Death)^QCiov 



32 



Morris, David 


1749 


Rector 


Matthias , John 


1764 


Rector 


Morris , David 


1764 


(natural deathJRectov 


Mathias , James 


1764 


Rector 


Davies , Tomothy 


1773 


Curate 


James , William 


1784 


Curate 


Rees , Francis 


1785 


Curate 


Bowen , Evan 


1788 


Curate 


Meyler , John 


1795 


Curate 


Jenkins , John 


1796 


Curate 


Jenkins , John 


1801 


Curate 


Jenkins , John 


1804 


Curate 


John , John 


1806 


Rector 


Mathias , John 


1806 


(natural deathJRQctov 


Pugh , John 


1814 


Curate 


Piiph Tnhn 


1816 


Rector 


John , John 


1816 


(natural deathJRectov 


Hughes , John 


1830 


Curate 



Castebigh Hearth Tax 1670 

Griffith Thomas Castebigh- H&H 

Griffith Howell Castebigh- H 

Vaughan James Castebigh- H 

Hardin Thomas Long Hooke Castebigh- -H2 



33 



Ejaion Margarett 


Castebigh- 


H 


Hooper Jenkin 


Castebigh- 


H 


Phillipps James 


Castebigh- 


H 


Llewhelin John 


Castebigh- 


H 


Adam Morice - 


Castebigh- 


H 


John Owen 


Castebigh- 


H 


William Griffith 


Castebigh- 


H 


James Thomas 


Castebigh- 


H 


John Thomas 


Castebigh- 


H 


William Hugh 


Castebigh- 


H 


Elliot Lewis clerk 


Castebigh-rector-H 


Thomas Rowland 


Castebigh- 


P 




Castebigh- 


P 


David Lewis 


Castebigh- 


P 


Evan Owen 


Castebigh- 


P 



1851 Castle Bjrthe Parish Church "This return is missing" 



1929 St Brynach & Parish Church (Castle Bj^e)Incumbent and Curates; AW Jones 



Nonconformist Chapels: None found 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

The parish has a resident Clergyman, it is mainly agricultural with labourers receiving 7d a day with 
food and Is a day without. Masons and carpenters Is a day with food. The moral character of the 
parish is regarded as good but there are no landed proprietors resident and they do not subscripe to 
the maintenance of schools, only one farmer pays more than £100 per annum in rent. There is no 



34 



day school in the parish but some children attend a Sunday school in the adjacent parish. There are 
12 children who do not receive any schooling but most of the people of the parish can read and 
write. Information from John Pugh, Rector, Castle Bigh 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 
Tumuli on Mynydd Castlebythe 

The summit of Myndd Castlebythe ,1137ft above sea level, is crowned with two mounds which are 
probably sepulchral. They are known locally as "the Queens". The more easterly is dome shaped 
and about 15 ft high; base circumference about 300 ft. It presents no appearance of having been 
disturbed. 

About 90 feet to the west is the second mound, which is of the height of lOft and circumference of 
about 300ft. It was opened by the late Mt Edmund Laws, F.S.A., who found "nothing but Charcoal" 
{Pern Arch Survey 40) Visited 20"^ October 1914. 

Pare Castell Earthwork 

This is a semicircular earthwork situated on the farm of Wern, to the north of Castebythe quarry. 
The camp is placed on a fairly sharp slope which drops precipitously to the little river Anghof. The 
curved rampart has a height of 6ft and a length of a little over 300ft; the chord of the arc measures 
250ft. There is an exterior ditch, now well nigh obliterated. The entrance was at the eastern end of 
the curve; The opening had been widened by the removal of some yards of bank. The parishes of 
Castlebythe, Morvil, and Puncheston meet at the site -Visited 22"'' October 1914 

Castle Fleming 

The greater part of this earthwork falls within the partish of Ambleston ( Hundred of Dungleddy 
[Daugleddau]), under which it is described. In Castlebythe a neighbouring farm house is called 
Fleming's Castle, and directly north of the earthwork are two fields called Castle Park, while about 
300 yds further nortjhwards are two fields called Pare Castell. Finally, it may be recalled that the 
field to the south of the earthwork in Ambleston parish is also known as Pare Castell. These place 
names evidence the character and importance of the position in the estimation of those who adopted 
them. 

Castell y bwch, the buck's castle 

This mound stands in the centre of the village of Castlebythe, a few yards from the parish church. 
The Ordinance sheet styles it a "Tumulus" and marks another monument adjoining it as "Castell y 
Fuwch". It is however an unmistakable mound castle, the adjacent Castell y Fuwch being the 
bailey. The mound has been much disturbed, whereby its appearance has been altered. It height 



35 



varies from 10 to 20ft, and its summit diameter is about 40 ft. It was surrounded by a dithch which 
is much filled up The bailey is an oval measuring 220 ft by 170ft; its encircling bank has a height of 
12 ft from the bottom of the ditch. There is a strong spring just within the north bank. Llieut Col W 

LI Morgan R E and ex Commissioner, was informed in 1870 of "a further enclosure to the north 
east, slightly longer than this detached bailey. About half of it was destroyed by the making of the 
railway". This second enclosure has almost entirely disappeared - Visited 2P' October 1914 

Ffynnon Mihangel 

This is a strong spring situated near the parish church. The water reises in a small stone built basin 
which shows no trace of having had at any time a covering above it; it is a simple village well, with 
no tradition of curative virtues - Visited 21" October 1914. 

Pare Castell 

This is a field belonging to Hen ganol farm in the southern part of the parish. In its centre is a small 
circular mound, now almost level with the field itself whose appearance suggests a sepulchral 
origin. The base circumference is about 150 ft. the suggestion of a "castle" implied in the name 
may be due to the near mound castle of Castlebythe - visited 16* June 1920. 

Poll Tax Inn 

Fenton seems responsible for this name, which is that of " a small house by the roadside where, it 
is said, the collectors of the poll tax, when it existed, used to meet (Tour 356) and which is 
perpetuated on the modem Ordnance maps. George Owen ( Description of Pembrokeshire ) 
mentions it as "Paltockes Inn" dounbtless from a former proprietor. 



RCAHMW 

Pare Castell, Barrow, Castlebythe 

A probable barrow, or cairn, 19m in diameter and 0.5m high. J. Wiles 21.03.02 
Castlebythe, Motte 

An apparently isolated and disturbed motte, 4.2m high. J. Wiles 21.03.02 
Pare Castell Enclosure;Wern Camp, Castlebythe 



36 



A sub-rectangular enclosure, c.52m N-S by 42m, resting on steep scarps to the N & W, elsewhere 
banked and ditched, having an E facing entrance. RCAHMW J. Wiles 10.09.03 



Mynydd Castlebythe Ring Barrow 

Remains of a ring barrow, measuring c. 16m in diameter. The bank measures c. 4.0m in width and 
0.5m in height. A curvilinear area of reed growth outside the south perimeter of the earthwork 
suggests the presence of a ditch. The monument has spatial association with two cairns on the 
summit of Mynydd Castlebythe. 

Source: Cadw scheduling description of December 2006. F.Foster/RCAHMW 14.12.2006 



37 



Dinas 



A straggling village on the A478 east of Fishguard. The village runs along the foot of the steep 
northern slope of the Camingli- M5aiydd Dinas upland. Millions of years ago the coastal strip 
hereabouts was beneath the sea, and breakers crashed against the cliffs some 200 feet above present 
sea-level. You can still see the old stacks and cliff- face crevices from the road together with 
spectacular meltwater channels cut during the Ice Age. 
The parish church, built in 1860, is at Brynhenilan. 

To the north is Dinas Island, so called because it is almost an island separated from the mainland by 
a deep glacial meltwater chaimel. The narrow valley once known as Ynys Fach Llyffan Gawr (The 
little Island of Llyffan the Giant). It had its own herd of feral goats until 1947. The walk around this 
headland is magnificent, 

Dinas Island is the locale for two of R.M. Lockley's books, namely Island Farmer and Golden Year. 

Acc/to The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles 

Dinas "the little fort" is a long strung out village that follows in part an ancient shore line. 



Topographical Dictionary of Wales Dinas 1839 Lewis 

DINAS, a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 
5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Fishguard; containing 820 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the coast 
of St. George's Channel, and intersected by the turnpike-road from Fishguard to Newport. It 
probably owes its name, signifying "fortress," or "city," to the bold promontory of Dinas Head, 
which forms one side of Fishguard bay, and was fortified on the land side by an agger, now nearly 
demolished. The area of the parish is 2000 acres, of which one fifth part is common or waste land. 
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £8; patron, Thomas Lloyd, Esq.: the 
tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £140, and there is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 
forty acres. The church, dedicated to St. Brynach, occupies a remarkable situation on the beach, and 
at spring tides the walls of the churchyard are washed by the sea: but it is probable that this was not 
the site of the original structure, as there is a place in the vicinity called Bryn Henllan, "old church 
hill." Here are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists, with a 



38 



Sunday school held in each of them. 
Cwm-yr-Eglwys 

According to legend it is believed that St Biynach founded the original church here 6c. 

1849 The church, was described as dedicated to St. Brynach, occupies a remarkable situation on the 
beach, and at spring tides the walls of the churchyard are washed by the sea. 

1851 Dinas Parish Church "*Dinas Church is situated on an isthmus. The Chancel was washed 
away by an encroachment of the sea in November last and it has not been rebuilt. It is greatly 
desired in the Parish if there were funds for the purpose to transfer to a new site" Watkin William 
Thomas BC, Rector, Dinas Rectory The church was ultimately inundated by a bad storm, the 
roofless remains are still there in Cwm yr Eglwys. Anew St Bymach's was eventually built in the 
village (ie. up on the hill away from the beach) 

The present church is modem having been erected after the destruction of the original Church 
during the great storm of October 1859 

RCAM The old Parish Church dedicated to St Brynach 

The earlier church stood At the eastern end of the natural defile, the existing remains show it to 
have consisted of chancel, nave , double bellcote at the west end, and pointed doorway in west 
wall, all of fairly early work. The surrounding graveyard is protected by a massive modern wall - 
Visited 2 P' July 1914 

St Brynach's Church, Cwm-Yr-Eglwys 

The upstanding remains comprise the west wall. Stone for the church have been incorporated into 
the seawall that defends it. Of note is an incised stone believed to have been part of the sundial. Two 
undated cist burials were found during repairs to the seawall in 1981. 

Event and Historical Information: 

The earliest surviving document for the parish and possibly the church is the Norwich Taxation of 
1254 which notes 'dispensation, at the request of the cardinal of the Holy Apostles, to Maurice to 
hold the churches of Dinas and Nambeude, together with that of Hebemat; the value of all three not 
exceeding 12 Vi marks.' A drawing by H Gastineau c 1825 is believed to show its final form - a 
nave measuring 36ft x 14ft orientated east- west, with a chancel measuring 18ft by 12ft on the 
eastern end, and a transept measuring 18ft x 12ft adjoin the southern wall. Above the west door, 
there was a bell-cote. The architectural history preserved in the building's fabric was lost in the 
Great Storm of 1859. Cwmyreglwys lies exposed to the northeast and the storm's resultant surge of 
15ft (4.5m) above normal high water carried away the side wall and roof In the Haverfordwest and 
Milford Haven Telegraph by Owen Edwards, Coroner to the Northern Division of Pembrokeshire, 
he described 'the sea washing right through it. The churchyard is much injured. Several houses are 
damaged; one house in particular is nearly destroyed'. To the east of the church, a schooner, the 



39 



MATHILDIS , and a sloop were lost. Eight bodies were subsequently washed ashore or recovered 
from the cliffs. Two burials are recorded in the Dinas Burial register for 30th October - 'Unknown 
drowned in a shipwreck during a terrific gale Oct 25th 1859. Abode, both Cardiganish as supposed'. 
RCAHMW, September 2012. 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter (1994) 

Dinas St Brynach: Only the west gable with a 15c doorway and a fragment of the south wall remain 
beside the shore. The rest of the church was destroyed in a gale in the autumn of 1859. Old 
drawings show it as cruciform with a double bellcote on the west gable. 



Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

This living is a rectory which appears to have been from the earliest time in the patronage of the 
lords of Kemes as appendant to their Barony of Kemes. 
Dinas Church was in 1291 assessed at £2 6s. Ed. - Taxatio. 

Under the heading "livings Discharged" Dinas alias Dynas R. (St. Br5aiach). William Laughame, 
Esq., 1708, and William Lloyd, Esq., Lords of Kemys; Thomas Lloyd. Esq.. and Anne his wife, 
1753, 1758; John Bateman, 1784. Clear yearly value, £42. King's Books, £8. - Bacon's Liber Regis. 
On 8 Nov., 1859 the schoolroom was licensed for divine service on account of the destruction of the 
church. This is no doubt the date when the sea encroached on the shore, and washed away a portion 
of the old church, known as Cwm yr Eglwys Church, the remains of part of which are still to be 
seen at the little cove called Cwm yr Eglwys, situated at the north end of the small valley between 
what is known as Dinas Island and the mainland land. 

On 5 April, 1887, a faculty was granted for the removal of the body of Harriet Mary Mansfield from 
Dinas Church-yard to the churchyard of the parish of Thornton Le Moors, in the county of Chester 



40 



Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 

Dinas (S. Brynach). — An Elizabethan Chalice with Paten cover of the Amroth type. There are no 
hall marks discoverable. The cup has two bands of decorated strap-work round the bowl, the upper 
of which interlaces and encloses the usual woodbine foliation whilst within the lower appeals the 
following inscription "POCVLVM • ECLESIE * DE » DENASE ". This vessel has undergone much 
reparation. The knop which divides the stem is ornamented with intermittent lines. The Paten cover 
measuies 3 in. in diameter, 1 in. in height. On the foot or handle is inscribed within a circle of 
decorated strap-work the date " 1574". — 

besides an electro-plated Paten, there is a pewter Plate, 12 in. in diameter. On the rim is engraved 
the letters which are doubtless Churchwardens' initials. A stamp underneath is almost obliterated, 
the letters KER alone being decipherable. The maker may have been [Daniel Parjker who was 
under Warden of the Pewterers' Company in 1710 or perhaps [Parjker Loshen. 



Clergy 

Swayn, Richard 



1680 Rector 



Swayn, Richardus 



1681 Rector 



Swayne, Ricardus 



1692 Rector 



Laugharne, Arthurus 



1709 Rector 



Laugharne, Arthurus 



1714 Rector 



Laugharne, Arthurus 



1714 Rector 



Laugharne, Arthurus 



1714 Rector 



Laugharne, Arthurus 



1717 Rector 



41 



Laugharne, Arthurus 



Laugharne, William 



Laugharne, Arthur 



Laugharne, William 



Laugharne, William 



Laugharne, William 



Powell , Samuel 



Morgan , Simon 



Bateman , Thomas 



Laugharne , William 



Bateman , Thomas 



Evans , David 



Evans , David 



42 



1720 Rector 



1753 Rector 



1753 Vac (Death)RQCtor 



1753 Rector 



1758 Rector 



175 8 Vac (cessionJRQCtor 



1769 Curate 



1770 Curate 



1784 Rector 



1784Vac (natural death)RQCtor 



1784 Rector 



1788 Curate 



1795 Curate 



Bateman , Thomas 1 802 Rector 



Bateman , Thomas 



1802Vac (cession)RectoT 



Bateman , Thomas 



1804 Vicar 



Watkin Thomas , William 1 825 Curate , 



Bateman, Thomas 



1 825 Vac {natural deathJRQCtor 



Bowen, Daniel 



1825 Rector 



1929 St Brynach & Parish Church (Llanllawer) Incumbent W G Williams 
Nonconformist Chapels: 

Tabor Baptist Chapel 

was built in 1792, extended in 1815, and rebuilt in 1842 The fabric was renewed in 1882 with 
further modifications in 1921 by architect John Teifion Williams of Cardigan. The present chapel, 
dated 1882, is built in the Simple Round-Headed style with a gable-entry plan and two storeys. 
Tabor is now Grade 2 Listed for its good mostly 1842 interior. Still open 1998 

RCAHMW, October 2010 



Brynhenllan Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Chapel, Bryn Henllan;Trefnyddion 

Brjoihenllan Methodist Chapel was built in 1769 and rebuilt in 1799. The present structure and 
interior date from a second rebuild in 1 842, constructed in the later Vernacular style with a long- 
wall entry plan and two storeys. Br5aihenllan is now Grade 2* Listed for it's very fine 1842 interior, 
including a five sided gallery on marbled timber columns, rare in south west Wales. RCAHMW, 
October 2010 



43 



Gideon [Independents, 1830], Dinas Cross Built c 1830, improvements post- 1843 - still Dec 2006 

Gideon Independent Chapel was built in 1830, restored in 1930 and again in 1960. The present 

chapel, dated 1830, is built in the Vernacular style with a long-wall entry plan. The facade dates 
from 1830 with improvements made in 1843. Gideon is now Grade 2 Listed. RCAHMW, October 
2010 



Cwin-Yr-Eglwys;Dinas Harbour 

A small harbour has been created by utilising the protection of a rocky outcrop at the northern end 
of the bay. 

Event and Historical Information: 

This inlet has been used since the Middle Ages for the fishing, shipbuilding and for the export of 
slate from the cliff quarries. The land washed away by the Royal Charter Gale of 25-26 October 
1859 has removed much of the evidence for this acitivity. 

Mairitme Officer, RCAHMW, December 2012. 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

The parish has a resident Clergjnnan, it is mainly agricultural with labourers receiving 6d and 8d a 
day with food and Is a day without. Fishermen generally worse off. The moral character is regarded 
as good as regards sobriety, industry and quietness. No disturbances during the Rebecca Riots. The 
main large landowners do not reside in the parish and there is only one farmer paying over £100 in 
rent per annum the rest are mainly small freeholders farming their own land. There are no 
subscriptions for a school and those who can afford it send their children to Haverfordwest and 
Fishguard. There has been no free school for many years and certainly many children attend no 
school. Some adults can read and write in Welsh and there would be problems if a school was set up 
under the National school rules of attending church on Sunday also the School teachers should 
understand Welsh. Information from William Thomas Watkin Dinas Rectory 

Parish of Dinas Mrs Bevans School I visited this school on the 22°'' of January, It had only just 
been opened , and was being held in the church where the communion table served for the master's 
desk. He had not yet commenced traching writing and arithmetic. Of the 37 children present five 
attempted to read the Scriptures, of whom only one could read at all intelligibly - they did not 
understand what they had read, nor could they answer any questions , except saying that Christ died 



44 



to save sinners, And that God made the world. The master was a lame man, ignorant and very 
imperfectly acquainted with English. The church is in a most inconvenient position for little 
children. It is overhung by a very steep hill, and stands on a little terrace at the bottom, projecting 
right into the sea. David Lewis - Assistant 

Mrs Evan's Day School 

On the 22"'' of January I visited the above school; it was held in a room part of a dwelling house. 
The furniture consisted of two small square tables and a round one, with three benches and other 
household furniture. I heard a class read the 29* chapter of the book of Exodus; one only could read 
with anything approaching to ease. The dame read alternate verses with her pupils. She is an 
intelligent person and had evidently received more than a common education. They did not know 
who wrote the book of Exodus, nor what other books Moses wrote. The children knew very little 
English I had to conduct the examination chiefly in Welsh. Three their multiplication tables, could 
repeat the days of the week in English, twelve months in a year - did not know how many yards in a 
mile nor inches in a foot, three feet in a yard - could tell some of the names of the towns in 
Pembrokeshire , but named Cardigan as being one David Lewis - Assistant 

Macpelah Day School 

I visited this schgool on the 22""* of January; it is held in a Baptist chapel. There are no pews, but a 
pulpit , with moveable tables, desks, and benches, the latter not of very uniform or tidy description. 
A great proportion of the scholars were adults. They were chiefly studying arithmetic and writing; 
but I heard 32 read the Bible; no more than 6 read with ease. The master, who appeared a bustling 
active man, questioned them rather in the style of declaiming. They could in general answer very 
little. The best among them was a sailor, who was taking advantage of his stay in port to get a little 
more schooling. He had learned the position of the principal English ports in his employment. This 
appeared to me a school in which something might possible be learned. 



Former British School, Dinas Cross 

The former British School at Dinas Cross was opened in 1869 and appears on the first edition 25" 
OS map, PE V. 14, of 1889. It is now the site of the present Primary School. 



Dinas Names for Jottings 

apBevan James 1670 Dinas P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



ap Bowen Evan 1670 Dinas H2 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



45 



ap Jeuan de Dinas cl505?Newport Kernes land in Brinhenllan George 

Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Bateman John 1784 patron Dinas Church Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Bowen William 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David George John 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David Henry 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David John 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Davies David 30 October 1787 Dinas Mariner Offence Assault Dinas Prosecutor 
Bateman Thomas clergyman Punishment Payment of a small fine Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 



Davies David 4 January 1779 Alias David John Evan David Dinas Mariner Offence 
Assault on prosecutor in the execution of his duty Llanwnda Prosecutor Evans James clergyman 
JP Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Edward Thomas David 1670 Dinas P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax . 



Evan David 1670 .Dinas H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Ellen 1670 .Dinas H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



46 



Evan George 1670 .Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Henry 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



George William 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Griffith David 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Griffith Llewellin 30 October 1787 Dinas, Mariner Offence Assault. Dinas, 
Prosecutor Bateman, Thomas Clergyman Punishment Payment of a small fine Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Harry Benjamin 1 August 1785 Dinas Yeoman Offence Rescue of Harry Phillip and 
assault on Howell William, special bailiff Dinas Prosecutor Bateman Thomas clergjmian 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Harry Evan 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Harry Owen 1670 Dinas H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Harry Phillip 15 September 1784 Dinas Blacksmith Offence Assault on Davies William 
Yeoman Dinas Prosecutor Bateman Thomas clergyman Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730- 
1830 



Harry Richard 1670 Dinas P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Harry Thomas 1670 Dinas H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



47 



Harry Thomas John 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



James George 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



James Griffith 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



James Griffith 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



James Oliver 1670 Dinas H2 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John David 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John David 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Griffith 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Rees 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Rees 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Thomas 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Laugharne William 1708 patron Dinas Church Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Lewis Rees 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



48 



Lloyd John 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Lloyd John William 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Lloyd Thomas 1753 and 1758 Esq and Anne his wife patron Dinas Church 
Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Lloyd Thomas, 1834 Esq patron Dinas Church Acc to Topographical Dictionary of Wales S 
Lewis 1834 



Lloyd William 1708 Esq Lord of Kemys patron Dinas Church Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Lockley RM 1977 books Dinas Island Farmer and Golden Year, in Pembrokeshire 
Benton Castle. 



Mansfield Harriet Mary 15 April 1887 body removed from from Dinas Church yard 
Pembrokeshire parsons 



Mathias Rees 1670 Dinas H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



Melchior Henry 1670 Dinas P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



Mendus Lettice 26 February 1800 Dinas Widow Offence Receiving stolen sheep. 
Prisoner aged 46. Llanllawer Prosecutor Gwynnejohn Llanllawer, gent. Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Miles Henry 1647 Oct 7 Dinas Pembrokeshire Application for an order for Dr Aylett to institute 
and induct Henry Miles to the Rectory of Dinas Pembrokeshire Historical MSS 

Commission Arch Camb 1882 



49 



Morice Silvanus 1670 Dinas H2 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Owen David 1670 .Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Owen Robert 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



Owen William 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



Rees David John 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Rees George 2 January 1758 Dinas Yeoman Offence Mixing ground stones with oatmeal 
with intent to defraud Howell John and John George. Dinas Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830 



Rees John 1670 Dinas P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Rees Thomas John 1670 Dinas P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Rees William 1800-1802 Dinas Pembrokeshire died 19 Mar 1875 Fishguard Pembrokeshire 
Left Liverpool on 17 Apr 1855 aboard the Chimborazo Arrived in Philadelphia on 22 May 1855 
Married to Evans, Elizabeth Leyshon on 30 Jun 1 830 at Bridge End, Glamorgan Wales , Mormon 
Records for Pembrokeshire 



Richard Ebenezer ,1781-1837 , a Calvinistic methodist minister, was bom at Trefin, 
Pembrokeshire, and when about eighteen years of age he left his father's house, and opened a day 
school at Dinas, near Fishguard. He was ordained in 1811, and two years later became secretary of 
the general association of the connexion in South Wales. Eminent Welshmen 



50 



Robert Arthur 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas David 25 February 1 800 Dinas Husbandman Offence Theft of food, cheeses. 
Recognizance refers to Breaking into a cheese house. Prisoner aged 39. Llanllawer Prosecutor 
Gwynne John, Llanllawer, gent Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Thomas Morgan 1670 Dinas P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas Morgan 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas Phillip 1670 Dinas H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 
Old Sailors Public House 

The pub is shown as the 'Sailor's Safety' on OS 1st editon mapping and alledgedly dates from 1593 
and is named from the light it kept burning lead mariners to the safety of the bay and small beach 
for landing. Two mooring posts are shown at the highwater mark on the northside of the stream 
entering the bay and two lime kilns to the south provide additional industrial imeptus for the inn's 
presence. Modem aerial photography suggest that the inn has been much extended and enlarged to 
the west, but the older building appears to remain. Maritime Officer, RCAHMW, December 2012 



Mines Pen Dinas 

Iron age promentary fort 

Copper mines in the cliff — ^worked from Tudor times onward— but earlier workings found which 
may be Roman 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments RCAM 
Standing Stone 

A fine monolith standing 87 inches above the ground with a breadth to the south east of 57 inches 
and a maximum girth of 1 13 inches, on the field called Pare verrig hirion, 120 yards north west of 
the Black Horse Inn on the Fishguard -Newport high road. It bears no inscription or signs of 



51 



tooling.On the day of inspection the field was in standing com, the scanty crop immediately around 
being in marked contrast with the rest of the field and suggesting a substructure of some kind just 
below the surface of the soil. —Visited 2P' July 1914 



Standing Stone Dinas Cross 

About half a mile directly east of the previous Maenhir, in a field south of Dinas Cross Chapel, is 
an erect stone standing 43 inches clear of the ground, with a width of 22 inches across its southern 
face. It is not marked on the Ordinance Sheet. The field is called Pare y Garreg - Visited 2P' July 
1914. 



Lady Stone; Ty-Meini, Stone; Yet-Y-Bontbren, Stone 

A somewhat pointed standing stone, 8'6" high, thought to resemble a veiled woman - hence the 
name. RCAHMW J. Wiles 01.05.02 



Parc-Yr-Hen Gapel, Possible Chapel 

A patch of irregular, stony groud, thought to be the site of a chapel, noted as 'ruinated' in the e. 1 8th 
c. 

RCAHMW 
Chapel;Capel, Dinas 

By 1993 there was a derelict eighteenth century farmhouse and buildings on the site of this former 
chapel/church.RCAHMW, May 201 1 

Capel-Bach, Cilshafe 

Capel Bach in Cilshafe was built before 1889 and still in use as a chapel in 1907. RCAHMW, May 
2011 

Castell or Castell Dinas 

At Bwlch mawr the Dinas -Fishguard high road runs at the foot of a prominent detached spur of 
rock known as "Castell". On the summit is an oval enclosure, about 90yds by 45 yds extending on 
all sides to the steep slopes of the spur; quarrying has to some extent destroyed the western side. 
Although much ruined, an enclosing low bank of dry walling of an average height of 3 Vi ft can be 
traced all round; a shortr stretch of the original facing of the wall is visible on the south east. The 
entrance is to the north east and has a prsent width of 4ft; it has evidently been altered. A well worn 
rock path descends to the level. The camp has the appearance of a prehistoric work, but may 
possibly be of later date. " Two cannon balls have been found in the enclosure" {Pem. Arch Survey 



52 



1906) The ruined condition of the earthwork, and the conversion of the enclosure into a garden, 
precludes any definite opinion being formed of it - Visited 24* June 1920 

Dinas Island Camps 

The rocky peninsular known as Dinas Island, jutting out picturesquely on the north of the paruis 
into St George's Channel, is divided from the mainland by a natural ditchor hollow way, which , 
though now dry, may at an earlier period have been filled with water at high tides. This ditch is in 
length about % mile; it stretches in a slight convex line across the base of the island or root of the 
peninsular, as it really is. Rhere each end of the ditch reaches the sea is a small defensive position, 
but so far as the difficulty of the site and the faint indications now remaining permit of conclusions 
being formed, it may be be said that the two positions differ from each other in important respects, 
and the differences suggest two widely opposed periods of construction. Though there is certainly 
no reason to connect one position with the other, the original lin Ordinance map of 1838 fills up 
almost the entire space between the two ends of the hollow way on the north or Dinas Islad side of 
it with the word "Enfrenchmenf ' as though the intention of the surveyors of that date was to denote 
the existence of some form of military work stretching from side to side of the peninsular. 
Singularly, however the 1838 Ordinance Map does not show a camp or defensive position at either 
end of the hollow way, though it prints the name "Pen Castell" at the western end. As indicationg a 
wotk of antiquity there is nothing but the expressive term "Entrenchment" which trails its long 
length across from sea to sea. 

The modern 6in Ordinance sheet to a certain extent reverses this position by leaving out the word 
"Entrenchment" from any part of the northern side of the ditch or hollow way. On the other hand it 
marks the presence of a small promontory fort which we preoceed to inventory briefly: 

Dinas Island Castell (west) 

A bank, now hardly traceable above ground, has been drawn across the base of a tiny headland, but 
it has lost all distinctive character and almost existence in its never ceasing struggle with the 
elements. In length this bank may have extended 70 yds; the entrance was probably at the southern 
end of the bank. A projecting rock below the enclosure is known as Pen Castell, and an adjoining 
cave as Ogof he gastell - Visited 2P' July 1914 

Dinas Island Castell (east) 

The dense undergrowth that covers the whole of the northern or Dinas Island margin of the hollow 
way which divides the headland from the main, has in the course of the previous summer (1923) to 
some extent been cleared and thinned, so that a hitherto unsuspected but quite unmistakable 
enclosure of early military type has been revealed. The enclosure is placed at the angle where the 
hollow way reaches the little bay of Newport, and the coast line turns sharply northwards along the 
western side of the head. As at the western end of the french, the eastern enclosure terminates in a 
small creek. This low sandy haven continues the southern bank of the trench, and a few yards 
above what may once have been high water mark is the site of a little chapel upon which the sea 



53 



slowly encroached, and finally, in October 1859, which it succeeded in putting out of use altogether. 
On the northern, or island side of the trench, the land rises slightly to this south eastern comer, and 
on the seaward side of the angle the cliff leaves space for a narrow lane at its foot. This side of the 
enclosure would seem to have no defence along the verge of the cliff, otherwise than a line of 
stakes; but , for a distance of 25yds along the margin of the trench there runs a well constructed 
rampart of earth and stones which rises to a height of lOft; beyond, it takes a curve outwards and 
upwards, and finally with a wide sweep , it reaches the cliffs at a point about 30yds north of where 
it started. The total area enclosed between the banks and the cliff would be from one quarter to one 
third of an acre. The entrance could not be located but will probably be found on the northern side 
of the camp at the point where the bank approaches the verge of the cliff, whence a sunken 
trackway is carried over the natural rock to the shore below. - Visited 6* June 1923. 

Dinas Island Castell 

Dinas Island Castell is a sub-rectangular enclosure, measuring 60m by 50m, set on a promontory, 
with an entrance on the north, overlooking Cwm-yr-Eglwys. There are traces of a sub-divided 
rectangular building, 24m by 8m within .J.Wiles 19.03.02 



Island Farm, Dinas Island 

Situated on the promontory called Dinas Island, approached by farm drive from PwUgwaelod. 

An early to mid-C19 farmhouse, probably incorporating earlier work; the centre of a large farm 
encompassing the whole peninsula. Owned by the Harris family in the early 19th century and 
farmed co-operatively in 1940s by R M Lockley and others as described in his book The Island 
Farmers, 1946. 

The farmhouse is two storeys in 2 sections . The mid- 19th century upper end is whitewashed, slate- 
hung, 2-window service range which was altered in the late 19th century, whitewashed rubble with 
slate roof and stone end stack. 

The upper end has 4-pane sashes, 4-panel door and overlight, the windows set well to right. Door is 
in broad porch, flat slate slab supported on 2-tumed wood columns with shallow arched fascia. 
Outshut rear. Front garden enclosed by rubble wall with iron gate. 

Lower service range has wider spacing to left 2-windows than to right 2, 4-pane sashes. The upper 

ones with painted brick heads and concrete sills, the lower ones possibly stone voussoirs and rough 
slate sills. Fourth window to right is set slightly lower. Outbuilding on E end with grouted slate roof 
and single door. 

A good example of a traditional farmhouse with local slate hanging, once common in the area, now 



54 



rare. CADW Listed Building Database. 



Pillow Mound, Dinas Island 

A pillow mound, identified through aerial reconnaissance (16.11.2010), is located on the northern 
coast of Dinas Island. 

The mound is cigar-shaped and measures some 20m long (aligned NE-SW) and 4m-5m wide with a 
height of 0.5m. It is not obviously ditched though it was visited at a time of dense bracken 
overgrowth. The mound lies on a moderately steep north-east facing slope between trackways, at a 
point just before the ground falls away steeply to the cliff-tops below, in rough pasture enclosed by 
abandoned field banks. It appears to be undisturbed and a well-preserved example of its type. 
David Leighton, RCAHMW, 17 July 2013 

Carn gwiber, the Dragons Stone 

There are now no traces of a cairn at this spot, nor any local tradition of the devastation of a dragon 
(wiber); but there can be little doubt the site was once occupied by a mound and the adjoining field 
to the south is called Pare y gam. 

A hundred yards directly north is a site called Carn Fron but there are at present no indications of a 
former cairn - Visited 23 June 1920 

Garn Wen 

The Ordnance sheet shows a small circular site at the point indicated, probably marking a cairn of 
which there is noe no visible sign. The field is still called Maes y gam - Visited 24* June 1920 



Circular Enclosure, Sse Of Dinas Cross 

Earthworks of a circular enclosure, measuring approx 60m in diameter. Photographed during aerial 
reconnaissance by RCAHMW on 1st Dec 2010. 

Penrhyn Erw-Goch 

Probable remains of eroded promontory fort, identified during RCAHMW aerial reconnaissance in 
2007. The pasture running up to the base of the rocky promontory is heavily improved and 
featureless from the air. The probable remains of an eroded fort are limited to earthworks surviving 
on the promontory itself and comprise an earthwork bank on the east side below the summit of the 
rock, and at least two 'pockmarks' or hollows on the northern side of the summit of the promontory, 
which can be compared with house platforms seen within other Pembrokeshire promontory forts. 
T. Driver, RCAHMW, 9th November 2007. 



55 



Coast Artillery Battery, Dinas Cross 



Complex consisting of two 6-inch BL Mk XII gun houses, two CASL emplacements, a 
battery observation post, an observation post, an engine room, three circular holdfasts, a store / 
workshop, the guard room and ten earth revetments. - Record derived from Defence of Britain 
Project (Record Number 12205) 



Finds - 

Spindle Whorl A small perfectly made spindle whorl was found in 1922 on the surface below the 
camp on the eastern side of Dinas Island. The stone is foreign to the district. In the museum of the 
Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society 



Wrecks 



Mathildis 

The MATHILDIS was a wooden schooner built and completed at New Quay in June 1842. 
Technical and configuration specifications are given as 96 tons burthen; 68ft length x 18.5ft breadth 
X 10ft depth in hold; 1 deck, 2 masts, standig bowspirt, square stern, carvel built, woman's bust 
figurehead, offical number 13144. Lloyds Register notes that the schooner had had part of a new 
deck in 1847 and another part in 1857, plus some repairs in 1852. It was registered at the port of 
Cardigan (14 in 1842). The schooner was a victim of the hurricane of 25-26 October 1859 which 
later became known as the Royal Charter gale. The schooner was owned by consortium - the 
principal shareholder being Jenkin Phillips (18 shares) with the remaining shareholders being drawn 
primarily from Newquay. It was carrying a cargo of cuhn with six crewmembers onboard, including 
captain Joshua Jones, his stepson, and Owen Davies from Fron-wig. It was wrecked on Dinas Head. 
RCAHMW, January 2013. 



56 



Eglwyswrw 



Eglwyswrw (the church of St Wrw) 



Between Newport and Cardigan in a circular, pre-Christian churchyard. Village has interesting 
buildings include the Sergeant's Inn with the tiny courtroom next door, and a moated manor house 
called The Court which was the house of David Martin, Bishop of St. David's around the year 1300. 

Norman motte and bailey clOSOAD 



1811 Fenton Tours Eglwywerw 

I arrive at at Eglwyserw, a small pictureqe village consisting of a church, comfortable inn, a large 
shop supplied with all the articles of most general demand, and a few other houses. A redundant 
stream crosses the road running through the village, and sinks into a little dingle prettily wooded, 
where it is agin increased by many fine springs, that at every hundred yards pour their crystal urns 
into it, to swell its importance before it reaches the haven. 

The church like all the others in Cemaes, with an exception to those of Newport and Never, the 
boroughs more immediately appropriated to the barony, is a low plain building, without tower or 
any decoration within or without, furnishing strong proof that Martin de Terribus, the reputed 
conquerer of Cemaes may be said to have come into possession ot it more by compromise than a 
toatal subjucgation of the country, such as took places in other parts of Pembrokeshire, over which 
the Normans and Flemings were let loose, who expelled, or rather fairly axtirpated, the natives, 
whose lands were parcelled out amongst the favourites and followers of Amulph de Montgomery 
and Gilbert de Clare, whereby the language, customs and the manners were totally changed, and the 
churches in general within the limits of the new conquests assumed a more dignified air, and to this 
day continue a striking criterion of such thorough revolution; whereas in Cemaes, the people, the 
language, their property, and their curtoms, continued unaltered, and consequently retained their 
primitive Simplicity. The Church is dedicated to St Erw, whose festival is held on the third of 
November, a saint of whom legend is totally silent, and whose country, lineage, or even name is not 
mentioned in the copious genealogical saint directory. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth there was a 
sort of chantry chapel in the churchyard wherein on the south side was shewn the tomb of the saint 
in hewn stone. The parishioners never buried in the chapel, from a superstitious belief that corpses 
there interred would in the night time be ejected; wherefor, as the MS has it, "they hold opinion that 
their holy saint would not have any bedfellow with him"(MS George Owen). 

The manor of Eglwyserw was one of the baronioli of derivative lordships carved out of the barony, 
to contribute to its greater state, by having them as honours wherewith to dower any of the lord's 



57 



own family, or to confere on some of his most staubnch adherents; and we find this lordshipo was 
granted ( and then probably, and for that that purpose created ) to David Martin, third son of sir 
William Martin, by a daughter of the Lord Rhys, Prince of South Wales. Hew was Bishop of St 
David's, and yet occasionally, even after his succeeding to the mitre, resided at Court, the manor 
house about half a mile to the north of the village, where now there are but faint vestiges of its 
former grandeur and which were so conspicuous about two centuries ago. About the beginning of 
the last century it was inhabited by a family of the name of Ford, which soon after became extinct, 
it has never since had a resident above the rank of farmer. 

Within the manor of Eglwyserw, the lord has a wood called Pencelly Forest, containing in George 
Owen's time of the usual measure of that country , about five hundred acres, then growing with 
great oaks of two hundred years growth and more and some young wood of 6oyears growth; the 
hurbage of whereof would summer thirty breeding mares, and winter three hundred sheep and two 
hundred cattle well and sufficiently, besides swine which might be kept there. There were also in 
the wood thirteen glades or cock-shuts, wherein a great number of woodcocks were taken yearly, 
which were the lord's own; who had likewise the pannage of hogs, wild honey, and the spahawks 
that bred there. This woody tract still continues in an enclosed state, but whether of the same extent 
as above described I can not say, the present growth of which is young but thriving. 



1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire 

Eglwyswrw 

A short half-hour later we find ourselves pacing the single ' street ' of Eglwys-Erw, a picturesque 
village said to derive its name fi-om the church havhig been built upon a plot of land measuring an 
acre. 

Fenton, on the other hand, attributes the origin of the name to a certain St. Erw, whose chapel, 
containing the tomb of the pation saint, used to stand in a comer of the churchyard. In olden times 
the peasant folk were averse to being buried in this chapel, owing to the prevalent superstition that 
their bodies were liable to be mysteriously ejected at dead of night, because, forsooth, St. Erw 
would brook no bedfellow ! 

Passing on between the neat, whitewashed cottages, we come to Sergeants' Inn, whose bow- 
windowed front stands near the upper end of the village. The somewhat unusual title of this hostelry 
is derived 

from the fact that, in earlier days, it was customary for the gentlemen of the Bar when ' on circuit ' 
to foregather here ; and the building next the inn is still called the Sessions House. At Sergeants' Inn 
is to be seen a small chest-lid, incised with the rather enigmatical legend : I.H.S, PRESTAT E22E 
PROMETHEVS QUAM EPIMETHEUM, 1603. 

Eglwys-Erw Church is soon disposed of; for it has been completely modernized, and bereft of any 
noteworthy features it may formerly have contained. 

Eglwyswrw St Cristiolis 

The church has medieval masonry but the features are of 1829 and 1883 when a north transept was 
removed. There was once a chapel near the holy well here but it was destroyed by order of 



58 



Elizabeth 1 's Privy Council because Catholics frequented it 
The parish church - St Eirw ? RCAM 1914 

The present church was restored in 1 829, the work then carried out being probably rather in the 
nature of a thorough reparation than a complete rebuilding. It was fiuther restored and adapted to 
modem requirements in 1883. It consists of chancel, nave western bell cote and south porch. Prior 
to that year there existed on the south side of the nave a transeptal chapel known to old parishioners 
as "y groes" the cross or crossing which was found to be too ruinous for retention. Writing of this 
feature, Fenton(tour 531)remarks " In the reign of Queen Elizabeth there was a sort of chantry 
chapel in the churchyard wherein, on the south side was shown the tomb of the saint in hewn stone. 
The parishioners never buried in the chapel from a superstitious that the corpses there interred 
would in the night time be ejected, wherefore, as the MS of George Owen has if'they hold opinion 
that their local holy saint would not have any bed fellow with him" The font is Modem - Visited 
11*^ September 1914 



Medieval church with Celtic saint dedication. Partial survival of what appears to be original circular 
churchyard encloure, noted from aerial photograph. G.M. Edwards 12/10/2005 RCAHMW, 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 

In 1291 this church, under the name of Ecclesia de Clesserrouw, was assessed for tenths to the king 
at £4.— 

The vicarage of El Iwysvrrw and the chapels of Uanfair Nantgwyn and Penkelly Vachan, worth per 
armum in fraits oblations aid tithes of wool, cheese, honey, &c., £12 2s. 8d-, formed part of the 
possessions of the Abbey of St Dogmaels- (Valor Eccl), 

and on the dissolution of that house came into the hands of the Crown. 

On 10 Mar, 1537, the rectory of Eglwysnvrw was leased by the Crown to John Bradshawe of 
Ludlow, Salop. — State Papers- 

In 1594 the Queen was pafroness of the living. Owen '5 Pern. 

— Vicaria ibidem unde abbas Sancti Dogmaelis est patronus et dominus Morganus vicarius, valet 
com-munibus annis 73s. 4d Inde decima 7s. 4d. — Valor Eccl. 

Under the heading ' Livings Discharged ': — Eglos Eirrow (Eglwys Wrw) (St Cristiolus). Abb. St. 
Dog-mael's Propr. The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly value, £16, ; Ring's Books, £3 13s. 4d. — 
Bacon's Liber Regis. 

On 18 March, 1881, license was granted for the performance of divine service in the Sunday School 
within 100 yards of the church during the restoration of the church. 



59 



On 28 May, 1883, a faculty was issued confirming the restoration of the church. 



In 1594 the free chapel of Penkelly Vychan was in dQcay.Owen's Pern., Pt. ii, p. 312. 

In a list, compiled about 1594, of chapels formerly erected for pilgrimages, the greater number of 
which were then in ruins, appears the name of Capell Erow in Eglosserowe. 'Owen's Pem., Pt. II., 



Fenton asserts that Eglwyswrw Church was dedicated to St. Erw, and adds, on the authority of a 
MS. of George Owen, in his possession: ' In the reign of Queen Elisabeth there was a sort of chantry 
chapel in the churchyard, wherein on the south side was shewn the tomb of the saint in hewn stone. 
The parishioners never buried in the chapel, from a superstitious belief that corpses there interred 
would in the night time be ejected.' As however George Owen in the same MS. (Owen's Pem., Pt. 
II., p. 509) mentions Eglwyswrw as being a vicarage, it is possible that Capel Erow was this chantry 
chapel. 

Browne Willis in his Parochiale Wallicana ascribes the dedication of Eglwyswrw to St. Cristiolus, 
and enumerates Capel Erw and Pencelli Vechan, as well as the chantry chapel in the churchyard, as 
subordinate chapels to Eglwyswrw Church. 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 

Eglwyswrw (S. Cristiolis) — The Elizbethan Chalice in use here which is similar in shape, 
omamentation and character of inscription to that at Amroth, carries the same makers mark, viz. 
; height, 6 in.; diam. of bowl, 3 in.; depth, 3 in.; weight, 7 oz. 9 dwts. The lower band on the bowl 
encloses the following inscription " POCVLVti * ECLESIE » DE tt EYROW * 1574 ". In repairing, 
the vertical line moulding between the cup and the stem has been filled in with lead, being 
apparently the work of a local plumber. The Paten cover is lost. — 

Chalice No. 2 is of plated metal. 

A Paten, electro-plated. 

A pewter Alms dish, 1 1 in. in diameter, underneath which is a stamp which cairies carries the name 
Francis Lanyo •, the last letter being obliterated. 



p. 5,. 



Clergy 

Bowen, Phillipp 



1661 



Vicar 



Harries, Richardus 1663 



Preacher 



Harries, Richardum 1663 



Vicar 



60 



Prichard, Gulielmus 1683 

Prichard, Willimus 1692 

Prichard, Gulielmus 1714 

Evans, David 1721 

Prichard, Gulielmus 1721 

John, Philips 1734 

Brock, George 1736 

Lewis, Watkin 1736 

Brock, George 1756 

Prothero, James 1756 

Protheroe, John 1756 

Davies , James 1765 

Prothero , James 1765 
61 



Vicar 



Vicar 



Vicar 



Perpetual Vicar 



Vac (cession) Perpetual Vicar 



Curate 



Vicar 



Vac (cession) Vicar 



Vac (Death) Vicar 



Vicar 



Vicar 



Vicar 



Vac (natural death) Vicar 



Davies , James 1765 

Davies , James 1773 

Morris , William 1773 

Gwynne , John 1780 

Morris , William 1780 

Gwynne , John 1783 

Bowen , James 1783 

Rice , John 1785 

Bowen , Evan 1788 

Bowen , Evan 1788 

Bowen , James 1804 

Williams , Morgan 1804 

Bowen , James 1810 
62 



Vicar 



Vac (natural death) Vicar 



Vicar 



Vicar 



Vac (natural death) Vicar 



Vac (cession) Vicar 



Vicar 



Curate 



Curate 



Curate 



Vicar 



Curate 



Vac (natural death) Vicar 



Morgan , Thomas 1810 Vicar 



Prothero , David 



1813 



Vicar 



Morgan , Thomas 



1813 \ac (natural death) Vicar 



Williams , Morgan 1814 



Curate 



1851 : Eglwyswrw Parish Church Patron the Prince of Wales Re-erected in 1827, "There is no 
Sunday School at present owing to the infirmities and extreme age of the Vicar, but it is his 
intention to revive it again when his health is in any degree restored " David Prothero, Vicar 

1929 St Cristiolus & St Dogmael (Meline) Incumbent; O Davies 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

Elim Baptist Mission Room,erected in 1839 1851 John Morris, Minister, Eglwyswrw — closed c. 
1937 RCAHMW, October 2010 Elim Baptist Mission Room was buih in 1837 and closed c.1937. 
This chapel was later converted for use as a garage and by 1993 had been demolished 

Ebenezer Welsli Baptist Cliurcli, Ffynnon Wen, Pen-Cwm, Eglwyswrw 

Ebenezer Baptist Chapel was built in 1768, rebuilt in 1820 and rebuilt again in 1870. The present 
chapel, dated 1870, is built in the Simple Round-Headed style of the gable entry type. RCAHMW, 
November 2010 

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales 1849 S Lewis 

EGLWYS-WRW (EGLWYS-EIRW), a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, 
county of Pembroke, South Wales, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Cardigan, on the road to Haverfordwest; 
containing 560 inhabitants. 

This parish anciently formed an inferior lordship, dependent on the superior one of Kemmes. 
It is intersected by the river Nevern, and is included in a very mountainous district, of which the 



63 



most remarkable height is that called Percelly, forming the centre of a long range extending across 
the county in a direction from east to west. The summit of the mountain commands a prospect of 
great extent; and over this elevated range passed the ancient Via Flandrica, or "Flemish Way," a 
Roman road which has obtained that appellation from the erroneous supposition of its having been 
constructed by the Flemings, who settled in this part of the principality in the reigns of Henry I. and 
Henry II. 

The parish comprises 3664 acres; it is almost entirely inclosed and under cultivation, and the soil is 
in general fertile. The village, which is situated near the base of the Percelly mountains, is one of 
the most pleasing in the county, and contains a good inn and several respectable houses. The 
scenery in the neighbourhood is bold, and finely varied, and the hills are richly clothed with wood: 

Berllan is an elegant mansion, beautifully situated in grounds which are tastefully laid out, and 
adorned with luxuriant plantations. 

A fair is held on the Monday before November 22nd. 

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £3. 13.4., and endowed with ?200 
royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; patron, the Lord Chancellor; impropriators, John 
Davies, and George Griffiths, Esqrs., whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £170, 
and who are also possessed of a glebe of 30a. Ir. 14p. valued at £21. 10. per annum: the vicarial 
tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £80, with a glebe of 25a. 27p., valued at £15.10. per 
annum, and a glebe house. 

The church is dedicated to St. Eirw; and in the time of Elizabeth there was a chantry chapel in the 
churchyard, said to have contained the tomb of this saint. 

The Baptists have a place of worship in the parish; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in 
connexion with the Baptists, and the other with the Calvinistic Methodists. 

A sum of £20 per annum was left to the poor of Eglwys-Wrw by John Jones, of Pantyderri, in the 
year 1729, but the bequest is at the present time unproductive. 

Near the church is a large tumulus. 
State of Education in Wales 1847 

This parish has a resident clergyman. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 8d with 
food and Is 2d to Is 3d per day on their own finding. The moral character of the population is good. 
There are no landed proprietors resident in the parish and two farmers pay more then £100 per 
annum in rent but none contributes to provision or maintenance of schools. Most of the population 
have some reading skills but not writing and approximately 20 children have no schooling at all. 
Information from David Prathern Eglwyswrw 

Parish of Eglwyswrw - Village school 



64 



The schoolroom is built in the churchyard, and adjoins the church. It is in a good state of repair, 
with the exception of one end. It contains one master's desk, two desks for the scholars, and seven 
benches, but no maps of any kind. The master appeared well qualified. He had been in the excise, 
but had resigned with the ultimate view of succeeding as tenant to the farm which his father held. 
The scholars were farmers, mechanics and labourers children. My visit being made on Saturday, 
few were present. Wm Morris Assistant 



Mrs Charles's School 

This is held in the mistress's dwelling house. The furniture consisted of 3 tables, 2 chairs and 3 
benches. The mistress spoke English correctly. She teaches the girls to sew as well as to read And 
write. The scholars are the children of farmers, mechanics and labourers. The mistress 's husband 
keeps the village day school. The copy books were taken home to be shown to the children's parents 
as is the case in some school weekly Wm Morris Assistant 



Eglwyswrw - Eglsorow names for Jottings 

Colby Thomas 1872 Pant-y-deri Eglwyswrw County Magistrates of 

Pembrokeshire 



Bateman Richard 1603 Haverfordwest "a mercer in Haverfordwest, plaintiff " 
"sued Alban Owen of Court in the parish of Eglwyswrw, gent,for £12 14s 5d following goods 
delivered before 1 1 Oct, 1 603 " Pembrokeshire in Byegone Days 

Bradshawe John 10 Mar 1537 of Ludlow Salop rectory Eglwyswrw leased. 
Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Cantington Sir William ~ Canton Still a common name in Pembrokeshire, this name goes 
back, to Sir William Cantington lord of Eglwyswrw who was born in Normandy and to have died 
at Trewilim Eglwyswrw about 1 164. Jordan de Cantington is recorded as endowing St Dogmael's 
Abbey but a descendent sold the lordship to Robert Martin lord of Cemaes. 

Another member of the family Rejanond whose name on some records was abbreviated to Canton 
accompanied Strongbow and was described by Giraldus as "a verie worthie, tall and handsome 
man" 



65 



Because of his bravery and conduct in the invasion he was awarded with several manors in County 
Cork and also a large tract of land in County Wexford on the east coast opposite Newport 
Pembrokeshire. Griffin, Lord Canton and his wife Cecilia Barry founded Glascarrig Priory " 
granted lands at Cohere with the right of fishery and salvage of wrecks for the purpose of founding 
a Priory for Benedictine Monks in honour of the monastery of St Dogmael, in Pembrokeshire, of 
which their predecessors were founders. The abbot of St Dogmael was always to present one of his 
monks to secceed on the death of the prior of Glascarrig" 

An inquiry in 1335 found that Lord Canton's lands in the county of Wexford was of no value as it 
was uncultivated and "among the Irish" who were continually warring and fighting. ( was this a 
good excuse for not paying tax ) 

Cantington Sir William Lord of Eglwyswrw, "a Norman bom", married Gladys, a 
daughter of the Lord Rhys, and died at Trewilym in Eglwyswrw in 1 166, 



Cantington Griffith archdeacon of Carmarthen sixth in descent fi-om Sir William, sold the 
lordship of Eglwyswrw 



Colby of Pant-y- deri (Eglwys-wrw) 



Colby Laurence of Castle Deran 



Colby John of Cilgerran son of Laurence Colby of Castle Deran 



Colby Thomas of Rhos-y-gilwen son of Colby John of Cilgerran 



Colby Thomas Captain Royal marines son of Thomas, Colby of Rhos-y-gilwen 



Colby Thomas Major General Father Capt. Thomas Colby RM married Boyd Elizabeth 
Hester daughter of Archibald Boyd treasurer of Derry had children 4 boys and 3 girls 



66 



Colby Thomas 1830 of Pant-y-deri eldest son of Major General Thomas, Colby unmarried. 



Colby William Henry 



Colby John 



Colby James 



Colby Anne 



Colby Cordelia 



Colby Maria 



Davies John 1849 pvoprietor Chmch of Eglwyswrw A Topographical Dictionary of Wales 
1849 S Lewis 



Evans Caleb 2 January 1801 Eglwyswrw Shopkeeper Offence Malicious wounding of 
prosecutor by placing his thumbs and private parts in a vice and torturing him. Second count of 
unlawful imprisonment. Eglwyswrw Prosecutor Edward Griffith Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 



Evans Daniel 1774-1835 a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Eglwyswrw, 
Pembrokeshire. At an early age he became a church member, and soon afterwards began to preach, 
with great enthusiasm, from house to house. He thus trained himself for his future work, and 
became very successful as a home missionary. He went to Bangor, where his salary, owing to the 
congregation numbering only 25 members, was £10 a year. Fortunately, he had a little private 
means. Eminent Welshmen 1908 



Griffiths George 1849 proprietor Church of Eglwyswrw A Topographical Dictionary of 
67 



Wales 1849 S Lewis. 



Harry David 2 January 1801 Eglwyswrw Labourer Offence Malicious wounding of 
prosecutor by placing his thumbs and private parts in a vice and torturing him Second count of 
unlawful imprisonment Eglwyswrw Prosecutor Edward Griffith Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 



Howell John 2 January 1801 Eglwyswrw Yeoman Offence Malicious wounding of 
prosecutor by placing his thumbs and private parts in a vice and torturing him Second count of 
unlawful imprisonment Eglwyswrw Prosecutor Edward Griffith Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 



John David 20 January 1768 Eglwyswrw Yeoman Offence Breaking and entering 
oxhouse of Mary Edwards, Rudbaxton, spinster and stealing a box containing money belonging to 
the prosecutor, John Hugh, Clydai implicated but not indicted. Rudbaxton Prosecutor Nicholas 
James servant Verdict Guilty. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Jones Edward 29 March 1806 Eglwyswrw Excise officer Offence Assault, 
Eglwyswrw Prosecutor Owen Jonathan Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Jones William Eglwyswrw Yeoman Offence Malicious wounding of prosecutor by placing 
his thumbs and private parts in a vice and torturing him. Second count of unlawful imprisonment. 
Eglwyswrw 2 January 1801 Prosecutor Edward Griffith Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830 



Lewis John 2 January 1801 Eglwyswrw Yeoman Offence Malicious wounding of 
prosecutor by placing his thumbs and private parts in a vice and torturing him. Second count of 
unlawful imprisonment. Eglwyswrw Prosecutor Edward Griffith Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 



Martin David 1296 Bishop of St Davids The Court Eglwyswrw 1300. Llandeloy Church 
Feb 1307. 



68 



Owen Alban 1 603 "Eglwyswrw," "of Court in the parish of Eglwyswrw,gent„sued by Bateman 
Richard a mercer in Haverfordwest, plaintiff for £12 14s 5d ""following goods delivered before 
1 1 Oct, 1603 Alban Owen was the son of George Owen, lord of Kernes, by his first wife 
Elizabeth the daughter of William Philipps of Picton CastlQ" Pembrokeshire in Byegone Days 

Richards Mary 19 December 1814 Eglwyswrw Married Offence Theft of wearing apparel 
from an inn on Cardigan fair day, Indicted with her Husband, Cardigan Cardigan Prosecutor 
... Jenkins Rachel, Llantood spinster Verdict Guilty to the value of 4/-, Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts, 



Richards Morris 19 December 1814 Eglwyswrw Labourer Offence Theft of wearing 
apparel Irom prosecutor's dwelling house. Indicted with his wife, Cardigan Cardigan Prosecutor 

Jenkins Griffith, Cardigan, Mason Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730- 
1830, 



Robyn Arnoldus 1534 est vicarius Whitchurch Eglwyswen V St David Valor Eccl. 



Thomas Benjamin 1835-1893 "My fyr Emlyn," a Baptist minister and author, was born in 
the parish of Eglwyswen, Pembrokeshire, of humble parents. His early education was of an 
elementary kind, and when about 15 years of age he removed to Tredegar in search of work. In 
1 852, he was baptised by the Rev. James Rowe and admitted into membership at Shiloh Baptist 
Chapel. He returned to his parents in the same year, and soon commenced to preach.Then, he was 
admitted to Haverfordwest College, and in 1858 to Bristol College. Two years later he was ordained 
minister at Newcastle Emlyn. His fame spreal rapidly, so that before he was 33 years of age he was 
in the front rank as preacher, lecturer, and poet. In 1873, he accepted the pastorate of the English 
Baptist church at Penarth, and, later, removed to Narberth. Eminent Welshmen 1908 



Watkin David 29 September 1757 Eglwyswrw Yeoman Offence Assault. Eglwyswrw 
No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Eglsorow Parish Hearth Tax 1670 

Ruddero Rees Eglsorow H4 



69 



John David 


Eglsorow 


H 


Bevan John 


Eglsorow 


H 


Nicholas William 


Eglsorow 


H2 


Owen, William junior of Berllan Eglsorow 


H5 


Ford Alexander 


Eglsorow 


H3 


Thomas Rees 


Eglsorow 


H 


Griffith Thomas 


Eglsorow 


H2 


James Richard 


Eglsorow 


H 


George Thomas 


Eglsorow 


H 


Prydd[erch] John Rees 


Eglsorow 


H 


Rees Rees Ruddero ap 


Eglsorow 


H 


Bowen Philip, clerk 


Eglsorow 


H3 


Miles Henry 


Eglsorow 


H3 


Griffith John 


Eglsorow 


H 


Lewis David 


Eglsorow 


H 


Bowen Thomas 


Eglsorow 


H 


Jenkin William 


Eglsorow 


H 


David Hugh 


Eglsorow 


H 


Jenkin Henry 


Eglsorow 


H 


Howell John Thomas 


Eglsorow 


H 


Phillip George John 


Eglsorow 


H 


Nicholas Sampson 


Eglsorow 


H 


Powell William John 


Eglsorow 


H 


George George John 


Eglsorow 


H 


Ryddero Richard 


Eglsorow 


P 


John Richard 


Eglsorow 


P 



70 



Rees John 
John David 
Lewis James 
Miles Elizabeth 
James Rees 
Thomas Robert 
Thomas Thomas ap 
David Thomas 
Bevan William 
Thomas Lewis 
William Phillip 
David Jolin,Thomas 
Price Ryddero 
John Rees ap 
John Rees ap tayler 
Jenkin Griffith 
Bevan Phillip 
Morice Thomas 
Rees Margarett 
George John 
John Evan 



Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P 

Eglsorow P' 



71 



Places of Historical Interest 
Cerrig y Derwyddon 

Marked on the Ordnance sheet simply as "stone" this fine monolith, which is known locally as 
Cerrig y Derwyddon (the Druids Stone) stands erect on the second field south east of Pant y gam 
farmhouse. It is now bur a fragment of the pillar stone that once stood to the height of 10ft above 
ground, and that a few years ago was blasted to pieces, the upper portion 6ft in length being thrown 
into the neighbouring hedge. It sides, at a distance of one foot above ground measur east 40 west 33 
north 25 south 21 inches respectively. In the year 1900 the then vicar of the parish heard an aged 
parishioner say that he remembered the stone when it was unbroken and doubtless at an earlier 
period it did not stand alone. Visited 9* September 1914 



Castell Llainfawr 

This mound stands in the field immediately to the south of the farm house of Llainfawr, about % of 
a mile south east of the parish church. The remains are those of a mound some 5ft in height 
surrounded by a ditch of which slight traces exist on all sides except the south, where it is lost in a 
boundary hedge. A small stream issuing from an adjacent spring runs to the west of the work. The 
field on which the mound is placed is known as Pare Castell ucha, the next field south as Pare 
castell issa - visited 11* September 1914 



Castell 

This earthwork lies about 300yds south west of the Parish Church. It consists of a somewhat oblong 
bailey having the mound placed in the south west comer . The mound has a height of from 8 to 10 
ft and a summit diameter of 16ft. The top is slightly depressed towards the centre. The bailey (60ft 
by 90ft) is surrounded by a ditch; its somewhat obliterated entrance is in the north east corner; the 
rampart has an average height of 4ft, with a fall of 10ft to the bottom of the ditch, the counterscarp 
being 4ft high. The work is in a fair state of preservation. - Visited 9* September 1914. 



Court 

Nothing except the moat remains of the manor house of the lordship of Eglwyswrw, the mansion 
house of Bishop David Martin (1293 - 1328) "being Lord thereof as George Owen writes " A 
house both of account and strength; for I have seen there huge walls and rooms of great breadth, all 
environed with a strong and deep moat digged out of the main rock, fed with a fresh spring rising 
in the same and all the greens thereabout growne with chamomile" (Fenton Tour 532.) The site, 
now part of the modem farmhouse of Court is about 30yds by 20yds; it is surrounded on its north 
east and west side by the remains of a moat 15ft wide, which (on the east) is cut through rock. Here 
it is seen at its best, the remaining parts being overgrown and largely filled in with soil. Visited 15* 



72 



September 1914 



Capel Pencelli 

As far as can be ascertained this chapel stood on the opposite side of the lane to the Ordnance bench 
mark 554, midway between Pencelli and Trewilym ichaf and at the northern end of two fields 
attatched to the benefice of Eglwyswrw. The site of the chapel together with the adjoining field to 
the west was alienated from the living at the dissolution of St Dogmaels abbey. The site, now 
heavily covered with undergrowth bear traces of some small building having stood upon it, of 
which the foundations probably remain - Visited 15"* September 1914. 



RCAHMW 
Corllan, Eglwyswrw, 

Corllan is a small lofted cottage, dated 1726 by a stone carved plague set into its northern gable at 
high level. This single storey double room cottage is built from rubble stone which was rendered 
with whitewashed roughcast in the mid twentieth century, with decorative raised banding around the 
windows, plinths and at comer quoining, all painted black.The joinery is white painted timber four- 
pane sash windows to the east front and a small square fire-window to the right. There are stucco 
window surrounds and slate sills. 

The roof which was originally corrugated iron over thatch has been slated recently in plain, 
smooth , blue black fibre reinforced cement slates with two small roof windows. The southem gable 
has a small brick fiue while the northern gable has an earlier short and wide stack serving the main 
inglenook fire below. There is a twentieth century addition to the right. 
Cadw listed buildings RCAHMW, 

Mynydd-Du Farmhouse, Eglwyswrw 

Mynydd-du farmhouse is stone-built and retains a typical 17th century, Pembrokeshire, projecting 
lateral chimney and fireplace, but has been otherwise modemised in the late 19th century with some 
brick work and render finish to form a 2-storey 'L' shape central entry plan. The original plan form 
is uncertain, however the cow-house walls are thicker and probably were once connected to the 
fireplace stack, which is in-line. The main north-west facade is rendered, with a slate roof and brick 
end-chimney. Its entrance has a slate-roofed canopy and there are sash windows of various sizes, 
the largest of 16 panes to the parlour. At the south-east side, the lateral chimney base reduces at the 
present lean-to eaves-level, to form a large stack (now capped by its own slate roof), indicating that 
the original eaves line was for a low building. 

The main entrance leads into a stair-lobby with kitchen beyond and opposite rear doorway. There is 
a parlour to the right of the main entrance with cast-iron fireplace and plaster ceiling. A dairy lean- 
to behind is entered by the rear doorway. The present roof is supported by softwood common rafters 



73 



and purlins spanning a central cross-partition of brick. The first-floor is reached by a late 19th 
century stair with splat balusters and turned newels. There were three heated bedrooms, two of 
which have blocked fireplaces with brick arches situated in the south-east wall above the kitchen. 
The third room over the parlour retains a decorative cast-iron fireplace surround in the south-west 
end wall. 

A low, former 2-door cow-house, built of coursed rubble stone is attached in-line at the south-west 
gable-end, now with blocked openings and a central doorway on its south-east side. It appears to 
have had two pairs of opposed doorways and a window all with timber lintels. At the cow-house 
south-west gable-end there is a fireplace and alcove, both with stone lintels and both blocked in 
stone, and the site of a boiler blocks a doorway in the south-east corner. It was probably used as a 
bake/wash-house for a period, when the doorways were blocked and then reverted to farm use later. 
There are two roof-trusses similar to the combination range with late- 19th century lapped and 
pegged softwood tie-beam trusses, covered by corrugated-iron. The south-west gable-end has partly 
collapsed obscuring some details, including a projection to the gable-end shown on the OS 25' 
second edition map of 1907. 

The main building ranges and fields including privy are all shown on the OS first edition 25' map 
1887 and a small enclosure beyond the stream to the south-east is annotated as Old Pinfold. 

The immediate field walls surrounding the farm are curved and of large width, indicating that the 
site is of great age. 

A stone-built, early CI 9th combination range, now with a corrugated-iron roof, is situated to the 
north-west of the adjacent farmhouse, on level ground. The range consists of a former cow-house 
and a stable, divided by a cart-house with lean-to. The late 19th century roof has pegged and lapped 
softwood collar-trusses seated on timber pads, two pairs of side-purlins and a diagonally set ridge- 
piece. The cow-house has a central lateral entry and there are remnants of two lines of stalls with 
iron tethering bars and chains. One stone slab stall partition exists, others formerly divided the 
space into two sets of 4, with cattle tethered facing the cross-walls. 

A stable at the north-west end has a central lateral entry with opposed window opening and 
surviving posts for framed stalls at the east cross-wall, indicating there were two sets of stalls for 3 
horses, each tethered facing the cross-wall. 

The central cart-house has timber lintels to its opening and extends as a lean-to at the rear. Its 
entrance lintel retains a nailed block of wood with a hole for a former harr-hung doorway, similar to 
those seen at Carnachenwen, Mathry . 

A drip-stone line in the east gable-end indicates a small structure formerly existed here, such as a 
pig-sty. Visited, through the Tir Gofal Project, 07/06/2006, Geoff Ward.RCAHMW, 

Penpedwast;Penpedwas, Eglwyswrw 

17th century farmhouse with later additions; derelict; notable for panelled partitions of early 18th 



74 



century style. 

A2-storey farmhouse of late 17th century date, altered and extended probably in the 19th century. 
The walls are of local rubble masonry and a slate pitched roof with end stacks. 3-window front: 4- 
pane sashes and an off centre entrance. Panelled partitions in large raised fields with ovolo-moulded 
frames.RCAHMW, 

Sergeants Inn, Eglwyswrw 

Rendered stone, welsh slate roof, 2 storeys, dated stone, 1767. 

Two-storey, five-window range, disposed as three-window to right and two-window to the left, a 
chimney between sections. One-window lower addition at the left end. Whitewashed rubble stone 
with close-eaved slate roofs, and three rebuilt brick chimneys. Ground floor has continuous slate 
pent-roof, up to first floor sill level, not continued to the extreme right end, where small stretch of 
drip-course is visible. Three ground floor canted bay windows one each side of door in right section 
8-16-8-pane sashes, one to the left of door in the left section with 8-12-8-pane casements and centre 
fixed light. Corniced flat tops, slate sills and stone bases. Doors have plain stucco surrounds. 
PE/Domestic/SN12NW from Cadw 

An early nineteenth century building to the rear of the Sergeant's Arms Inn, it is shown as a Meeting 
House on the Tithe Map of 1838, and as a school on the 1891 Ordnance Survey map. It is also said 
to have been a chapel before becoming a church hall. It has a hipped lateral facade, one pointed 
window, two doors, and two windows at the rear. In 1997 it was being used as the base for the local 
Young Farmers Club. RCAHMW, February 2010. 



Fishguard and Goodwick 



75 



Fishguard (Aberwaun) 

North Pembrokeshire's main shopping centre, occupying an undulating clifftop site and hnked to the 
villages of Abergwaun. (Lower Town) in the mouth of the Gwaun Valley and Goodwick around the 
terminus of the railway line. Lower town, which must surely be one of the most attractive coastal 
settlements in Wales, with its old limewashed cottages and very narrow streets, was once a busy 
shipbuilding and herring-fishing centre, and it is still popular with fishing and boating enthusiasts. 
The main town owes most of its growth to the last 150 years. There is a good shopping centre, and 
the Market Square is the centre of affairs. The Royal Oak Inn claims the distinction of having been 
the place where the surrender papers were signed following the Last Invasion of Britain in 1797. 

Carreg Wastad 

Commemorative memorial to mark site of the last invasion of Britain 1797. 

Martin de Tours granted Aberwaun to Jordan de Cantington along with the surrounding area which 
came to form the Lordship of Cemaes. 

Fishguard & Social — The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales - Benj Heath 
Malkin 1804. 

The town of Fiscard is so filthy, so ill built and so uncivilized as almost to be interesting on these 
very accounts. One generation of fishermen, mariners and smugglers, has succeeded another 
without the knowledge or the energy to avail itself of natural advantage. 

The principle exports at present are oats and butter. 

They import goods from Bristol, culm, coal, lime and timber. The herring fishery has been much on 
the decline of late years. They seldom cure any for exportation, as the capture fi-equently will 
not suffice to answer the demand of the country for any article , which, with potatoes 
constitutes the food of the lower classes. 

The Church is a most mean and squalid building without either spire or tower. It was made the 
prison of the French troops after their capture in the last war, nor could any place of 
confinement more miserable have been devised. 

1811 Fenton Tours Fishguard 

The bay of Fishguard , in the form of a crescent, bounded to the north east by Dinas Head, a bold 
projecting promontory; and to the north west by penainglas, a wedge shaped headland, sloping 
gradually from the high ground of Penyrhiw to the sea, a little beyong the rocks called Cow and 
calf, which make the road-stead of anchoring place generally enlivened by a fieet of vessels of 
different burden that ride here with perfect safety from all winds but the north and north east, when, 
in cases of extremity in violent storms from those points , they may have the advantage of drifting 
on Goodwick Sands, and by that means preserving both their crew and cargo. 



76 



Fishguard with a considerable tract of land round it, including all that constitutes the present parish, 
with an exception to Cronllw)ai, in the partition of Martin's new conquest fell to the share of Jordan 
de Cantington, in whose possession it had not long been, before he appropriated it to the abbey of St 
Dogmael's having first planted a colony of new settlers there, who changed the original name of 
Abergwa5ai to Fishguard. 

At The dissolution, in the disposal of the greater part of the abbey of St Dogmael's to Bradshaw, I 
cannot find that Fishquard was comprehended, but that it remained entirely in the crown rill about 
the time of the restoration, when my great grandfather John Lewis Esq of Manamawan, by grant or 
purchase appears to have possessed the lay impropriation of the tithes, together with Cronllwyn and 
some other parcels of land in fee, the manor and several fee farms rents being reserved to form part 
of the revenue of the Prince of Wales. 

It is clear that the present town which certainly, in point of size and population, exceeds any other in 
the county but Haverfordwest, as well as the grove of masts its port displays, are of late and modem 
growth. 

Fishguard may be said to consist of two towns, the upper and the lower; The upper occupying a 
healthy wminence includs much the larger portion, the church, market, and principal shops; the 
lower skirting the estuary, with an exception of two or three houses, has sprund from its shipping 
and commerce within this half century, and is, like its better half on the top of the hill, increasing 
daily. 

Its market is well supplied, and for com particularly, is one of the best and cheapest in the county, 
and yet it lacks the obvious convenience of a market House 

The Church is a mean structure , and cannot, being dedicated to the blessed Virgin, have any claim 
on legend or tradition for the miracles of a patron saint; 

It is a parish that till within this century, from the time of Martin de Turribus, could never boast of 
an inhabitant above the rank of Fisherman, The sacred walls or precinct cannot be expected to 
fumish any sepulchral trophies,or dignified memorials of the dead. In the churchyard there is a mde 
stone pitched on end, and inscribed in the stain of pious simplicity with a humble miserere mei 
without a name, which is said to commemorate a former vicar of the place about the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, who was excommunicated. 



The Fishguard Fort 

built in 1781 of bricks and stone on a headland north of the Town. 

An American privateer Stephen Manhant (Not John Paul Jones as is often quoted) had bombarded 
the town in 1779 before being chased off by a local smuggler. 

The privy Council approved a local request and at the outbreak of hostilities with France in 1793 



77 



allocated some finance for it. It consisted of a gun platform with ammunition storage and 
Guard room. Three Invalid soldiers were sent to man the garrison ~ but were little use when 
the French landed as they only had three rounds of ammunition ~ but they refused indignantly 
to spike their guns when Colonel Knox, in command of the Fishguard Fencibles marched his 
men smartly away from the scene of action. (1797). 

Lower town was used for the filming of "Under Milk Wood". 

Royal Oak ~ was the place where surrender papers were signed following the last invasion of 
Britain in 1797. In Churchyard near lies Jemima Nicholas (the Welsh Heroine) who is reputed 
to have rounded up a bunch of Frenchmen with a pitchfork. 

Fishguard was the home of Richard Fenton 18c historian. 
Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 1839 Fishguard 

FISHGUARD, a market-town and parish, in two divisions, the Upper and Lower, situated in the 
poor-law union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 15 miles 
(N.) from Haverfordwest, 25 (N.) from Pembroke, and 249 (W. by N.) from London; containing 
2013 inhabitants. The origin of the present town is of comparatively recent date, but the parish in 
many respects affords striking indications of remote antiquity. The Druidical relics which abound in 
the vicinity prove it to have been a resort of the votaries of that ancient religion, for the 
solemnization of their rites; and the extensive remains of foundations of old buildings still existing 
in a district within the parish, called Caerau, or "the fortifications," in which, though it has been for 
ages under cultivation, the progress of the plough is still occasionally obstructed, are strong 
evidences of its having contained a numerous population at a very early period. According to Mr. 
Fenton, the historian of Pembrokeshire, this district was inhabited by an ancient race long before the 
invasion of Britain by the Romans, whom he supposes to have subsequently had a settlement in this 
place, in which opinion he is confirmed, in some degree, by the discovery, near the spot, of Roman 
coins, chiefly of the Lower Empire. In the early part of the fifth century, St. Dubricius is said by 
Bale to have lived in retirement here, and to have presided over a school, which was numerously 
attended by the inhabitants of the surrounding country, for some time prior to his elevation to the 
archiepiscopal see of Caerlleon. PwllDyvrig, a spot in the romantic Vale of Gwayn, in the parish, 
which derived its name from that circumstance, is pointed out as the place of his retreat; and almost 
within the memory of man, games in honour of that saint were annually celebrated on his festival. 

At the time of the Norman Conquest of England, this place was a small and unimportant fishing- 
village, which, from its situation at the mouth of the river Gwajai, was called, by the Welsh, Aber- 
Gwain. Soon after that period, an Anglo-Norman leader, named Martin de Tours, or de Turribus, 
whose services under the Conqueror had been rewarded by a grant of lands in Devonshire, on the 
coast of the Bristol Channel, being desirous of extending the limits of his possessions, fitted out an 
expedition to act against such part of the Welsh coast as he should find least prepared for defence; 
and having sailed round the south-western extremity of Pembrokeshire, he succeeded with little 
difficulty in landing his troops here, and in subduing the territory, which subsequently formed the 



78 



ancient lordship of Kemmes, and one of the lordships marcher. In the subsequent partition of the 
conquered territories among his followers, Martin assigned the town of "Aber-Gwain," and nearly 
the whole of the district which is at present comprehended within the parish, to Jordan de 
Cantington, who introduced into his newly-acquired possessions an English colony. The name of 
the village was changed to Fish Garth, the latter word signifying in the Anglo-Saxon language a 
"weir;" and of this name the modern appellation of Fishguardis only a slight corruption. Jordan 
made repeated attempts to excite in his Welsh and English subjects sentiments of reciprocal 
conciliation, and peaceable subjection to his authority, but in these endeavours he was invariably 
frustrated by their mutual dissensions, and he finally gave the whole to the abbey of St. Dogmael's, 
which had been founded by his patron, Martin de Tours, in the vicinity, and in the possession of 
which it remained till the period of the general dissolution of religious houses. 

The origin of the present town, or at least its elevation from an obscure and inconsiderable fishing 
village to some degree of importance, may be referred to the sixteenth century, when Newport, the 
head of the barony of Kemmes, being visited with a desolating pestilence, the inhabitants were 
driven fi-om it and compelled to seek safety in all directions. Many of them, attracted by the open 
situation of the place, and the purity of its air, established themselves at Fishguard, which, from 
these advantages of its situation, had entirely escaped the contagion; and to this circumstance are 
usually ascribed the first increase and the present prosperity of the town, which, however, only 
obtained the privilege of a market towards the close of the last century, through the exertions of the 
late William Knox, Esq. In the year 1797, a French force of about 1500 men, under the conduct of 
General Tate, effected a landing on this coast, within a few miles of the town; but after committing 
some ravages in the neighbourhood, they were made prisoners by the troops under Lord Cawdor. 
This event, though generally referred to Fishguard, took place in the adjoining parish of Llanwnda. 

The town is beautifully situated on the river Gwayn, near its influx into St. George's Channel, and is 
divided into the Upper and Lower town, the former on the summit of a hill commanding an 
extensive marine view, and the latter occupying the banks of the river, over which is a neat stone 
bridge of five arches. The Upper Town includes the principal portion, containing the church, 
market-place, and chief shops, and consisting mainly of three streets, diverging fi-om a common 
centre; partially paved, but formed of houses irregularly built and of indifferent appearance. Some 
improvements, however, have taken place, and a better style of building and greater regularity 
prevail in the houses of more modern erection. The inhabitants are abundantly supplied with water 
of excellent quality, and the springs are so numerous, that wherever the ground is opened, water is 
found at a small distance below the surface. The parish comprises an area of 3430 acres: the soil is 
tolerably fertile; the lands, with a trifling exception, are inclosed, and the greater portion is in a 
superior state of cultivation. The scenery is finely diversified, assuming in some parts a striking 
boldness of character, and in others a pleasing combination of picturesque and romantic features. 
The situation of the town, upon a small bay in St. George's Channel to which it gives name, and the 
shores of which are distinguished for the beauty of their scenery; the salubrity of its atmosphere; the 
abundance and cheapness of the commodities brought to its markets; and the facility for sea- 
bathing, contribute to render Fishguard desirable as a place of residence, and attract to it numerous 
visiters during the summer. As a proof of its salubrity, the number of aged inhabitants is, perhaps. 



79 



greater than in any other place of equal population in the kingdom: from a return of the bills of 
mortality made by the vicar, in compliance with an order from government, from 1813 to 1830 
inclusive, it was found that in every year of the above period there was a majority of persons from 
seventy to ninety, and often to one hundred, years of age. 

Fishguard bay extends a distance of three miles in a direction from east to west, and about a mile 
and three-quarters from north to south, varying in depth of water from thirty to seventy feet, in 
proportion to the distance from the fine bold shore by which it is inclosed. The bottom is firm, 
affording good anchorage to ships of the largest size, which may ride in safety in all parts of the bay 
during the prevalence of gales from any point of the compass, except north and north-east. 
According to a survey made by Mr. Spence, in 1790, by order of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, this bay was reported to be the only place between Milford Haven and St. Tudwal's 
Roads, off Carnarvonshire, where large vessels navigating the Irish Channel could at that time put 
in for shelter. The harbour, which is capacious and easy of access, is situated on the western side of 
the bay; it is irregular in form, being about 2400 feet in length, and about 1 160 feet wide at the 
entrance, which is free from obstruction either from rocks or a bar. The erection of a pier, which 
was strongly recommended by the engineer who surveyed the bay, would greatly tend to improve it; 
and according to an estimate delivered by the engineer, a suitable pier might be completed, for the 
accommodation of 100 sail of merchant-vessels of the usual class, at an expense of £14,785. The 
harbour was again surveyed, under the direction of the Lords of the Admiralty, by the late Mr. 
Rennie, who confirmed the preceding report, and recommended, in addition to the proposed pier 
from Fort Point, the construction of a breakwater from Cow and Calf Point. The expense of both 
these works, according to Mr. Rennie's estimate, would not exceed the sum of £80,000, and their 
construction would render the harbour one of the safest and most commodious on the coast for 
vessels of almost all descriptions. But in consequence of neither of the above plans being carried 
into effect, the prosperity of the place has been greatly retarded, and, owing to the very indifferent 
state of the present small pier, Fishguard has become much impoverished: while its pier was in good 
repair, not only its own shipping, but vessels from other ports, were accustomed to put in and 
remain here, for a greater or less period, making Milford their port only as a matter of necessity. It 
was originally intended that Fishguard bay should be the terminus of the South Wales railway, but a 
deviation seems likely to be adopted, which will terminate at Abermawr, some miles distant from 
the town. A few particulars of the line are given under the heads of Pembrokeshire and 
Carmarthenshire, and a ftiUer account under that of Glamorganshire. 

The trade, which is very inconsiderable, consists chiefly in the exportation of com and butter to 
Bristol and Liverpool, and the importation of shop goods; of coal and culm from Milford and 
Swansea; coal from Newport, Cardiff, &c.; limestone from Milford; and timber. Some of the larger 
vessels belonging to the port are engaged in the general carrying-trade from Bristol, Liverpool, 
Milford, and London, to Ireland, &c. The Irish packets, and vessels bound for Liverpool, often put 
in here, when driven by stress of weather. The herring fishery, which formerly afforded emplojmient 
to a considerable number of the inhabitants, becoming unproductive, has been some time 
discontinued, with the exception of procuring a supply for the immediate neighbourhood only. 
Lead-ore has been found within the parish, but not in sufficient quantity, nor of quality rich enough. 



80 



to encourage any attempts to work it; slate of very good quality abounds in the neighbourhood, and 
iron-ore has been found near the town. The market is on Thursday, and is well supplied with grain, 
and with provisions of every kind: an act for establishing a market was obtained in 1834. The fairs 
are on February 5th, Easter-Monday, Whit Monday, July 23rd, and November 17th. 

Fishguard is thought to have been anciently an incorporated borough, and is traditionally reported to 
have possessed a charter, granted by King John, which was lost during the great civil war of the 
seventeenth century; but the only officer appointed in the present day is a mayor, whose election is 
merely nominal, as there are now no burgesses, or other vestige of borough jurisdiction. This 
mayor, who is chosen from among the tenants of the manor, which formerly belonged to the crown, 
is selected by the lord's steward, and submitted by him to the jury present, who, upon their oaths 
approving of the appointment, allow the candidate to be swom in. There is a district in the parish 
still known by the name of "The Borough," which is co-extensive with the manor. By the act of 
1832, for "Amending the Representation of the People," the place is constituted a contributory 
borough with the boroughs of Haverfordwest and Narberth, in the return of a representative to 
parliament. The right of election is vested in every male person of full age occupying, either as 
owner, or as tenant under the same landlord, a house or other premises of the annual value of not 
less than £10, provided he be capable of registering as the act directs: the present number of 
tenements of this value within the limits of the borough, is sixtyfive. The sheriff of Haverfordwest 
is the returning officer. Fishguard is also one of the polling-places for the election of a knight for the 
shire. 

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £4. 0. 5., endowed with £200 royal 
bounty and £800 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; present net 
income, £111. The tithes have been commuted for £230 payable to J. Hughes, Esq., and £70 payable 
to the vicar: there is a glebe of twelve acres, valued at £16 per annum. The church, dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, is pleasantly situated in the Upper Town, and is a neat small edifice, but not 
distinguished by any peculiarity of architecture. A handsome vicarage-house, called Vicar's Park, 
from the name of the plot of glebe on which it stands, has been erected by the present incumbent, 
the Rev. Samuel Fenton, M.A., which has much improved the entrance into the town from 
Haverfordwest. Fishguard, previously to the erection of the present church, is said to have 
comprised two distinct parishes, now forming only one; and the ruins of three ancient chapels, 
called respectively LlanVihangel, Llan-Vartin, and Llan-lst, may still be traced: of these, two 
probably were parochial churches, and the third a chapel of ease to one of them. There are places of 
worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists; and five Sunday schools, one of 
them in connexion with the Established Church. 

The hills in this parish, inclosing the romantic Vale of Gwayn, were formerly thickly strewed with 
Druidical relics, of which several vestiges may still be traced; and near the site that was occupied by 
the ancient town called Caerau, three Roman urns have been found, containing numerous coins, of 
Gallienus, Posthumus, Claudius, and some other emperors; but the coins were melted down soon 
after their discovery. In various parts of the parish are tumuli, some of which have been found to 
contain relics of the rudest ages, urns of the coarsest workmanship, implements of stone, bones. 



81 



ashes, and curiously wrought stones. Near the town are several tumuli, or artificial mounds, 
intrenched as if for military purposes, and called Castellau, or, "the castles," probably fi-om that 
circumstance: these Mr. Fenton supposes to be sepulchral monuments of a remote age, and to have 
been reduced to their present form, which is a truncated cone, and probably surmounted by forts, 
during the wars between the Welsh and the invading Saxons. On the bank of the river Gwayn, in a 
secluded and romantic situation, stands the neat mansion of the late Richard Fenton, Esq., 
barristerat-Iaw, and author of the "Historical Tour through Pembrokeshire;" it is pleasantly 
embosomed in a thick grove of trees, and is now the property and residence of his eldest son. Upon 
Fort Point, on the north-east of the town, is a battery, but the guns fi-om disuse and neglect have 
become unserviceable. A mineral spring in the parish was formerly in high estimation for its 
efficacy in the cure of numbness of the limbs and other complaints. 



1844 Fishguard Pigot & Co, South Wales directory for 1844 

Is a market-town and sea-port, in the parish of its name, hundred of Kemess, and county of 
Pembroke: 257 miles W. by N. from London, and 16 N from Haverfordwest, the like distance NE 
from St David's, and 7 W. from Newport; situated on a steep cliff on the seashore, at the influx of 
the river Gwaine with the sea, which forms a spacious bay, where vessels may ride safely in five or 
six fathoms water. At this place Frenchmen landed in 1797, who surrendered, on the summons of 
Lord Cawdor, without firing a single shot. 

The town is divided into two portions, the upper and lower town, by the river, over which is a good 
stone bridge of five arches. The upper town occupies the eminence, and includes the greater 
proportion of inhabitants, with the church, market-house, and principal shops: the lower part skirts 
the estuary, and , having sprung from its shipping and commerce within the last seventy years, is 
fast becoming a rival in trade and population to its more elevated neighbour. 

With the exception of a little flannel weaving, no manufactures exist here - com, butter and 
herrings, comprise it's chief trade; the flshery however, of late years, has not been prosperous. Slate 
abounds in the neighbourhood, and of excellent quality; there is also iron ore near the town, but up 
to the present time no works have been established. There is no regular municipal government 
attached to Fishguard; but a head constable, with the title of mayor, is elected annually under the 
court leet, though his duties are not particularly defined. The manorial courts are held annually 
within the limits of the borough. Fishguard shares, with Haverfordwest and Narberth, in the elective 
franchise. 

The Parish church of the Virgin Mary is an old structure, presenting little worth notice. There are 
places of worship for Baptists, Independents and Calvinists: the living of Fishguard is a vicarage, in 
the gift of the Crown. Within a few miles of the town are several romantically situated seats, and the 
views from many points around are highly picturesque, from the undulating surface of the country, 
and the abrupt altitude of the sea-cliffs. The prospect inland includes Preselau, the loftiest mountain 
in this county, being one thousand eight hundred feet above the level of the sea; together with hills 



82 



of inferior height, many crested with enormous masses of rock. The narrow vale of Gwaen, 
including the grounds round Glyn Amel, is an interesting object to the tourist and the artist. 

A New Market-house has been erected; the market is held on Thursday; and the fairs on the 5th of 
February, Easter Monday, Whit Monday, the 8th and 9th of October, and the 17th and 18th of 
November. The parish contained, in 1831, 1,990 inhabitants; and at the last census (1841), 2,013. 

The outline of a market place can be detected in the street patterns. 
St Mary's Church - 1850 August 2 Glynne Arch Camb 1888 

This very mean church unworthy of a populous parish, is scarcely distinguishable from the adjacent 
houses, the walls are so very low, and the appearance insignificant. The walls are probably 
ancient, but the original character obliterated all the windows being modem, and the ceiling a 
flat one of plaster. The chancel arch is pointed, but somewhat modernised the interior filled 
with new pews. At The west end is a double bell gable but only one bell. The font octagonal, 
and seems modern. 

1851 St Mary's Parish Church and 6 large pews are huddled together in the Chancel.. .The 
Church is too small..." Thomas Richardson, Curate 

1857 

The Fishguard parish church was rebuilt entirely, and opened by the Right Rev Dr Thirlwall on the 
22°'' day of July 1857. The church is built without any pillars; a large nave with an arched roof 
of massive timberwork. Any ordinary architect of the present day would have hesitated before 
he attempted to roof in a nave of 60ft by 40ft and 50ft high with only tiebeams in wood. Mr 
Clark, the architect, has thrown over it a series of circular arches coming down 7 ft below the 
wall plate were they rest on corbels as their ultimate points of support. Upon these arches he 
rests the principals of the roof, locking them att together with iron bolts; and he thus carries the 
main thrust of the roof right down to the ground by means of corbels placed low, and 
strengthened by short external buttresses. The nave is divided by a massive arch. The chancel 
has a circular apse. The style of the architecture is that of the thirteenth century, which is to be 
seen in the old churches now in the southwest of France. The church has always been admited 
for its stability and strength, and also for its simplicity, eassy and suitable for divine service. 
Pembrokeshire Herald 24* July 1857 copied by Rev W Rowlands Vicar of Fishguard 29"" Oct 
1887 

present building dates from the 1857 but an earlier church existed from cl300. 
1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 

The town of Fishguard hangs, as it were, upon the slope of a precipitous hill overlooking the vale 
of the Gwaen, which here, as George Owen puts it, ' falleth into the sea, making a faire Haven and 
goode Harborow for shipps and Barks.' Its waterside suburb of Abergwaen, approached by one of 



83 



the steepest bits of coach road in the Principality-, is mainly frequented by fisher-folk and seafaring 
men engaged in the coasting frade. 

Usually the most easy-going of Sleepy Hollows, Fishguard town awoke one fine morning towards 
the close of the last century to find itself become suddenly famous. On February 21, 1797, three 
French frigates were sighted off the Pembrokeshire coast bearing up towards Fishguard Bay, where 
they presently came to anchor near Carreg Gwastad Point. During the ensuing night the enemy 
came ashore to the number of about 1,500 men, regular troops and gaol-birds, under the leadership 
of one Tate, a renegade Irish- American. Tate, with the chief of his satellites, established himself at 
the neighbouring farmhouse of Trehowel, while the main body of the ' invaders ' encamped atop of 
an isolated hill overlooking the village of Llanwnda. Thence the Frenchmen dispersed about the 
country-side, scaring the inhabitants out of their wits, and rummaging the farmhouses in search of 
potheen and plunder. 

In one of these exploits a drunken fellow entered a cottage at Brestgam, where a ' grandfather ' 

clock happened to be standing in a corner. Dismayed by the sounds issuing from the mysterious 
object, the simpleton fired his gun at a venture, concluding the devil must be lurking within. This 
clock is still to be seen at Brestgarn, with the bullet-hole through the panel 

Meanwhile the authorities bestirred themselves. Under the command of Lord Cawdor, the 
Fishguard Fencibles and Castle Martin Yeomanry marched out to Goodwic Sands, where the enemy, 
finding the game was up, laid down their arms and surrendered a discretion. Thus these doughty 
regiments achieved the unique distinction of facing a foreign foe on the soil of Britain itself. It is 
said 

that the goodwives of Pembrokeshire, arrayed in their red woollen ' whittles,' countermarched and 
deployed around a neighbouring hill, thus leading the invaders to suppose that a regiment of 
gallant redcoats was preparing to oppose their advance. 

The French prisoners were subsequently lodged in durance vile at a place near Pembroke, whence 
some of them effected their escape in Lord Cawdor's yacht, with the connivance of two Pembroke 
lasses — the old story of chcrchcz la femme once more. One of the French vessels having been 
afterwards captured was re-christened the Fisgtiard, a name that has only recently disappeared from 
the files of the Navy List. 

Incredible as it may seem in these days, the news of this famous event took a whole week to travel 
to the Metropolis, and it is said that the anniversan- of the French landing is still held in 
remembrance amongst the old folk in the locality. 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

The Parish Church Dedecated to St Mary the Virgin 

The church was rebuilt in the year 1857, and contains nothing of antiquarian interest. The font is 
modern. Sir Stephen Glynne describes the previous building as "very mean, scarcely distinguishable 
from the adjacent houses , the walls are so very low". (Arch Camb 1888 pi 30). 

Inscribed Stone 

In the churchyard is an erect stone 5ft in height , bearing a pAlain cross with frifoliated terminal to 



84 



each arm. Beneath the arms are the letters David Medd and round the sides of the stone is an 
inscription. The whole doubtless commemorating David Meddus (or Mendus) who was vicar in 
1535 (Valor Eccl). The stone is probably one of the latest examples of a pre Reformation memorial, 
and should be brought under cover. Visited 17* June 1915. 

ArchCamb 1883 325 Glynne Notes 1888 130 



Clergy 



Price, Gulielmus ? 


Curate 




Barker, Owen 


1571 


Vicar 


Meredith, Thomas 


1581 


Vicar 


Jones, Rowland 


1589 


Vicar 


Price, John 


1661 


Vicar 


Price, Robertus 


1670 


Curate 


Price, Robertus 


1677 


Vicar 


Price, Robertus 


1692 


Vicar 


Rice, Griffinus 


1696 


Vicar 


jvice, vjriiiiui 


1 1'XA 
I 1 


ivecior 


Williams, John 


mA 


Rector 


Williams, John 




Vicar 


Morris, David 


\1A6 


Vicar 


Dalton, Thomas 


1750 


Vicar 


Morris, David 


1750 


Vicar 


Conway, Charles 


1750 


Stipendiary Curate 


Dalton, Thomas 


1750 


Vicar 


Pugh , James 


1763 


Vicar 


Dalton , Thomas 


1763 


Vicar 



85 



Pugh , James 


1763 


Vicar 


Phillips , William 


1766 


Vicar 


Walters , Lewis 


1767 


Stipendiary Curate 


Williams , William 


1769 


Curate 


Phillips , George 


1782 


Stipendiary Curate 


Philipps , George 


1782 


Vicar 


Phillips , WMliam 


1782 


Stipendiary Curate 


Jones , Rees 


1788 


Curate 


Jones , Rees 


1804 


Curate 


Bowen , David 


1808 


Stipendiary Curate 


Bowen , David 


1818 


Stipendiary Curate 


Harries , William 


1823 


Stipendiary Curate 


Fenton , Samuel 


1825 


Vicar 


Philinn^i rrPOTtrp 


1825 




Fenton , Samuel 


1825 


Vicar 


Fenton , Samuel 


1833 


Stipendiary Curate 



1929 St Mary & St Justinian (Llanstinan) & Parish Church (Llanychaer) Incumbent D Davies (D J Evans) 



Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

This Vicarage was part of the possessions of the Abbey of St. Dogmaels, and on the dissolution of 
that Abbey came into the hands of the Crown. 

Described as Fysgard, this church was assessed at £8 in 1291 for tenths to the King, the amount 
payable being 16s - Taxatio. 

Fyshyr ngegard Vicatia. - David Mendus clericus vicarius perpetuus ibidem annuatim percipit 
tertiam partem ormlium frugum oblacionum et aliorum emolimentorum ibidem. Et valet de 
dicta tercia parte iiij] iiijd cum vicara et gleba ibidem et est ex coUacione infrascripti abbatis 
[Abbot of St. Dogmaels, Inde sol" in procuracionibus quolibet tercio anno in visitacione 
ordinaria 2rija. Et in visitacione archidiaconi quolibet anno winjd. SI Imma ijs xjd. Et remanet 
clare £4 Os. 5d. Inde decima 8s. Od Valor Eccl. 



86 



Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- Fishgard (Aber Gwajoi) alias Fishingard alias Fishguard 
V. (St. Mary). Prox. quolibet tertio armo, IS. Visit, archidiac quolibet anno, Is 1 Id Habet 
snnuatim tert. part, fruct. and oblat., &c. Prince of Wales; Abb. St. Dog-waells Propr. Clear 
yearly value, £16, £3. King's Books, £4 Os. 5d. - Bacon's Liber Regis. 

On 4th July, 1855, the Infant National Schoolroom at Fishguard was licensed for divine service 
until the church, then being rebuilt, was completed. Ithe church was entirely rebuilt, and was 
opened by Bishop Connop Thirlwall on 22 July, 1857. - Arch. Camb., 

The subordinate chapels to Fishguard Church were Capel Llanvihangel (dedicated to St. Michael), 
Capel y Drindod (Holy Trinity), Llanust (Ust), and Llanvarti (St. Martin), the last mentioned 
being the old site of Fishguard Vicarage. - Paroch. Wall., p. 26. 

Capell y drindod in Fishguard is mentioned as having originally been a pilgrimage chapel. Owen'-s 
Pern., Pt. II., p. 509. 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 

Fishguard (S. Mary). — The parish Church of Fishguard was rebuilt in 1855 during the incumbency 
of the Rev. William Rowlands who was of the family of the celebrated Rowlands of Llangeitho. 
Nothing is known of the disposition of the old Communion vessels. There is now a Chalice with its 
cover bearing the hall marks of 1786 and the maker's mark C H. The bowl is of the form of an 
inverted cone and is decorated with the sacred monogram within rays. Inscription "Poculum de 
Ecclesiae St, Mary Fishguard," It measures 6 in. in height; diam. of bowl, 3 in.; depth, 3 in.; weight 
with cover 8 oz. Upon the handle or foot of the cover is engraved the date "1790". Like the chalice, 
the cover is decorated with a band of beaded moulding; 

A Chalice which is of parcel-gilt is a modem reproduction of the medieval pattern and carries the 
hall mark of 1893. the maker's mark being SB FW. The plain bowl rests on a hexagonal stem which 
is divided by a knop. One of the six compartments of the base is decorated with a cross. It measures 
8 in. in height; diam. of bowl, 3 in,; depth, 3 in.; 

A Paten bearing the date letter of 1892 and the same maker's mark, measures 5in. in diam., and 
weighs 3 oz. 7 dwts. Both chalice and paten were given in memory of Lizzy Smyth Lewis who died 
Easter, April 1893, and Hannah Sarah Bennett who died Feb, 3rd 1893, by their respective husbands 
Mr. Robert Lewis and Mr. T. G. Beimett, Churchwardens. 

Chalice, Flagon and two Patens, all of plated metal. Each piece is decorated with the sacred 
monogram. One of the Patens carries the following inscription " Presented to Letitia Maria Harries, 
By the Vicar. Teachers and Friends of the Fishguard National Schools as a token of regard and 
approval of her unwearied exertions in the cause of Education. March 23, 1839 ". In the centre of 
the plate is the sacred symbol beneath which is inscribed " Presented to St. Mary's Church by Letitia 
Maria Harries In humble gratitude to Almighty God for His goodness vouchsafed to the Fishguard 
National Schools, Mar. 33rd 1859 ". 



87 



Two glass Cruets with silver mountings, presented by the Rev. R. Lloyd Lloyd, Vicar (1894-1900). 

By a recent donation this parish possesses a Paten which is the only piece of Gold Plate in the 
County. It bears the London hall marks of 1904 and was made by Messrs. Barkentin & Krall of 
Regent Street. It is interesting as being an exact reproduction of the Paten found at St. David's 
Cathedral in 1874 in the grave of Bishop Thomas Beck (1380-1293). It measures 4 in. in diameter 
and is of 18 carat gold.' 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

1851 Tower Hill CM Erected in 1759 David Meyler, Supplying Master still open in 2006 

1851 Hermon Particular Baptist Erected in 1776, rebuilt in 1832 "During the winter when Sailors 
are at home Congregations are more numerous" Richard Owen, Minister, Park St, Fishguard 

Hermon Baptist Chapel was built in 1776 and rebuilt in 1832 to the design of architect Daniel 
Evans. The present chapel, dated 1832, is built in the Classical style with a gable-entry plan, two 
storeys and small pane round-headed windows. Hermon is now Grade 2* listed for one of the most 
architecturally interesting chapel facades of its date in Wales and for the near complete 
contemporary interior including a fine plasterwork and gallery. RCAHMW, October 2010 
Still open 1998 

Tabernacl Welsh Independent Chapel: Tabernacle, Park Street, Upper Fishguard 

1851 The afternoon service is performed in English David Bateman, Minister 
Tabernacl Independent Chapel was first built in 1796 and rebuilt in 1845. The present chapel, dated 
1845, is built in the Sub-Classical style with a gable-entry plan, half-hipped roof, two storeys and 
flat-headed windows surmounted by blind fan-heads to both storeys. The central door with is 
fanlight over, has a gabled surround housing a datestone inscribed 'Tabernacle Independant Chapel 
1845'. The interior however dates from a complete refurbishment started in 1915, but due to the first 
world war not completed until 1924. The gallery front is ornately decorated with Neo-18th century 
detail, fashioned both from hardwood and plaster of paris moulded to match the more expensive 
material. The pulpit is a half round projection on a semi-octagonal base, detailed with columns and 
classical motifs and accessed by stairs to either side. The later work on 1924 included the insertion 
of the pipe organ to the rear of the pulpit. Tabernacl is now Grade 2 Listed for its distinctive richly 
ornamented interior, still open Dec 2006 
RCAHMW, October 2010 

1851 Ebenezer, Kensington St Baptist Erected in 1850 James Owen, Deacon, Saddler, High Street 



88 



Baptist Mission, Lower Fishguard 

Bethel English Baptist Church, Fishguard 

Bethel Baptist Chapel was built in 1905 in the Sub-classical style, with a gable-entry plan, two 
storeys and a giant arch in the pediment. RCAHMW, October 2010 
Still open 1998 

Capel Sion Baptist, Scleddau (within Fishguard parish) 
St Nicholas's chapel (Methodist), Fishguard 
Capel-y-cwm, CM chapel, Glyn-y-mel Rd, Lower Fishguard 

Chapel, in Fishguard town [Wesleyan Methodists, c 1815]. The cause died out c 1840 
Church of the Holy Name (Roman Catholic), Fishguard 
Capel-bach, Cilshafe No denomination given 

Chapel, Bridge St, Glyn-y-mel Rd, Lower Town No denomination given 
Jehovah's Witnesses, Kingdom Hall, Fishguard 
Masonic Hall, Brodog Terrace, Penyraber, Fishguard 

Temperance Hall, West St, Fishguard Temperance Hall was built in 1878 in the Classical style of 
the gable-entry type. By 1993 this chapel had been converted for use as cinema.RCAHMW, 
October 2010 

Pentowr Chapel (Welsh Calvinistic Methodist; Pentour;Tower Hill), Tower Hill, Fishguard 

Pentour Methodist is a long- wall chapel originating in 1759, rebuilt in 1788, 1806 and again in 
1824. In 1889 the chapel was remodelled for £1200 by architect D E Thomas of Haverfordwest, in 
conjunction with the Tenby based builder William Davies, and a schoolroom added in 1 890 by 
Thomas Harries of Trellan. Early ministers included John Dafydd (1765), Thomas Davies (1790) 
and David Jones (1794). By 1802 the membership was recorded as 80, during that year the chapel 
was granted the right to hold baptistism and communion services and by 1810 membership had 
risen to 200. During the revival in 1859 30 new members are recorded, but when Philip Jones 
started as minister in 1886 members are recorded at 100. In 1901 a cemetary was bought and four 
years later a manse was constructed on land donated by D Jones, a future MP for the county. During 
the period 1917-1938JT Job was minister, who as a poet won Chair at the National Eisteddfod in 
1897,1903 and 1918 and the Crown in 1900. 

The stuccoed front facade is lateral entry and the two end doors hidden by porches linked by a 
verandah supported by two cast iron columns. A central pair of round-headed windows with 
Florentine tracery is matched by a single gallery window over each porch, and a small glazed, 
roundel is set above the pair. The interior escaped re-orientation during the 1889 renovation, the 



89 



pulpit is still to the front wall, although now with a later organ inserted behind it and blocking the 
central pair of windows. The three sided gallery is of pitch pine with pierced cast iron panels inset 
to the front and supported by cast iron columns. To the front of the chapl has a narrow courtyard 
separated from the road by a low stuccoed wall set with cast iron railings. 
Pentour is now Grade 2 Listed RCAHMW, July 2010 

Baptistry, Glan-Ainon, Fishguard Baptistery and graveyard marked on OS 25" scale map of 
1907. Present status [1998]: unknown RCAHMW 



The Last Invasion Of Britain 

After the outbreak of war between Britain and France in 1793, General Lazare Hoche decided to 
take the war onto British soil. In 1796 he planned a full scale invasion of Ireland, which would 
be supported by the United Irishmen. An expedition of 15,000 men was organised and to 
prevent British reinforcements being sent to Ireland and to create panic on the mainland two 
smaller expeditions were planned. 

A force would cross the North Sea, land in the northeast, win the support of the working classes and 
march across northern England to Lancashire. Here they would link up with a smaller 
expedition, which would either have attacked Bristol or, failing that, would have landed in 
Cardigan Bay and threatened Liverpool. It was predicted that the Welsh and English working 
classes, like their Irish counterparts, would rise in the name of Liberty. 

In December 1796, Hoche's expedition arrived in Bantry Bay in Ireland but was scattered by 

atrocious weather and limped back into Brest. A combination of poor weather and indiscipline 
had also put paid to the northern expedition. But what of the other expedition? 

Preparations went ahead in Brest but with the failure of the Irish invasion it is difficult to see why it 
set sail at all. Equally strange was the choice of its leader, a little known American of Irish 
descent called William Tate from South Carolina. He had fought against Britain in the 
American War of Independence. However, after that war he became deeply embroiled in 
French plans to capture New Orleans and fell foul of the American authorities. In 1795 he fled 
to Paris, hoping to be reimbursed for his expenses and demanding confirmation of his rank. 
Hoche thought that Tate was the right man to lead the Bristol expedition. 

Most of the soldiers were kitted out from a stock of British uniforms which had been captured 
earlier. But these would only take dark brown dye so La Seconde Legion des Francs became 
known as "La Legion Noir" or the "Black Legion." The force of over 1,200 men consisted of a 
mixture of republicans, deserters, royalist prisoners and grenadiers and they were very well 
armed. Some of the officers were Irish. 

The quality of the four ships under Commodore Castagnier was impressive. Le Vengeance and La 



90 



Resistance were two of the largest and newest French frigates; the latter was on her maiden 
voyage. The corvette La Constance and the lugger Vautour were also new. Castagnier's 
instructions were to head for Irish waters after disembarking the soldiers. 

Hoche's instructions undoubtedly asked far too much of this expedition. Having burnt Bristol, 
Britain's second largest city, the force was to land on the Welsh side of the Bristol Channel or 
failing this, in Cardigan Bay and then make for Chester or Liverpool. 

Apart from this, the working classes were to be encouraged to rebel; Britain's trade was to be 

dislocated and French prisoners of war liberated, causing such chaos as to make the invasion of 
Britain possible. Hoche warned Tate that he should not risk battle unless it was absolutely 
essential, since the enemy would have superior forces. 

The squadron left Brest on 16th February 1797. Flying Russian colours they lurked around Lundy, 
sinking a few small craft while waiting for a suitable tide to take them to Bristol. Skillfully 
using the tides to reach Porlock, Castagnier was finally forced to abandon the project because 
of adverse winds. The inhabitants of Ilfracombe sounded the alarm as they passed and the local 
volunteers were mobilised. Following instructions, Tate now insisted on making for Cardigan 
Bay. But there had been several sightings of them and the authorities had been alerted. 

By noon on Wednesday 22nd February, Castagnier was spotted rounding St. David's Head in 
Pembrokeshire, flying British colours. At 4 p.m. the French anchored in perfect weather off 
Carreg Wastad, a rocky headland three miles west of Fishguard. By 2 a.m. on Thursday 23rd 
February, 17 boatloads of troops, 47 barrels of powder, 50 tons of cartridges and grenades and 
2,000 stands of arms had been brought ashore. This was indeed a magnificent feat. A company 
of grenadiers under Irishman, Lieutenant St. Leger rushed a mile inland and took over 
Trehowel Farm, which became Tate's headquarters. La Seconde Legion des Francs had 
succeeded in making the last landing by enemy soldiers on the British mainland. 

When one of the French ships entered Fishguard Bay to reconnoitre, Fishguard Fort fired a blank 
shot. Whether this was the customary signal to a visiting British vessel or the alarm for the 
Fishguard Volunteers, it saved Fishguard! The ship promptly hoisted the French tricolour and 
sailed away to rejoin the others. Although Fishguard Fort had eight nine-pounders, there were 
only three rounds in the magazine and the small port could have easily been taken. 

With the loss of the American colonies in 1783, the last Under-Secretary of State, William Knox, 
decided in 1784 to purchase estates in Pembrokeshire and his mansion at Llanstinan was only 4 
miles from Fishguard. When the Government called for volunteers in the war against the 
French, Knox raised the Fishguard and Newport Volunteer Infantry in 1794, one of the earliest 
in the kingdom. Having raised four companies, totalling nearly three hundred men, it was the 
largest force in the county and his son, Thomas Knox, was appointed Lieutenant Colonel. At 
the time of the French landing, Knox was 28 years old with no combat experience. He was 
attending a social fimction at Tregwjoit Mansion when news of a suspected enemy landing was 
brought to him. Initially he gave it little credence but as the seriousness of the situation dawned 



91 



on him he instructed his Newport Division to march the seven miles to his headquarters at 
Fishguard Fort. 

Lord Cawdor was 30 miles away at Stackpole Court in the far south of the county when he received 
the news. He had been commissioned captain of the Castlemartin Troop of the Pembroke 
Yeomanry Cavalry, which fortunately was assembled for a funeral on the following day. He 
immediately mobilised all the troops at his disposal and crossed the Pembroke Ferry with the 
Pembroke Volunteers and the Cardiganshire Militia. Once across, Cawdor went ahead and met 
Lord Milford, the Lord Lieutenant of the county, who delegated full authority to him. 

Most of the credit for gathering about 400 soldiers and sailors at Haverfordwest was due to the 
energy of Lieutenant Colonel Colby of the Pembrokeshire Militia. Having summoned the 
troops to Haverfordwest, he had galloped the sixteen miles to Fishguard to assess Knox's 
situation. Satisfied that Knox was taking appropriate measures, he returned to Haverfordwest to 
supervise the arrival of the local forces. Captain Longcroft of the navy brought in the press 
gangs and the crews of two revenue cutters at Milford, totalling about 150 sailors. Nine 
cannons were brought ashore, of which six were placed in Haverfordwest castle, and the others 
brought along. Due to Colby's exertions the force under Cawdor set off at noon, 23rd February 
from the Castle Inn, Haverfordwest to reinforce Knox, who was facing the French at Fishguard 
with his Fishguard Volunteers. 

Knox had declared his intention of attacking the following day if he was not heavily outnumbered. 
Colby wrote later that he had suggested placing troops on the heights opposite the French to 
discourage them from moving until reinforcements arrived. Knox denied this but had sent out 
scouting parties to assess the French sfrength. 

The French had moved a further two miles inland and occupied two strong defensive positions at 
Garnwnda and Gamgelli, high rocky outcrops giving an unobstructed view of the surrounding 
countryside. Thus far all had gone well for Tate and his force. 

On the morning of 23rd February, a hundred of Knox's men had still not arrived and he soon learned 
that he was facing an enemy of over 1200 men, who could have been seasoned veterans. This 
was a different proposition to the skirmishing role of their training. Although many inhabitants 
were fleeing the area in panic, hundreds of civilians were flocking into the area armed with a 
variety of crude weaponry. 

Poor Knox faced a dilemma - to attack, to defend Fishguard, or to retreat towards his 

reinforcements, which he knew would be moving towards him from Haverfordwest. He 
decided to retreat slowly towards Haverfordwest. He gave orders to spike the Fort's cannons 
(which the Woolwich Bombadiers refused to carry out) and at about 9 a.m. he set off, sending 
out scouts to keep watch on the French. The Defence Committee at Haverfordwest agreed with 
this decision, which was to have grave repercussions for Knox later. Fishguard was now 
completely at Tate's mercy. 

Knox and his 194 men met the reinforcements led by Lord Cawdor and Colby at Trefgarne, 8 miles 



92 



from Fishguard at 1.30 p.m. Colby was surprised to see him. After a short dispute Cawdor was 
accepted as Commander-in-Chief and he led the British forces back towards Fishguard. 

By 5 p.m. the force had arrived within a mile of Fishguard and Cawdor decided to attack. 
Considering the darkness, this was indeed risky to say the least. 

The 600 men, dragging their cannons, marched up the narrow Trefwrgi Lane, with its high hedges, 
towards the French position on Garngelli. But a French advance party, under Irishman 
Lieutenant St. Leger, had prepared an ambush. A volley poured into the tightly compressed 
column at point blank range would have resulted in heavy casualties. Boxed into the lane, the 
force was in a potential death trap. Seemingly oblivious to this, Cawdor decided to withdraw to 
Fishguard, since they were losing their bearings in the darkness, and avoided the ambush 
awaiting him by a few hundred yards. So the force prepared to spend the night in Fishguard and 
the officers were based in today's Royal Oak Inn. 

However, Tate's fortunes had changed. Many of his foraging parties had resorted to pillaging the 
local farms and Llanwnda Church. Indiscipline was getting out of hand with examples of 
mutinous men threatening their officers. It became obvious to Tate that the local Welsh 
peasants were hostile to his force of 'liberators' and six peasants and soldiers had been killed in 
clashes. Many of the Irish officers were counselling surrender, realising what would be in store 
for them if hostilities continued. The departure of Castagnier's squadron as planned for Ireland 
had shocked and demoralised the men who had seen their escape route vanish over the horizon. 

There is strong evidence that the French were deceived by the appearance in the neighbourhood of 
large numbers of local womenfolk wearing the traditional dress of red shawls and black hats, 
which at a distance resembled infantry uniforms. It is certain that inhabitants over a wide area 
were flocking towards Fishguard to attack the enemy. The formidable local cobbler, Jemima 
Nicholas, captured a dozen demoralised French soldiers and secured them in St. Mary's 
Church. 

That evening, two French delegates arrived at the Royal Oak to negotiate a conditional surrender 
and Tate wrote: 

To the Officer commanding His Britannic Majesty's Troops. 5th. year of the Republic. The 

Circumstances under which the Body of the French Troops under my Command were landed at 
this Place renders it unnecessary to attempt any military operations, as they would tend only to 
Bloodshed and Pillage. We therefore desire to enter into a Negotiation upon Principles of 
Humanity for a surrender. If you are influenced by similar Considerations you may signify the 
same and, in the meantime. Hostilities shall cease. Health and Respect, Tate. 

But Cawdor with magnificent bluff replied that with the superior numbers at his command, which 
were increasing hourly, he would only accept an unconditional surrender and gave an 
ultimatum of 10 a.m. the following morning, otherwise the French would be attacked. 

On the following morning the British force was lined up in battle-order on the high ground 



93 



overlooking Goodwick, reinforced by hundreds of civilians from all parts of the county, to 
await Tate's response. Tate, however, accepted the terms and finally after some delay, at 2 p.m. 
Friday 24th. February 1797, with drums beating but without their banners, the French marched 
down to Goodwick Beach where they stacked their weapons. At 4 p.m. the French prisoners 
were marched through Fishguard on their way to temporary imprisonment in Haverfordwest. 
Later a group of prisoners made a daring escape from the Golden Prison in Pembroke by 
stealing Cawdor's yacht! 

Meanwhile, Cawdor had ridden to Trehowel Farm and received Tate's surrender, although the 
document has been lost. After his surrender and brief imprisonment in Portsmouth, Tate was 
returned to France in a prisoner exchange in 1798. He was involved in bitter wrangling with the 
French authorities and was last mentioned in 1809 when he probably sailed back to America. 

Castagnier had sent Vautour back to France with his dispatches. En route to Ireland the squadron 
sank eleven ships but they dallied too long in Irish waters and La Constance, helping La 
Resistance, crippled by storm damage were intercepted by two British frigates and were 
captured. La Resistance was renamed H.M.S. Fisgard. Castagnier, aboard Le Vengeance, made 
it safely into Brest. 

Undoubtedly Cawdor was the hero of the hour. He, Knox and others were congratulated, received 
the royal gratitude from George III and countless local honours. However, a whispering 
campaign started against Knox. Accused of cowardice and poor judgement his name was 
ruined and eventually he challenged his accuser, Cawdor, to a duel, which was probably not 
fought. 

In 1853 Lord Palmerston conferred upon the Pembroke Yeomanry the battle honour 'Fishguard.' 
This regiment has the unique honour of being the only one in the British Army, regular or 
territorial, that bears the name of an engagement on British soil and it was the first battle 
honour to be awarded to any volunteer unit. 



The French Invasion. 

It was just towards the close of the last century that one of the most interesting and mysterious 

occurrences that ever disturbed the people of this county, and especially of Haverfordwest, look 
place — I mean "the French landing at Fishguard," as we have been accustomed to hear it called. 
The event has long since passed into the region of history; but some of the scenes in it in the 
immediate vicinity — as I have gathered them from the lips, of the folks who well remember 
them I should like if I were able it describe, as they deserve to be. It was in the month of 
February 1797, which country people used to say was the hottest weather ever known at that 
season of the year farmers sowing com being obliged to suspend work at mid-day, on account 
of the exfreme heat that the event happened. None now survive who were old enough at the 
time to notice all the surroundings: but, say forty years ago, there were many people with 



94 



whom one could converse about it. Without any previous warning of impending peril, the 
tidings shot through the county "The French have landed at Fishguard!" As the event turned 
out, there was little to be frightened at; but this was not discovered till afterwards. But the 
amazing heroism of them , and their patriotism, were some of the grand things in connection 
with it. One incident I just remember, and I had it from the mouth of a bystander. A woman 
rushed out into the little garden, where her husband was busily preparing the ground for 
potatoes, and exclaimed in a voice of terror, "John Bowen, John Bowen, the French have 
landed at Fishguard!" Throwing down his spade, declaring he was not going to do work for the 
French, he went into his house, and, reaching down an old fowling piece he happened to have, 
then and there he started out without any more ado to meet the invaders. 

At Nolton a village aboul six miles from Haverfordwest, where there lived an aged clergyman, the 
Rev Moses Grant grandfather of the late Lord Milford, I read the record in the parish register 
there, and I assure my readers, with a thrill of interest, all the able-bodied men immediately left 
their homes for the scene of the expected conflict; and the parson writes: "I assembled all the 
women and children in the church, and we commended ourselves to the protection of Almighty 
God." When the alarm subsided, the enemy, who proved to he a miserable and contemptible 
force, were speedily disarmed, and marched as prisoners to Haverfordwest, where nothing but 
pity and compassion was displayed. Poor, starving wretches, as they were, the townspeople out 
vied each other in ministering to their necessities. They were, of course, imprisoned; but in the 
parish church of St Mary, most of them. So much for this marvel, a matter which became the 
central epoch of a couple of generations — I mean in the way of a local calendar — just, as the 
Norman Conquest still stands in English history. The date when a marriage or birth or death 
took place in a family would be fixed very commonly by its chronological relation to the 
landing of the French at Fishguard. 

After a while the captured foreigners were released on their parole; and a lady told me the other day 
she had heard her father talk of one of them with whom he had often had a game of bowls at 
the bowling-green in front of our castle. He was here known as M. Bertrand, but became the 
attached and faithful companion of Napoleon Bonaparte in his exile, and was with him at his 
death in St. Helena. 

As is always the case after such an occurrence, numberless stories were circulated in reference to 
the affair. 

One report was, that when the commander of the French force discovered the want of strategy 
displayed by the officer in command of the forces who disputed his advance inland, in 
afterwards placing his troops between the naked cliffs and the foe, whence they might have 
been easilyswept, he gnashed his teeth, and declared, had he known his incapacity, he never 
would have surrendered. 

Another story was, that when the French saw what appeared to be the immense number of troops on 
the heights, where the Welsh women, clad in bright scarlet "whittles' (a local name for shawls), 
showed up, they were seized with panic, and called on their officers to surrender. The only 



95 



forces available on the spot were the Castle Martin Yeomanry led by Lord (afterwards Earl) 
Cawdor, and to them was granted the distinction of having the word "Fishguard" inscribed on 
their standard and on their uniform, as the troops which were engaged at Waterloo have that 
never forgotten name inscribed on theirs. 

Some.' interesting evidence of the patriotic part Haverfordwest men played when the French landed 
at Fishguard was discovered in recent years amongst some papers in the offices of Messrs 
Eaton Evans and Williams, Solicitors of Haverfordwest, in the form of an old Moore's Diary 
for 1797. The diary has endorsed on it, "James Jones of the parish of St Martins in the Town 
and County of Haverfordwest Gent." Among the entries are the following: 



1797 Feby. 22nd "1400 French landed at Pencare," 



do 23rd. "Went with Lord Cawdor's Cavalry, part of the Cardigan Militia, Fishguard and Pembroke 
Fencibles, and about 300 Haverfordwest Volunteers, in the whole about 800 armed men to 
attack the French, but did not come to battle. Night coming on, rendavoused af Fishguard that 
night at nine." 

do 24th "At about 2 p.m.the French surrendered prisoners of war and laid down their arm- on 
Goodick sand, and marched into Haverfordwest that nigh! by 12 o'clock." do 25th "A few 
prisoners with 5 officers brot in and 36 officers marched off for England." 

do 26th "5 officers sent off for England." 

do 27th "658 prisoners embark al Milford for England." 

"Mr .J. Thomas taken up and imprisoned for High Treason. Hope he'll be shot if guilty." 
do 24th (an additional note) 

"Al the time of the surrendor of the French, on a moderate calculation, there were 43000 men 
women and children in and near Fishguard, among which there were at least 8000 armed, viz 
2000 with fire arms, the others with Pikes, Picks, Sc5^hes, and other weapons." 

[The foregoing is a literal copy of Mr Jones' entries with the quaint spelling unaltered]. 



Acc/to Journal 1885 Vol XLl of the Congress of British Archaeological Society 

1797 Feb 17th a force sailed from Brest consisting of a lugger and a corvette escorted by two 

frigates containing several hundred released jailbirds and galley slaves under the command of 



96 



an American adventurer named Colonel Tate ordered by the Directory to land and "bum Bristol 
the second city in England for riches and commerce" and thereafter to land in Wales, march 
across the mountains and do the same to Chester and Liverpool. 

The raiders sailed into the Bristol Channel and turned tail when they say what they thought was a 
warship ( it was the Dublin packet boat) then went to Fishguard where they anchored on Feb 
22nd 

The force landed in a rocky cove below Carregwastad Point 

The Vessels had been sited, and the alarm raised.. Lord Cawder mustered the Castlemartin 

Yeomanry, Cardigan Militia and Fishguard Volunteers (Local militia units) and they marched 
seaward from the village of Llanwnda followed, it is said, by the women of the area wearing 
their red cloaks. Although the French outnumbered the militia 3 to 1 on seeing the advancing 
militia Colonel Tate ordered his men to stand firm then went forward and surrendered himself 
and his army to Lord Cawder unconditionally "upon principles of humanity". The main 
problem of the volunters was preventing the enraged Welsh villagers from cutting the throats of 
the French prisoners as they were marched of to jail. 

Acc/to Roger Worsley. 

25 of the imprisoned French captured after the invasion at Fishguard "chatted up" some girls in 
Pembroke and enlisted their aid in escaping. Two local girls Eleaner Martin and Ann Beach fell 
for some of the French and helped them escape. The French dug a tunnel and the girls took 
away the spoil in yoked tubs pretending it to be sewage. The tunnel was over 60yds long. They 
all then got away by stealing the yacht belonging to Lord Cawder. 

Fifty Six years later Queen Victoria awarded the battle honour "Fishguard" to the Yeomanry, and it 
remains the only one given to a British Army unit for opposition to an enemy force within the 
British Isles. The Pembroke Yeomanry also has battle honours for:"South Africa, 1901" "Egypt, 
1916/17", "Gaza", "Jerusalem, "Jericho", Tel Asur", "Palestine, 1917-18", Somme, 1918", 
Bapaume 1918", "Hindenburg Line", "Epehy", "Pursuit to Mons" and "France and 
Flanders, 191 8". 



Fishguard names for Jottings 

Griffith Moses 1872 Manorowen Fishguard County Magistrates of Pembrokeshire - . 
Harries Hugh Lloyd 1872 Cefendref Fishguard County Magistrates of Pembrokeshire 



97 



Worthington John 1 872 Glynamcl Fishguard County Magistrates of Pembrokeshire - 

ap Gwilym H L 1842 Haverfordwest Author - An Authentic Account of the hivasion by the 

French Troops French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Acklandl797 Feb 22 Llanion Major Fencible infantry French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - 
Arch Camb 1883 

Bowen James 1797 Feb 22 Trehowel tried and transported for Horse stealing was recognised and 
was said to have piloted the French to Carreg Gwastad point. French Landing at Fishguard -E 
Laws -Arch Camb 1883 

Bowen 1797 Feb 22 Fynondrudion Mr informed Mr E Laws that his grandfather had seen the 
prisoners go by and one of his maid servants recognised one who called out " le a th5aia Catrin 
Trerhonw hefyd" French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Bowen Daniel 20 January 1796 Fishguard, Yeoman Offence Assault. Fishguard, Prosecutor 
David Mary Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Bowen Daniel 5 August 1798 Fishguard, Yeoman Offence Assault. Fishguard, Prosecutor Williams 
Thomas, Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

Bowen Daniel 20 June 1799 Fishguard, Mariner Offence Rescue of livestock impounded by Evans, 
Maria Fishguard. Indicted with his wife. Fishguard, Prosecutor Knox, William esq Verdict No true 
bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Bowen Frances 20 June 1799 Fishguard, Married Offence Rescue of livestock impounded by 
Evans Maria, Fishguard. Indicted with her Husband, Fishguard, Prosecutor Knox William, esq 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Bowen John 1858 Bishop of Sierra Leone, the son of Captain Thomas, Bowen of the 85th Foot, 
was bom at Court, near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, and educated at Haverfordwest. He sailed for 
Canada, and farmed land at Danville, on the shores of Lake Erie, for seven years, returning to Wales 
in 1842. He entered himself at Trinity College, Dublin, and graduated B.A- in 1847, and LL.B. and 
LL.D. ten years later. He was ordained priest in 1847.He inherited considerable Property after an 
uncle died, and this enabled him to devote himself to missionary work. Under the auspices of the 
Church of England Missionary Society he visited Jerusalem, Syria, Cairo, Mogul, Smyrna, and 
other centres. In 1857 he was consecrated Bishop of Sierra Leone, and sailed for his diocese in 
November of that year, but the deadly climate claimed him as a victim in about 1 8 mouths 
afterwards, and he died at Freetown, the capital of the colony, n 28th May, 1858 Eminent Welshmen 

Bowling 1842 Major - The only surviving officer of the Castlemartin Yeomanry Cavalry present at 
the surrender French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws -^rc/z Camb 1883 

de Cantington Jordan —Fenton says that Fishguard was granted by Martin de Tours to de 
Cantington Jordan 1246 and by him, after his ill government thereof, to St. Dogmaels Abbey." 



98 



There is no trace of any Jordan de Cantington contemporary with Martin, and the donation to St. 
Dogmael was by William the son of Jordan. 

Cawder 1797 Feb 22 Stackpole Lord "heard in the middle of Wednesday night and with the 
Castlemartin Yeomanry Cavalry, Cardiganshire Militia, in Pembrokeshire set off." French Landing 
at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Cawdor Lord 22 Feb 1797 . Castlemartin Yeomanry commanded 750 local men French landing 
near Fishguard —1811 July stopped smuggling Manorbier Castle nearly killed in the attempt. 

Colby 1797 Feb 22 Colonel French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Cuny Richard 1613 signed his pedigree for Dwnn in 1613. Some eight generations of the family 
remained in the county for two and a quarter centuries, seemingly the last in the male line was the 
Cuny Rev. John Powell 1820-25 rector of St. Brides who died unmarried. On Colby's map of 1831 
are marked Golden Hill and adjacent Golden Farm. There is a suggestion that after the French 
Invasion at Fishguard, some of the French prisoners were held here and escaped with the aid of 
local girls. 

David James 23 January 1 825 Alias James Davies Fishguard Labourer Offence Burglary of 
prosecutor's house and stealing money there from Prisoner aged 15 St David's Prosecutor Williams 
Thomas Fishguard mariner Verdict Guilty Punishment Death recorded Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 

David John 14 May 1764 Fishguard ? Mason Offence Theft of wearing apparel Llandaf Glamorgan 
Verdict Guilty to the value of 4/- Punishment Transported for 7 years Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 

David John 23 January 1790 Fishguard Labourer Offence Burglary of prosecutor's house and 
stealing food Llanrhian Prosecutor Davies William esq Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730- 
1830 

David Llewellyn Fishguard Yeoman Offence Conspiring to marry Evan Thomas otherwise David 
Thomas 20 December 1816a poor man legally settled in Llansteffan Carm with Means Lettice a 
poor woman legally settled in Fishguard so as to relieve the owners of Fishguard from maintaining 
the said Lettice Fishguard Prosecutor Davies David Verdict No true bill Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 

David Mary 7 August 1792 Fishguard Married Offence Riot and assault on Wigley John surveyor 
Fishguard Prosecutor Stokes John Rees Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Davies Peter 1842 Fishguard Innkeeper served in the Fishguard Fencibles French Landing at 
Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Davies William 1797 Feb 22 Captain who had fought at Bunkers Hill drew up the troops so as to 



99 



deceive the French as to their numbers French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Davies David 8 April 1 822 Fishguard Labourer Offence Pickpocketing money and a purse from the 
person of Thomas Sarah being the goods of the prosecutor Fishguard Prosecutor Thomas John 
Verdict Guilty Punishment 1 year imprisonment Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

Davis Daisy 1827 bom abt Fishguard Pembrokeshire Died 1 Jan 1850 Aberdare Glamorgan 
Married to Davis David Thomas on Abt 1 846 at Dowlais Glamorganshire Mormon Records for 
Pembrokeshire 

de Tours Martin Aberwaun Fishguard 

Edwardes 1797 Feb 22 Hon Captain aide-de-camp to Lord Cawder French Landing at Fishguard - 
E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Edwards Mary 30 August 1824 Fishguard Widow Offence Riot and destroying walls and cottages, 
Fishguard Prosecutor Hamlet, Thomas, esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830, 

Evans David Rees 13 Aug 1818 born Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, Wales died 3 Jan 1861 Brigham 
City, Box Elder, Utah Left Liverpool on 17 Oct 1 850 aboard the Joseph Badger Arrived in New 
Orleans on 23 Nov 1850 Marriages Married to Lloyd, Winnifred on 8 Jul 1853 at Brigham City, 
Box Elder, Utah —Children— John Lloyd, Roberts, David Evans, Charles Evans, Lorenzo Evans 

Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Evans Morgan 1830-1899 a joumalist and specialist in live stock and agricultural subjects, was a 
native of South Wales, and died at Fishguard. In 1 870, in conjunction with the well-known 
veterinary expert, the late Professor Gamgee, he started a paper entitled "A Milk Journal," which 
had for its object the drawing of the attention of Parliament to the then wholesale adulteration of 
milk. Their efforts were speedily successful, as, in 1872, milk was placed within the scope of the 
"Adulteration of Foods Act." C. & D. Herald. Eminent Welshmen 

Fenton Elizabeth 30 August 1824 Fishguard Widow Offence Riot and destroying walls and 
cottages, Fishguard Prosecutor Hamlet, Thomas, esq, Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Fenton Ferrar 1900 Esq. .Fishguard, Pembrokeshire ^rcA Camb 1900 

Fenton Jas 1829 Gljoiamel Fishguard Subscriber Cambrian Quarterly Magazine Voll 1829 

Fenton John 1847 "Gljoi Ammel, Fishguard " Appointed member of the Committee Arch Camb 
1847 

Fenton John 1848 July 24 Fishguard- Llanwnda Article on the cromlech ^rcA Camb 1848 
Fenton John 1864 Glynymel Fishguard Obituary ^rcA Cambl864 

Fenton Richard 1746- 1821 the author, was bom at St David's Pembrokeshire, and received his 
early education at the Cathedral School. He subsequently entered the Middle Temple, and there 



100 



studied for the legal profession. He afterwards practised at the Irish, English, and Welsh, bar, both in 
North and South Wales. During his stay in the Metropolis he met Dr. Johnson, and was on intimate 
terms with Goldsmith and David Garrick. He was a good Greek, Latin, and French scholar, The 
last twenty or thirty years of his life were devoted to literary pursuits. He was a very intimate friend 
of Sir Richard Hoare, at whose suggestion he undertook arid published his "Historical Tour 
through Pembrokeshire," London, 1810, a work of high character, containing much interesting 
information. He also wrote "A Tour in quest of Genealogy," 1811, 8vo. and the "Memoirs of an Old 
Wig," both of which were published anonjmiously He also wrote a very caustic reply to the 
strictures of Dr. Burgess, bishop of St David's on his " Historical Tour." An " Index to the Historical 
Tour," compiled by Henry Owen, was published in 1894. He is described by one who knew him as " 
a man of indefatigable industry, of a fine poetical fancy, of a very cheerful disposition, of 
particularly gentlemanly and fascinating manner, and a person of the best information, almost on 
every subject, he ever knew." He married the daughter of Fillet David, a Swiss military officer, the 
personal friend of the second duke of Mallborough, who brought him over, and induced him to 
settle in this country. By her he had a family who survived him. He died at the age of seventy- five, 
in November, 1821, and was buried at Manorowen near Fishguard. — Eminent Welshmen -R 
Williams 

George Ann Fishguard, 30 August 1824 Widow Offence Riot and destroying walls and cottages, 
Fishguard, Prosecutor Hamlet, Thomas esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830, 

George Anne 1797 Feb 22Trehowel farm servant to Mr Mortimer rescued his silver spoons and 
then fled French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Griffith David 19 March 1796 Fishguard, Mariner Offence Assault. Fishguard, Prosecutor 
Williams Mary Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

Griffith Mary 30 May 1803 Fishguard, Married Offence Assault. Fishguard, Prosecutor Lewis, 
Mariah spinster Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Griffith Moses 30 Apr 1789 of Manor-Owen near Fishguard. JP and Dep Lieut for Pembrokeshire 
— Sheriff - formally in the army Medical department bom at Po5aitz castle unmarried 

Griffiths , John 28 June 1811 Fishguard, Yeoman Offence Assault on Prosser Elizabeth, 
prosecutor's wife, Newport, co, Pemb,, Prosecutor Prosser,William Llanrhian, tailor Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Griffiths John 30 August 182 Fishguard, Labourer Offence Riot and destroying walls and cottages, 
Fishguard, Prosecutor Hamlet,Thomas esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830, 

Griffiths Martha abt 1803 born Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 2 Oct 1865 Haverfordwest 
Pembrokeshire Married to White, William on 25 Oct 1825 at Fishgaurd, Pembrokshire, South 
Wales Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 



101 



Griffiths Owen 1 842 Fishguard Schoolmaster served in the Fishguard Fencibles - French landing 
at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Harries Elizabeth 1 May 1772 Fishguard Married Offence Assault and rescue of Humphreys 
,David Fishguard, mariner, from bailiffs' custody Fishguard Prosecutor Williams William, 
clergjmian Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Harris Martha 27 August 1824 Fishguard Spinster Offence Riot and destroying walls, Fishguard 
Prosecutor Hamlet Thomas esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830, 

Hughes John 27 August 1 824 Fishguard Gent, Offence Riot and desfroying walls, Fishguard 
Prosecutor Hamlet Thomas , esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730- 
1830, 

Humphreys David 1 May 1772 Fishguard Mariner Offence Assault and rescue of himself from 
bailiffs' custody Fishguard Prosecutor William Williams, clergjmian Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 

Humphreys John 1 May 1772 Fishguard Mariner Offence Assault and rescue of Humphreys, 
David Fishguard, mariner, from bailiffs' custody Fishguard Prosecutor Williams William, 
clergyman Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

James 1797 Feb 22 Colonel French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

James Davis abt 1842 bom Fishguard Pembrokeshire Left Liverpool, England on 22 Oct 1881 
aboard the Wisconsin Arrived in New York, New York on 2 Nov 1881 Married to White, Elizabeth 
on 19 Mar 1870 Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Jenkins Hannah 5 Sep 1787 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 30 Mar 1854 Mississippi River Left 
Liverpool on 4 Feb 1 854 aboard the Golconda Arrived in New Orleans on 1 8 Mar 1 854 Married to 
Nicholas William on 28 Dec 1813 at Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, Wales Mormon Records for 
Pembrokeshire 

John Daniel 4 March 1817 Henry's Moat Labourer Offence Theft of sheep. Prisoner aged 42, 
Apprehended at Fishguard, Henry's Moat Prosecutor David Thomas , Maenclochog Verdict Guilty, 
Punishment Death recorded Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

John Mary 2 August 1774 Fishguard Married Offence Assault. Fishguard Prosecutor Evan Mary 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Jones James 7 August 1792 Fishguard Corviser Offence Riot and assault on Wigley John 
surveyor. Indicted with his wife. Fishguard Prosecutor Stokes,John Rees Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 

Jones Jemima 7 August 1792 Fishguard Married Offence Riot and assault on John Wigley 

surveyor. Indicted with her husband. Fishguard Prosecutor John Rees Stokes, Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



102 



Knox Thomas 1797 Colonel of Llanstinan commanded his father's regiment of fencibles who 
retreated from the French landing at Fishguard. Ordered to resign his Commission by Lord Milford 
in the name of the King 

The three Invalid soldiers were sent to man the Fisguard garrison Gun platform — were little use 
when the French landed as they only had three rounds of ammunition — but they refiised 
indignantly to leave their post or to spike their guns when Colonel Knox, in command of the 
Fishguard Fencibles marched his men smartly away from the scene of action. 

Llewhellin Martha 30 August 1824 Fishguard Spinster Offence Riot and destroying walls and 
cottages, Fishguard Prosecutor Hamlet Thomas , esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Malefant Walter 1268&1278approx,1290 November 6 the son of Malefant Walter married 
FitzHenry Joan, daughter of Henry Fitz Henry the son was, about 1268, a witness to the grant of 
Fishguard" by William de Cantinton to St. Dogmael's Abbey, to Roger Mortimer's charter to 
Thomas, de la Roche," and some ten years later, to Thomas, de la Roche's charter to Pill Priory. 
charter roll 18 Edward 1ml Cal p 373 1290 November 6 Clipston. 

Manselll797 Feb 22 Pembroke Dr - posted bills all over the County offering 500 Guineas for the 
recovery of the two traitorous women who had helped the French Prisoners to escape from Golden 
Hill Pembroke French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Mathias Davidl738-1812, was a shopkeeper of Fishguard, Pembrokeshire. He had a daughter 
Grace 

Mathias Graced. 1834 She had inherited various estates in Fishguard from her aunt 

Milford 1797 Feb 22 Castle Lord Lieutenant of Pembrokeshire was too infirm but followed with 
reinforcements French Landing at Fishguard - E 'Lsms-Arch Camb 1883 

Millingchamp 1797 Feb 22 yeoman who carried the flag of truce for Capt Edwardes French 
Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Morgan David 30 August 1824 Fishguard Mason Offence Riot and destroying walls and cottages, 
Fishguard Prosecutor Hamlet, Thomas, esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830, 

Morris John Stephen bom 7 Nov 1838 Manorowen Mill nr Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 5 Jan 
1928 Deathplace, Portage, Box Elder County, Utah Marriages, Married to Williams, Esther on 20 
Jan 1 865 at Salt Lake City, Utah , Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Mortimer 1797 Feb 22 Trehowel farm Thought the frigates were King Georges ships and had a 
supper prepared for the Officers -He managed to escape in time. Trehowel became the Headquarters 
of General Tate of the French invasion force. French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 
1883 



103 



Mortimer G T 1870 Fishguard Rev MA-Court Fishguard-- Member Arch Camb 1870 

Mortimer Mary 30 August 1824 Fishguard Widow Offence Riot and destroying walls and cottages 
Fishguard Prosecutor Hamlet, Thomas, esq, Verdict No true bill, Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830, 

Mortimer . T. G 1900 Rev M. A. The Court. Fishguard, Arch Camb 1900 

Powell Richard 1604 Sep 10 Newport of Fishguard plea of debt against Thomas Phillips of 

Fishguard gent 

Lloyd Thomas 1611 July 8 of Fishguard plea for trespass against Hugh Thomas of Newport clerk 
regarding a lease to Griffith ap Rees 

Nicholas David born 3 Oct 1822 Fishguard Pembrokshire died 9 Jul 1895 Moroni Sanpete County 
Utah Left Liverpool on 4 Feb 1854 aboard the Golconda Arrived in New Orleans on 18 Mar 1854 
Married to Cadoret, Mary on 12 Sep 1860 at Spanish Fork, Utah, Utah Mormon Records for 
Pembrokeshire 

Nicholas Jemima 1797 .reputed to have rounded up a group of Frenchmen with a pitchfork 

H.L. Williams, who was present as a member of the Fishguard Volunteers, writing his memoirs 
describe her actions: "On her approach she saw in a field, about twelve Frenchmen; undaunted 
she advanced to them, and whether alarmed al her courage, or persuaded by her, she conducted 
them to and confined them in, the guard house in Fishguard Church," Early accounts place this 
in a field in the Henner area, above Goodwick. 

In 1 832, the Vicar of Saint Mary's, Samuel Fenton, noted on her burial record: "This woman was 
called Jemima Fawr or Jemima the Great from her heroine acts, she having marched against 
the French who landed hereabout in 1797 and being of such personal powers as to be able to 
overcome most men in a fight. I recollect her well. She followed the trade of a shoemaker and 
made me, when a little boy, several pairs of shoes." 

Nicholas Jemima 30 August 1824 Fishguard Spinster Offence Riot and destroying walls and 
cottages, Fishguard Prosecutor Hamlet Thomas, esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Nicholas John born 12 Aug 1815 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 18 Jun 1878 Malad Oneida Idaho 
Married to Morgan, Mary Ann on Abt. 1 857 at Spanish Fork, Utah, Utah Mormon Records for 
Pembrokeshire 

Nicholas Martha bom 16 Aug 1819 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 18 Jun 1947 Hanelly Married 
to Ormond, William Charles Jenkins on 10 Dec 1897 at Logan , Cache, Utah Mormon Records 
for Pembrokeshire 

Nicholas William born 12 May Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 30 Apr 1865 Brigham City Box 
Elder County Utah Left Liverpool on 4 Feb 1854 aboard the Golconda Arrived in New Orleans on 



104 



18 Mar 1854 Married to Jenkins, Hannah on 28 Dec 1813 at Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, Wales 
Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Owen Ann 30 August 1824 Fishguard Spinster Offence Riot and destroying walls and cottages 
Fishguard Prosecutor Thomas Hamlet, esq. Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830, 

Owen David 20 December 1816 Fishguard Yeoman Offence Conspiring to marriedy Thomas, 
Evan otherwise Thomas David , a poor man legally settled in Llansteffan, Carm,, with Means 
Lettice, a poor woman legally settled in Fishguard so as to relieve the oners of Fishguard trom 
maintaining the said Lettice, Fishguard 20 December 1816 Prosecutor Davies David Verdict No 
true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830, 

Potter Joseph 1842 Haverfordwes Printer — An Authentic Account of the Invasion by the French 
Troops French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Protheroe Schaw 1882 Fishguard Miss of Brjaiting Goodwick - drawing and rubbing of an 
unusual gravestone Arch Camb 1882 

Rees David bom 6 Jan 1837 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 2 Dec 1916 Left Liverpool on 17 Apr 
1855 aboard the Chimborazo Arrived in Philadelphia on 22 May 1855 Mormon Records for 
Pembrokeshire 

Rees Joseph Alexander born 14 Aug 1840 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 21 Mar 1922 Santaquin 
Utah Left Liverpool on 17 Apr 1855 aboard the Chimborazo Arrived in Philadelphia on 22 May 
1855 , Married to Jenldns, Mary Ann on 21 Feb 1863 at Utah Married to Hassel, Christina 
Amelia on 24 Jun 1872 at Salt Lake City Married to Blixt, Caroline on 2 Jun 1904 at Santaquin, 
Utah County, Utah Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Rees William 1800-1802 Dinas Pembrokeshire died 19 Mar 1875 Fishguard Pembrokeshire Left 
Liverpool on 17 Apr 1855 aboard the Chimborazo Arrived in Philadelphia on 22 May 1855 Married 
to Evans, Elizabeth Leyshon on 30 Jun 1830 at Bridge End, Glamorgan Wales ,Mormon Records 
for Pembrokeshire 

Richard Ebenezer , 1781-1837 , a Calvinistic methodist minister, was bom at Trefm, 
Pembrokeshire, and when about eighteen years of age he left his father's house, and opened a day 
school at Dinas, near Fishguard. He was ordained in 181 1, and two years later became secretary of 
the general association of the connexion in South Wales. Eminent Welshmen 

Richardson Arthur 1797 Feb 22 St David's the organist - on hearing the report Arthur 
Richardson rode of and informed the Mayor of Haverfordwest - He completed the journey it is 
said in 45 minutes French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Roach John 1797 Feb 22 Lythir one night soon after reported hearing boats near Y Gesial Vawr - 

rushed to St David's with the report French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch 

Camb 1883 



105 



Sampson Elizabeth 30 August 1824 Fishguard Married Offence Riot and destroying walls and 
cottages, Fishguard Prosecutor Hamlet Thomas esq, Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830, 



Shadrach Azariah 1774-1814, a Congregational minister, author, and hymn- writer, was bom at 
Fishguard, Pembrokeshire. He had but little schooling, but at an early age he entered the employ of 
the Rev. John Richards , the pastor of the Congregationalists at Trefgam, who allowed him free 
access to his library, and in this way he acquired considerable knowledge. He entered the ministry, 
and laboured successfully at Hirnant and Llanrwst, in North Wales, afterwards removing to 
Llanbadam, Cardiganshire. Eminent Welshmen 

Shirburn John 1298 who, as sheriff of Pembroke, witnessed the confirmation by Nicholas Fitz 
Martin of the grant of Fishguard to St. Dogmael's. 

Stephen Manhant 1779 .American privateer bombarded Aberwaun Fishguard 

Summons George 27 August 1824 Fishguard Labourer Offence Riot and destroying walls, 
Fishguard Prosecutor Thomas Hamlet, esq. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Symonds William 22 November 1 820 Alias William Summon Fishguard Labourer Offence Theft 
of a plank. Prisoner aged 20, Fishguard Prosecutor Richards, Henry Verdict No true bill. Before 
the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Tate William 22 Feb 1797. General commanded French invasion Force 1400 men landing near 
Fishguard 

Thomas 1797 Feb 22 Mathry visited his relatives house at Penrhew which was occupied by the 
French who relieved him of his valuables but then let him go French Landing at Fishguard - E 
Laws -Arch Camb 1883 

Thomas Ann 5 June 1 800 Fishguard Married Offence Theft of sheep belonging to the prosecutor, 
John Evan, Morfil,Husbandman and his son Owen Evan, Morfil, farmer from Preseli Mountain. 
Her husband indicted with receiving the same. Accomplice indicted separately for the same offence 
- Mynachlog-ddu Prosecutor Evan Thomas Morfil, farmer Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730- 
1830 

Thomas John 6 June 1800 Fishguard Husbandman Offence Receiving stolen sheep. Fishguard 
Prosecutor Evan, Thomas Morfil, farmer Verdict Guilty. Punishment Transported for 14 years 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Thomas Joseph 20 December 1816 Fishguard Yeoman Offence Conspiring to marry Thomas 
Evan, otherwise Thomas David , a poor man legally settled in Llansteffan, Carm,, with Means, 
Lettice a poor woman legally settled in Fishguard so as to relieve the oners of Fishguard from 
maintaining the said Lettice, Fishguard Prosecutor Davies David Verdict No true bill. Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



106 



Thomas Martha 7 August 1792 Fishguard Married Offence Riot and assault on John Wigley 
surveyor. Fishguard Prosecutor Stokes, John Rees Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 

Twigg Sarah born 7 Nov 1834 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 15 Dec 1918 Rigby Jefferson Idaho 
Left Liverpool on 2 Jun 1869 aboard the Minnesota Arrived in New York City on 15 Jun 1869 
Married to Summers, Stephen James on 20 Apr 1857 at Sutton, Pembrokeshire Married to Evans, 
George Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Vaughan Dan 1797 Feb 22 Colonel French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws -^rc/? Camb 1883 

Vaughan George 1797 Feb 22 Colonel French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Vmcent Henry James 1865 June 1 1 St Dogmaels Obituary Rev. Bom Fishguard 1799 June 19 
educated at St David's and Haverfordwest Grammer Schoolmarried Miss Jones who died in 1 83 1 - 
sine prole- Arch Camb 1865 

Walter Morris died in 1593 and was buried at St Mary's Haverforwest on the 27 June 1593 His 
father was John Walter and mother Alson Mendus of Fishguard. Morris was Mayor of 
Haverfordwest 1579 and 1587 

White Elizabeth bom 14 Oct 1876 Fishguard Pembrokeshire Left Liverpool, England on 22 Oct 
1881 aboard the Wisconsin Arrived in New York, New York on 2 Nov 1881 Married to Davison 
James , 19 Mar 1870 Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

White Eunice born abt 1830 Fishguard Pembrokeshire Married to White, William on 22 Aug 1888 
Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

White Jane bom 28 Oct 1839 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 4 Jan 1913 Left Liverpool on 1 1 May 
1860 aboard the William Tapscott Arrived in New York on 15 Jun 1860 Married to Miles, Edward 
David on 8 Feb 1860 at Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

White Mary Gilmore born 27 Dec 1837 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 30 Oct 1898 Paradise 
Cache Utah Married to Jackson, Henry Clark on 4 May 1861 at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah 
Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

White William born 19 Jan 1794 Prendergast Pembrokeshire died 19 Nov 1874 Paradise Cache 
Utah Left Liverpool on 29 Jan 1 849 aboard the Zetland Arrived in New Orleans on 2 Apr 1 849 
Married to Griffiths, Martha on 25 Oct 1 825 at Fishguard, Pembrokshire, South Wales Mormon 
Records for Pembrokeshire 

White William born 21 Sep 1826 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 11 Dec 1905 Salt Lake City Left 
Liverpool on 28 Jun 1876 aboard the Idaho Arrived in New York on 10 Jul 1876 Married to 
Thomas Ann on 1 Oct 1854 at Haroldston-St. Issells, Pembrokeshire Married to White, Eunice on 
22 Aug 1888 Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Whitesides 1797 Feb 22 Solva Liverpool contractor for the erection of the Smalls Lighthouse 



107 



Raised a force from the Solva sailers French Landing at Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

William Mary 7 August 1792 Fishguard Spinster Offence Riot and assault on John Wigley 
surveyor Fishguard Prosecutor Stokes John Rees, Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830 

William Owen 7 August 1792 Fishguard Innkeeper Offence Riot and assault on Wigley John 
surveyor. Fishguard Prosecutor Stokes, John Rees Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

William Owen 7 August 1792 Fishguard Yeoman Offence Assault. Fishguard Prosecutor Morse 
Joshua Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Williams 1797 Feb 22 Llandegigge Yeoman - escort to the flag of truce French Landing at 
Fishguard - E Laws - Arch Camb 1883 

Williams Ann 5 June 1800 Fishguard Married Offence Theft of sheep belonging to the prosecutor, 
John Evan, Morfil, Husbandman and his son Owen Evan, Morfil, farmer from Preseli Mountain. 
Prisoner aged 40. Accomplice indicted separately for the same offence Mynachlog-ddu Prosecutor 
Thomas Evan, Morfil, farmer Verdict guilty. Punishment Death, pardoned, transported for 7 years 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

William Esther born 27 Dec 1814 Fishguard Pembrokeshire died 11 Jul 1888 Sah Lake City Utah 
Left Liverpool on 14 Jul 1868 aboard the Colorado Arrived in New York on 28 Jul 1868 Married to 
Twigg, George on 1830 Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Williams Gilbert born 17 Oct 1830 Fishguard Pembrokeshire Married to Williams Elizabeth on 
Abt. 1850 at , Carmarthenshire, South Wales Married to Williams Jane Mormon Records for 
Pembrokeshire 

Williams Joseph Smith bom 25 Sep 1 852 Fishguard Pembrokeshire Married to Manning, 
Rebecca E. on 15 Mar 1876 at Salt Lake City, Utah Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Williams Mary 1797 Feb 22 wounded by a gunshot then maltreated probably by drunken men - 
given a pension of £40 per annum which she was still in reciept of in 1 842 French Landing at 
Fishguard - E Law -^rc/? Camb 1883 

Williams Owen 20 January 1796 Fishguard Innholder/mariner Offence Assault. Fishguard 
Prosecutor David Mary Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Williams Thomas 1797 Feb 22 Trelythin Old Sailer settled as a farmer and JP sighted a lugger and 
3 men of war and roused the St David's men to the French invasion fleet. French Landing at 
Fishguard - E Laws -Arch Camb 1883 

Williams William 10 September 1776 Fishguard Clergyman Offence Assault. 

Fishguard Prosecutor Martha Davies widow Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



108 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

Parish of Fishguard This is a maritime parish, and the people are somewhat divided in 
employment accordingly. Labourers in the town of Fishguear get 9d a day and their food; in the 
country about 4d(?) per day with their food and other perquisites; from Is to Is 6d per day on their 
own finding. The earnings of the quay porters could hardly be estimated. There were 8 boats 
belonging to the town. The fishing was mainly done by the women. The landed proprietors are not 
resident. The principal one Sir James Cockburn had offered a site for a national school, but no 
active steps had been taken towards establishing one at the time of my visit. I did not find a single 
school of pubnlic institution for the poor in the place. The rising generation were said in general to 
be able to read Welsh. The registrers were mostly signed with a mark. The Vicar during my stay, 
kindly ascetained the following particulars respecting children in various parts of the parish who 
were attending no school at all between the ages of 3 and 12 years of age, a total of 163. He 
considered that in any plan of education it would be necessary to bear in mind the very short period 
during which the parents could afford to let their children remain at school. Wm Morris Assistant 

Mr Barzey's school Market Street. The schoolroom is a small room in the master's dwelling 
house. The furniture consists of three desks and five benches but there are no maps. The master was 
ill and unavble to attend school, and the scholars were not present. The scholars are principally 
mariners, mechanics, and small tradesmens children Some copybooks were well written 22°'' 
January 1847 Wm Morris Assistant 

Miss Evan's School Tower Hill The mistress lives with her parents. The schoolroom is in their 
house. The furniture consisted of two tables and five benches - no maps or prints. The mistress 
spoke Englis very correctly. The scholars are the children of tradesmen and mechanics. Only one 
little boy , learning Fennings Spelling Book, was present this afternoon. January 22 1 847 Wm 
Morris Assistant. 

Miss Griffiths School, Hottipas The late father of the mistress used to keep this school. The room 
is well adapted for school purposes: but the floor, walls , windows and part of the roof are in bad 
repair. It is well lighted. The furniture consisted of four desks and seven benches. 

The mistress spoke English correctly; she teaches fancy needlework. The second chapter of St 
Matthew was read, and three scholars could answer the questions proposed by the mistress from the 
chapter correctly. The one present in arithmetic reduced £20 16s 6 /4 d to farthings very quickly and 
calculated 20 lbs at 1 Id correctly — January 22°'' 1 847 Wm Morris Assistant 

Mr Griffiths School Main Street The schoolroom is a small room in the master's dwelling house. 
In the room are one master's desk, three desks fastened round the walls, one chair, and seven 
benches. 

Mechanics and mariners children were the scholars; few were present 



109 



They read part of the fourth chapter of St John's Gospel - only one read with ease. The master said 
they were not used to be questioned on their reading, as they were of different religious 
denominations. The copy books were indifferently written January 22°'' 1847 Wm Morris 
Assistant 

Mr Jones's School, Lower Town The schoolroom is part of a dwelling house. It contained three 
desks and six benches in bad repair. 

The master said "They learns the Church Catechism as soon as they comes to read". The few 
scholars are children of mariners and labourers - None were present. 



Mr Rees's school near the Baptist Chapel. The schoolroom is the property of the Baptist 
Congregation, for which Mr Rees pays a yearly rent. The building is in good repair and well lighted. 
The furniture consists of six desks, a masters desk, and eight benches, but no maps of any 
description or prints were hanging on the walls. The only maps which the scholars see are those 
which are in the geographical books used in the school. The master was brought up in Carmarthen 
Presbyterian College, and hs devoted his whole life to the duties of a schoolmaster. His pupils are 
the children of respectable farmers and tradesmen, but few of them had returned since the Christmas 
vacation. 

The P' and 2"'' Psalm were read but few with ease. They answered the questions proposed bt the 
master from the Psalms tolerably well, and some others on common facts of Scripture history.In 
arithmetic most problems were worked out correctly. Only one present was learning grammar and 
answered questions with great correctness. Some of the copy books were fairly written. 22'^'' 
January 1 847 Wm Morris Assistant. 

Mr Vaughans School, Lower Town The room in which this school is held is a part of a chapel 

formerly used by the Wesleyans: the other part is used by a carpenter, and there is a wooden 
partition dividing it. It contains two large tables and seven benches but neither maps nor prints. The 
master could not speak English. The scholars are mariners and small tradesmen's children, and there 
were two adults in school but one of them did not answer a single question on any subject. The 2"'' 
chapter of Acts was read. No answers could be had to the questions proposed. In arithmetic the 
third class answered the questions set correctly. Some of the copy books were tolerably well 
written 22°'' January 1847 Wm Morris Assistant. 

Church Sunday School On the 17* of January I visited the above school. The school was held in 
the church. The first class I visited was reading the second chapter of Acts of the Apostles. All the 
class read English with ease. The mode of questioning was chiefly putting the verse verbatim into 
an interrogative form. The other two classes read out of the third Class Book, The one class read 

with great difficulty, indeed it was little better than spelling and the young ladies who were the 
teachers told me that it was useless to put questions in any other form. David Lewis Assistant 

Calvinistic Methodist Sunday School. On the 17"^ of January I visited the above school. It was 



110 



held in the Calvinistic Methodist Chapel.One of the classes I visited was reading the 15. chapter 
of Deuteronomy. They all read Welsh very correctly. The mode of questioning adopted by the 
teacher was merely putting the verse verbatim into and interrogative form. I visited the classes all 
round and found the same system pursued. The teachers all informed me that this was the mode of 
questioning always adopted. —David Lewis Assistant 

Sites of Interest - Fishguard 
Y Caerau RCAM 

"Near the site which was formerly occupied by the ancient town of Caerau, three Roman urns have 
been found, containing numerous coins but they were melted down soon after their discovery" 
(Lewis Top Diet 1833) The Pem Arch survey (1896-1907 0 records thet " very slight traces can be 
found at at Y Caerau but Dr Owen Pughe states that "extensive foundations of old walls could be 
traced in his day". The word "Caerau" enters into the names of several fields in the immediate 
vicinity - Visited 10* June 1915. 

Earthwork RCAM 

About 600 yds due south of Cilshafe, and close to the eastern boundary of the parish is a much worn 
circular enclosure, now scarcely visible above the level. So far as its faint outline permis of 
measurement, it seems to have had a circumference of 150 ft, and probably only a single bank. The 
position of the entrance cannot be determined. Possibly it is the remains of an early cattle enclosure 
-Visited 7* September 1920 

Castle Murtach RCAM 

About 100 yds south of Fishguard vicarage , on the right of the high road leading to Haverfordwest, 
are the faint traces of an earthwork marked ""Castell" on the 6in Ordnance sheet of which no 
further description can now be given. Cultivation has practically wiped it out: a slight rise in the 
ground may mark its enclosing bank. When seen in 1870 there was visible " a square qith rounded 
corners, 38 by 40yds on fairly level ground. Trench only on East side" It is bounded by a narrow 
lane called "Feidr Castell" the Castle Lane. The field on which it stands is known as "Castell 
Murtach" and an adjacent cottage is called " Castell" About 600 yds south of the site are several 
fields which doubtless were formerly one enclosure , bearing the name "Pare Castell Murtach - 
Visited 3''' June 1915. 

Castle Point RCAM 

In the Cambrian Register for 1795 is the statement that " There is a place in the town of Fishguard, 
called in old deeds Y Castell", and which from its situattion on a small tongue of land commanding 
the entrance to the harbour might have been once crowned with an occasional entrenchment .. but of 
which not a trace now appears bt which to calculate the form, the consequence or the age of such 
fortification."This site could not be located. 

Tower Hill Burial Ground RCAM 



111 



A site on Tower Hill. A single block of stone is visible on the surface. It may be suggested that here 
stood Capel y Drindod, one of the four subordinate chapels to Fishguard Church Visited 3"* June 
1915. 

Hen Fynwent RCAM 

A field known as "old Church Field" opposite Pare y Morfa in Lower Fishguard. It has long been 
under cultivation. Lower Fishguard was known as the hamlet of Capel Llanfihangel - ffisguard cum 
capel Michangel ( Owen Pem 288 ) This may be the site of the chapel thus alluded to by Georhe 
Owen- Visited 10* June 1915 

LlanFartin RCAM 

This is the site of the chapel of St Martin at Llanfartin, it is close to the border of Fishguard North 
and Manorowen. Afield adjoining Llanfartin Cottage is yet known as "Yr Hen Fjoiwent" Within the 
living memory of Mr Brown of Trellewelyn a tombstone found therin was removed to Manorowen 
churchyard, and another (it is said) to Jordanston. Until lately a fragment of old walling remained, 
which was locally said to be a portion of the chapel. It is also reported that "a window which 
belonged to this chapel is still to be seen" Visited 17"* June 1915. 

Glyn y Mel ( Glynamel) RCAM 

This is the name of the small glen through which the river Gwaun winds its brief final course before 
loosing itself in Fishguard Bay. 

A Stone Ring RCAM 

Probably a spindle whorl - "found in a tumulus near Fishguard" was exhibited in 1 85 1 by Mr John 
Fenton Arch Camb 1851 p334 . Its present location is unknown. 

Pare yr Och Tumulus RCAM 

This sepulchral mound stands in a field known as Parx yr Och, the field of Lamentation, about 
200yds west of the footpath which divided the parish from that of Llanstinan. About the year 1800 it 
was opened by Fenton and an urn was found. The tumulus today has a height of from 2 to 3ft above 
the level, and a circumference of 180ft; it is grass grown - Visited 6"" September 1920 

Tumulus RCAM 

On a stony "Rhos" or open land near Criney Bridge, which is being cleared for cultivation, was 
recently (August 1920)) revealed what must have been an extremely interesting burial ground. The 
mound had a height of some 2 ft and a circumference of about 1 80 ft, and was outlined by small 
well set boulders. These were removed and used for road mending. A trench was then observed on 
the east side running in the direction of the centre of the mound; the trench was about 2ft wide and 
4ft deep was lined and paved qwith flat stones and it led to a cist. The cist was about 3ft long and 
had a base anc covering of hard clay. Within the cist was an urn which, judging from the fragments 
remaining on the day of our Inspector; s visit was probably 15 in. in height and from 10 to 12 in 



112 



diameter at the mouth. The neck was ornamented with four lines of herringbone pattern 3 in wide . 
The urn which rested upon a flat stone contained incinerated remains; these were unfortunately 
scattered by the breaking of the vessel; eighty one of the fragmenents were collected on the site by 
our officer, but several had already been carried away by visitors. The disturbed ground revealed a 
quantity of small white quartz stones with which, it was said the clay floor was strewn. Adjoining 
this mound in the same field are three of four other low mounds which present every appearance of 
being sepulchral. Visited 7* September 1920 

The Lady Stone RCAM 

This stone , so called fi-om its fancied resemblance to a veiled female , stands by the roadside, at a 
spot known as Yet y bontbren, over two miles east by north of Fishguard, and in a field still locally 
called Pare y maen. The field of the stone. It is somewhat pointed, has a height from the level of 8ft 
6in, and a circumference of 122 inc. it is said (Pem Arch Survey) "that passengers on the coach are 
in the habit of saluting it by taking off their hats. 

Carn Blewyn; Carn Madog; Carn Slanney; Carn Slideran RCAM 

These are natural outcrops of rock, and of no archaelogical significance -Visited 25* June 1920 
CasteU Draenen RCAM 

Fain traces of this small earthwork were visible on Pare CasteU within recent years. Cultivation has 
completely obliterated them and an adjoining cottage known as CasteU has been razed. The site is 
marked by a solitary tree in the middle of the field. The earthwork was in the form apparently more 
oval than round. On the eastern side is the copious spring of "Fgynnon Caran" corrupted into 
"Ffynnon Crane" - Visited 10* June 1915 

Site of Chapel RCAM 

The site of a chapel is marked by the Ordnance sheet on the left side of a narrow lane leading out of 
the Fishguard -Newport main road and on a field known as Pare yr hengapel immediately SSE of 
the farm house of Capel. Nothing is now visable above the surface, but when ploughing the lower 
part of the field discloses a quantity of slatey blue stone and the fence especially where the lane 
makes an elbow (probably marking the entrance to the chapel enclosure) is largely built up of stones 
which have been set in mortar. Regarding the history or dedication nothing is known (Pem Arch 
Survey) Visited 24* June 1920 

Llanust RCAM 

A chapel is said to have stood upon this farm of which no traces are visable (Pem Arch. Survey) The 
spelling on the lin Ordnance map is Llaneist and on the modem maps is Llaneast. 

Old Castle Close RCAM 

Several fields around Ddolwen farm house were formerly known as Old Castle Close but the name 
had died out in the district, and is not remembered at the farm itself About 500 yds immediately 



113 



north, just over the border in the parish of Fishguared North are the remains of the earthwork - 
Visited 7* September 1920 

Carreg Samson, Carn Wen, Chambered Tomb I; Garn Wen 

Carreg Samson is the most southerly of three closely grouped burial chambers set in a north-south 
line . All three monuments appear to have had a capstone partly earthbound and partly supported. 
Carreg Samson is the largest of the capstones, being 4.0m by 3.2m and there is a trace of a probable 
mound against its north side. RCAHMW J. Wiles 01.05.02 

Pen-Rhiw, Burial Chamber;Parc-Y-Cromlech, Chambered Tomb 

Three redundant stone supporters define a chamber 3.9m by 1.8m, with a displaced capstone resting 
partly on the ground. Traces of a mound have been reported but not subsequently 
confirmed.RCAHMW 

Park-y-Llan, Enclosures 

Features in Park-y-Llan field: drystone walls define a subcircular enclosure, c.26m N-S by 34-26m, 
resting against the field wall on the S, having an entrance at its W junction; from this enclosure 
sinuous walls lead N, within the field, the western one running along the spine of an outcrop; a low 
bank crossing the field appears to continue the line of the fieldwall abutting its E side; N of this 
bank, the line of the eastern wall leading N from the enclosure appears to be continued by a similar 
bank, with the fieldwall immediately to the N continuing its line. 
Features portrayed on OS County series (Pembroke IV.IS 1889). 
RCAHMW J. Wiles 30.09.03 

Caerau, Y, 'BRITISH Town' 

Turf-covered remains of a rectangular, stone-built structure, about 25m NNW-SSE by 15m, much 
robbed internally, exposed stones show signs of burning; slate fragments occur in molehills around 
the site: the building rests on a pronounced east- facing lynchet, part of a relict, rectilinear field 
system that extends over an area of some 200m north-east to south-west by 100m, across generally 
north-facing slopes. Visited 21.02.04 

Can be identified with the 'extensive foundations of old walls' noted in the mid 19* century (Pughe 
1855, 271); records of an enclosure (RCAHM 1925, 94, No.239; Crossley 1963, 200, No.27) may 
refer to a site to the west known as 'Hendinas', mentioned by Pughe, to which notice of Roman 
coins & sepulchral urns may also refer RCAHM 1925 J.Wiles 08.03.05 

Strip Field System, Fishguard 

Medieval strip field system to the East of Fishguard Comprehensive Secondary School. 
Photographed during aerial reconnaissance by RCAHMW on 23rd Oct 2007. 
L Osborne, RCAHMW, 22nd Oct 2010 



114 



Fishguard Seaplane Base 

A concrete slipway is the only remaining evidence of Royal Naval Air Service seaplane base which 
was established in 1917. The base covered 3 acres to the north of the railway station (Fishguard 
Harbour Station?). It comprised a canvas and wood hanger, sheds, the slipway and a wireless 
station. 

Event and Historical Information: 

The Royal Navy stationed three Fairey Hamble Babies and three Short 1 84 seaplanes at Fishguard 
during the First World War. The seaplanes formed the coastal patrol flights 426 and 427 of 245 
Squadron. A small wooden framed hangar covered in canvas formed the maintenance area. 
Accommodation was also in tents, although an Officers mess was established in the Fishguard Bay 
Hotel and in a nearby requisitioned cottage. RCAHMW, May 2008. 

Fishguard's Market Hall 

Fishguard's Market Hall was originally begun c.1830, when what is now solely the Town HaU was 
constructed as a combined Market and Town Hall. A tithe map of 1 844 shows the Hall to the front, 
facing Market Square, with a long yard filled with covered lean-to stalls at the rear. In the late 
nineteenth century the Market was divided from the Town Hall, and the current Market building 
was constructed from rubble masonry, with the roof supported on iron trusses. 
Between 1839 and 1844 rural south Wales was plagued by what has become known as the 'Rebecca 
Riots', when groups dressed as women and calling themselves 'Rebecca and Her Daughters' 
attacked toUgates in protest against the expensive tolls which afflicted those bringing their stock to 
the market. In 1 843 approximately 2,000 rioters occupied Fishguard Square, and the town 
magistrates and constables were forced to flee. When order was returned and suspects arrested, they 
were imprisoned in the town's Market Hall. 

The building also houses the town's Library and Tourist Information Cenfre, together with the Last 
Invasion Gallery, displaying the tapestry which was completed in 1997 to commemorate the 200 
year anniversary of the thwarted French Invasion, designed to ape the famous Bayeux 
Tapestry.Source: Cadw Listed Buildings Record K Steele, RCAHMW, 12 January 2009 

Fishguard Quay 

The old harbour of Fishguard is known as Lower Fishguard or Cwm Harbour and had a herring 
fleet. The present structure of the quay dates from the 19th century, but there were probably 
moorings here since 16th century. Warehouses remain from its days as a major herring and trading 
port. RCAHMW, 2009. 

Fishguard Harbour 



115 



Fishguard Harbour was created by blasting vast quantities of rock from the cliffs on the west side of 
Fishguard Bay, north of Goodwick village, to provide a level area of nearly 1 1 hectares. Upon this a 
huge quay was constructed, wide enough to accommodate the newly-built railway line from 
Clarbeston Road, the harbour station and its associated sidings and buildings, and long enough to 
accommodate transatlantic liners. Planned to be the western end of the Great Western Railway's line 
from London and its major sea port, replacing Neyland, the harbour opened in 1906 with the 
inauguration of the Fishguard to Rosslare boat service. The anticipated transatlantic traffic did not 
materialise. A stone breakwater extends from Pen Cw at the north end of the quay into Fishguard 
Bay; it was later lengthened to about 850m and a lighthouse (npm 309558) constructed on the 
eastern end. A 750m-long inner or east breakwater, carrying a navigation light at its northern end, 
was added later. A housing estate, known as Harbour Village (npm 410488), for railway employees 
was buih on Pen Cw. B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 19 May 2008. 

Royal Oak Public House, Market Square,Fishguard 

18th century, probably. One storey and attic. Front elevation of 3 bays, with pebbledash cladding 
and stuccoed plinth. A peace treaty was signed here between the British and French invasion force 
in 1797. RCAHMW 

Glyn-Y-Mel, Garden, Fishguard 

Originally the home of Richard Fenton (1747-1821) the county historian, author of A Historical 
Tour Through Pembrokeshire (London,181 1). The original site had a Picturesque garden enhanced 
by the steep cliff-side of Fishguard old town. It was enjoyed along contrived walks cut (1799-1805) 
into the slopes behind (N) of the house. There are terraces and a small garden surrounding the house 
and river meadow flanking the Afon Gwaun. The addition of Tlas' is recent. 

On the first 25 inch OS plans the site is shown to have several glasshouses set mainly in the 
probable kitchen garden. There is even more glass on the 2nd edition. Now part of the garden has 
become a swimming pool. 
C.S.Briggs 29.10.05 

This garden is depicted on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25-inch map of Pembrokeshire IX, 
sheet 4 (1907). C.H. Nicholas, RCAHMW, 24th August 2006. 

Castle Point Old Fort; Fishguard Fort 

Artillery fort: a roughly 30m east-west by 25m enclosure upon Castle Point, comprising a battery 
facing north & west, with a simple wall set across the neck of the promontory. Constructed 1781, the 
fort had eight 9-pounder cannon and participated in the action of 1797. J. Wiles 30.09.2003 
One of the few pre-Second World War coastal defences to have fired shots in anger, Fishguard Fort 
occupies Castle Point overlooking Fishguard Harbour from the south-east. It was built between 
1781 and 1785 and successfully warded off the French invasion force of 1797 with a single cannon 



116 



ball, forcing them to land further along the coast of Pen-caer/Strumble Head. Today the fort stands 
restored with four cannon facing bravely out to sea (RCAHMW, AP_2005_1342).From: Driver, T. 
2007. Pembrokeshire: Historic Landscapes from the Air, RCAHMW, page 115, Figure 176. 

Goodwick 

1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

The lane now winds downhill, and we soon find ourselves pacing the smooth firm expanse 
of Goodwic Sands, with the hamlet of that ilk clinging to a wooded hillside before us. 
Goodwic is picturesquely situated, overlooking a tiny haven and pier in an elbow of the rock close 
under the hill. Its genial climate and safe bathing shore make the place deservedly- popular, and 
cause the handful of lodging-houses to fill up rapidl}- during ' the season." 

A large village at the held of Fishguard Bay, with streets and houses clinging to the steep eastern 
slopes of Pen Caer. 

Once a sleepy fishing village, the settlement expanded rapidly around the turn of the century with 
the development of the rail terminal and the harbour designed for trans-Atlantic liner traffic. The 
high hopes of the developers were unfulfilled, but the port became (and remains) an important one 
for Irish ferry traffic. Sealink vessels fransport containers and other trafBc, and passengers between 
Fishguard and Rosslare daily. 

Goodwich has a pleasant sandy beach and its sheltered waters make it a popular boating centre. The 
Last Invasion of Britain occurred hereabouts in 1797, and the defeated French soldiers laid down 
their arms on Goodwick Sands. High on the headland above the harbour is Harbour Village, built 
around 1906 by the GWR as a railway workers settlement. The most imposing building in 
Goodwick is the Fishguard Bay Hotel, now thriving after a chequered history. Behind the 
Frenchman Motel is the site of the old Goodwick Brickworks, which closed in 1969. 

1905 Two and a Half million tons of rock blasted out of the Quarry in one explosion -wanted for 
harbour site. 

Church - St Peter built 1922. 

CADW 

Goodwick 

A narrow strip of land in modem Pembrokeshire, to the west side of Fishguard Harbour, Goodwick 
Brook and Goodwick Moor. The area is now largely built over by the town of Goodwick, whose 
development is almost entirely a product of the 19th century and 20th century. There is little 
recorded earlier settlement; it lay outside the medieval and later borough of Fishguard. The northern 
end of the area, now occupied by the Goodwick Ferry Terminal and associated development, lies 



117 



largely upon made ground laid down in 1906 to connect the terminal with a large breakwater. 
Historically the headland on which the breakwater was constructed, Pen-cw Point, more-or-less 
formed an island. However, a ?neolithic hammer-stone found on the slope above Pen-cw Point, a 
possible flintworking floor, a possible round barrow and an important early medieval penannular 
brooch retrieved from Goodwick Sands all indicate an earlier human presence, if not settlement. 
The area, moreover, had been named 'PwUgwdig' as early as 1074 when it was the scene of a battle 
between warring Welsh Princes, the site of which has been tentatively identified as Goodwick 
Moor. During the later medieval period, the area formed part of the medieval Cantref Pebidiog, or 
'Dewisland', which was held directly by the Bishops of St David's, having represented the core of 
the bishopric from 1082 when it was granted (or confirmed) by Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of pre- 
Anglo-Norman Conquest Dyfed, to Bishop Sulien. PwU-hir Common, over which part of the town 
is built, may have medieval origins but has no recorded early history. The raised saltmarshes of 
Goodwick Moor, a small part of which lie within this area, exhibit a number of physical features 
associated with land-reclamation, including the ?early post-medieval canalisation of Goodwick 
Brook and several earthworks. The Bishops of St David's who owned saltmarsh meadows here until 
the 20th century may have undertaken some drainage works. 

The small nucleated hamlet at Dyffryn, which lay on an island of enclosed land in saltmarsh, 
appears to have developed from a gentry-house, Dyffryn Goodwick. The house, which may be 
mentioned in a deed of 1595, was certainly present in 1624 and the site still remains. 

To the north a gentry-house - Goodwick House - had been constructed on part of PwU-hir Common 
overlooking the harbour, prior to 1702. A quay had also been constructed on the site of the harbour 
breakwater (shown on a map of 1815). The tithe map of 1845 shows three distinct elements of what 
was to become Goodwick - the quay with a small settlement, a small nucleation of houses at the 
crossroads on the foreshore, and Dyffryn hamlet. 

In fact the development of the area did not really begin until 1906 when the ferry terminal, and 
railway link from Haverfordwest, were opened by the Great Western Railway, the Fishguard and 
Rosslare Railway, and the City of Cork Steam Packet. The railway, breakwater and new port 
facilities are all depicted on the OS map of 1908 and many of the present structures retain 
substantial elements from these original buildings, particularly the railway station, the engine sheds 
and old customs house. 

Goodwich House was purchased by the GWR and rebuilt as the Fishguard Bay Hotel. The map 
shows that Dyffryn was by now linked to the main settlement at Goodwick by the railway, and new 
houses had to be constructed along the valley floor and up the steep valley side. The consfraints of 
the site were already apparent, as terraces of new houses had been built on the flat ground high 
above the harbour. Development during the 20th century was sporadic. Housing development 
continued along the valley floor, linking Dyffryn with Goodwick proper, and up the steep valley 
side. In the last quarter of the 20th century commercial development has taken place on the marsh 
behind the foreshore, and considerable improvements to the port's infrastructure have been carried 
out. 



118 



Description and essential liistoric landscape components 

Goodwick is a small urban historic landscape character area located on a constrained site of steep 
southeast-facing valley side and a narrow valley bottom. Although it is a nucleated settlement, open 
spaces and woodland on the steep valley sides between the houses lend a rural aspect to parts of 
Goodwick. To its east lies the sea and a stretch of coastal marsh. Goodwick harbour and the railway 
are the core and raison d'etre of the settlement. There are very few historic landscape components 
earlier than the 19th century, and most date to the mid-to-late 19th century and 20th century. The 
oldest portion of the area is at Dyffryn. Here there are some older stone-built structures, including 
Dyffiyn House, a substantial stone-built house with 16th century elements, and a former watermill. 
From the commercial/industrial core at the harbour residential settlement spreads along the valley 
floor and up the valley side. The central, oldest, residential part of Goodwick is nucleated around a 
road intersection at the base of the valley side. Here shops, houses, public houses and chapels are 
mostly of mid- to-late 19th century date. There is considerable variety in building materials and 
styles. Materials range from red brick through to bare stone and cement rendered stone. Corrugated- 
iron sheeting protects the walls on some buildings. Included is a corrugated-iron hall - the former 
Goodwick Institute built in c. 1900. Stone buildings are generally earlier and include early 19th 
century cottages. 

The gothic style church of St Peter dates to 1910. Slate is the most common roofing material. Linear 
development of later 19th century terraced housing built as single units is situated on the valley 
floor, while on the constrained valley side more informal terraces, larger detached or semi detached 
housing has developed, again in a variety of styles and materials, but with many buildings 
displaying neo-gothic porches, windows and other details. During the 20th century small linear 
housing estates were built on the less steep higher slopes on the minor road up to Stop-and-Call and 
on the plateau above Goodwick Harbour, as well as along the main A487 road (now quite since it 
was bypassed by the Fishguard Eastern Bypass) to the southeast of the old residential core. The 
railway station on the quayside retains many of its early 20th century redbrick buildings. The 
former brick stationmaster's house is on Station Hill. 

Nearby the Fishguard Bay Hotel dates to the late 19th century but was enlarged in 1905 by the 
Great Western Railway in the anticipation of trans- Atlantic passengers. The gardens of the hotel, 
laid out in the first decade of the 20th century are included in the Register of Parks and Gardens for 
Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion and Pembrokeshire. Several listed structures in Goodwick include 
public buildings and older cottages, but not the more typical late 19th century terraced and other 
houses. Much of the harbour and port facilities are of late 20th century date and include extensive 
infrastructure for the Irish car ferries. The main, north, breakwater, dating to the early 20th century 
is a prominent feature of this area; the less massive east breakwater less so. Petrol stations, light 
industry and leisure facilities developed in the late 20th century across reclaimed marsh and 
alongside the A40(T) road that runs along the sea front. Within this area are small pockets of steep 
coastal slope. 



119 



Recorded archaeology mostly consists of 19th century and 20th century structures associated with 
the port and town, but a possible bronze age round barrow and a prehistoric flint working site lie in 
the area. 

This is a very distinctive historic landscape character area and contrasts with neighbouring areas of 
farmland and marsh. It is separated from the older urban area of Fishguard by a stretch of marsh and 
foreshore. 

Goodwick Moor; Battle Of Pwllgwdig; Battle Of Llanwnda, Near Fishguard 

"Goodwick Moor. Here Rhys, son of Owain ap Edw)ai, was defeated and slain in 1074 by 
Trahaearn ap Caradog (Brut y Tywysogion). The moor is now waterlogged and marshy. Visited, 2nd 
June 1921." [The 'Brut' gives a date of 1078, see below] 
Source: RCAHMW Pembrokeshire Inventory, 1925, ii, no. 591. 

1078: "And then there was the battle of Pwllgwdig. And then Trahaearn, king of Gwynedd, 
prevailed. And then all Rhys [ap OwainJ's warband fell." 
Source: Thomas Jones, The Chronicle of the Princes, 1955, p.29. 

"In 1078 Trahaearn of North Wales invaded Dyfed, defeated Rhys [ab Owain] in the battle of 
Goodwick, not far from Fishguard ..." 

In a footnote the battle is referred to as 'urwydyr Llan wnda' (battle at Llanwnda). 
Source: J.E.Lloyd, A History of Wales, vol II, 1912, p.377; p.393 & n.ll4. 
B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 27 October 2006. 

Fishguard Harbour: North Breakwater Lighthouse 

Fishguard Harbour was opened in 1906. The new development included a stone breakwater, 
extending from Pen Cw at the north end of the quay into Fishguard Bay. This breakwater was later 
lengthened to about 850m and a lighthouse constructed on the eastern end. A Notice to Mariners 
printed in the County Echo, 12 April 1906, notes that the harbour was intended to open around 1 
August and that the light on the end of the breakwater would be 'a red flashing light giving one flash 
every five seconds... the focal plane will be 46 feet above High Water Spring Tides and the light 
will be of about 5,700 candle power and visible all round, will have a range in clear weather of 
about 12 miles'. The fog signal was to be a bell sounded every 10 seconds. In addition, a gas-lighted 
conical bell buoy was installed some 350ft from end of the breakwater. Painted black and white 
with one occultation above every 10 seconds, vessels were to pass to eastward. 
RCAHMW, February 2013. 

The fishtraps of Fishguard Harbour, Goodwick. 

Fishguard has a Scandanavian name flskigardr ('enclosure for catching or keeping fish'). The 
commercial port of Fishguard Harbour at Goodwick was largely constructed towards the end of the 
nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth. 



120 



Two stone-built fish traps flank the north and south sides of Fishguard Harbour, Pembrokeshire. 

The fish trap to the north-west of Fishguard Harbour lies just below the entrance road to the ferry 
terminal. It is first shown on the early maritime charts of Lewis Morris dating from 1748, and is 
depicted on the first edition Ordnance Survey 25in map of 1889 as an inverted 'V'-shaped 
submerged stone wall, adjoining coastal rocks north of the village of Goodwick at its west end. It 
extends for approximately 100 metres to the east into Fishguard Harbour and turns to the south for 
approximately 120m. The east- west section was destroyed by construction of the railway between 
1901 and 1906. The hooked portion of the trap is locally renowed as a good place to catch Bass 
which gather there to feed on the crab population. 

Aerial photographs taken through clear shallow water on 1st June 2009 showed remains of other 
submerged walls and structures to the south-west of this trap of unknown date and character . This 
trap is related to a smaller V-shaped fish trap on the south-east side of the harbour, which has never 
been recorded on maps or charts 

The south-east fishtrap , filmed for BBC Wales' Hidden Histories in 2009, is a 'V'-shaped stone- 
built fishtrap, springing from coastal rocks on its south side. It measures approximately 34m from 
base to apex, with equally-spaced arms measuring 40m long and up to 9m broad. It is built from 
large boulders, now partly dispersed with a few smaller stones visible in the matrix. The trap is only 
exposed at the lowest tides, of 0.5m and under. It is likely that a build-up of sand behind (to the 
west, beach-side of) the trap may have obscured further parts making it considerably larger. 
Because of the present sea-level it would be difficult to regularly use and make repairs to this fish 
trap, and this might indicate a construction date back in the Middle Ages, or earlier. This trap is not 
mapped on any sea-charts or historic maps, unlike its counterpart on the north-west side of 
Fishguard Harbour . The site was discovered and photographed through shallow water during Royal 
Commission aerial reconnaissance. RCAHMW, T. Driver, RCAHMW, 28th October 2009 

Fishguard Harbour Submerged Walls 

To the south-west of the Fishguard Harbour fishtrap (NPRN 407699) are fragmentary remnants of 
two further V-shaped fish traps or angled walls, the largest measuring 100m north-south, together 
with other shorter walls lines and areas of stone. These may well be remnants of a shipbuilding yard 
hereabouts. Recorded during RCAHMW aerial reconnaissance on 1st June 2009. 
T. Driver, RCAHMW, 1 2th June 2009. 

Fishguard Bay Hotel, Goodwick 

Late 19th century and early 20th century with later alterations. The south front range is 3 storeys 
high plus attic, 5 bays, the left bay much wider in the form of a full-height canted bay window with 
crowning gable and the right end abutting an even larger canted corner entrance tower of 4 storeys. 
Painted stucco with slate roof and 2 stuccoed ridge stacks. Roof is hipped at the south west comer. 
Plate glass sashes or 20th century imitations generally, with stucco voussoirs and keystones 



121 



PE/Domestic/SM93NW from Cadw. RCAHMW 



Goedwig Welsh Baptist Church; Goodwick, Main Street, Goodwick 

Goedwig Baptist Chapel was built in 1873 and modified in 1908. The present chapel, dated 1873, is 
built in the Simple Round-Headed style of the gable entry type. 
RCAHMW, November 2010 

Berachah Chapel (WELSH Calvinistic Methodist), New Hill, Goodwick 

Berachan Methodist Chapel was built in 1830 and restored/rebuilt in 1906. The present chapel, 
dated 1906, was designed by architect William Jones of Ton Pentre, in the Classical style with a 
gable-entry plan and two storeys.RCAHMW, 

Bethany English Congregational Chapel, Goodwick Hill, Goodwick 

Bethany Congregational Chapel was built c.1905 in the Simple Gothic style. By 1993 this chapel 
was in use as a storage facility .RCAHMW, November 2010 

Ebeneser Welsh Independent Chapel; 

Ebenezer Chapel Vestry; 

Stop And Call, Goodwick Hill, Goodwick 

Ebenezer Independent Chapel was built in 1828, restored in 1907 and again in 1928. The present 
chapel, dated 1828, is built in the Gothic style of the gable entry type. 
RCAHMW, November 2010 

The Vestry, a corrogated iron construction, was formerly used as a Roman Catholic church by Irish 
workmen constructing the GWR line at Treffgame Gorge: dated to early 1900s L. Moore, 
RCAHMW, I4th November 2012 

Bethesda English Baptist Church, Main Street, Goodwick 

The church was formed in 1789; the present corrugated-iron building with Gothic windows dates 
from 1908. Status (1998): chapel 



122 



123 



Henry's Moat 

Henry's Moat 

Iron age earthwork - nearby - upon hill is a Motte and bailey fortress near-the church. 



1811 Fenton Tours Henry's Moat 

Here crossing the river from this sweetly sequestered vale, I ascend to Henry's Moat, or as in Welsh 
it is called Castell Henry, that is , Henry's Castle, Most in the Englishery of Pembrokeshire, being 
often used for a castle, where there is one of the flat headed tumuli with a ditch round it, and a 
parish church; but the right name is castell Hendrev, that is, the Moat or Castle of the Old Town, the 
other parish being called New Moat, so denominated by the English Advenae, who first settled there 
to distinguish it from this , which was the oldest. 

1839 Henry's Moat Topographical Dictionary of Wales, Lewis 

HENRY'S-MOAT, a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of 
Pembroke, South Wales, 10/4 miles (N. E. by N.) from Haverfordwest; containing 338 inhabitants. 
This place derives its name from an ancient tumulus in the form of a truncated cone, surrounded by 
a moat, and in all probability formerly surmounted by a military work, called by the Welsh Castell 
Hendrev, or "the castle of the old town." The parish comprises 3166 acres. It is for the greater part 
enclosed, and in a good state of cultivation; the portions of unenclosed land, consisting chiefly of 
heath and turbaries, afford pasturage for sheep, and supply the principal fuel of the inhabitants. The 
soil is various, being rich and fertile in the lower and cultivated grounds, but in other parts poor and 
unproductive. The scenery, though not distinguished by any sfriking peculiarity of feature, is 
generally pleasing; the views over the adjacent country are interesting, and in some instances 
extensive. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and endowed with 
£200 private benefaction, and £200 royal bounty; patron, W. H. Scourfield, Esq.: the tithes have 
been commuted for a rent-charge of £145; and there is a glebe of about 5!/4 acres, valued at £5 per 
annum. The church, dedicated to St. Bernard, presents no architectural details of importance. There 
are places of worship for Baptists and Independents, with a Sunday school held in each of them; 
also a Sunday school held by the Calvinistic Methodists, in a dwelling-house. St. Mary's Well, about 
three miles from the church, and within three-quarters of a mile of St. Mary's church, but in this 
parish, is stated to afford relief to such as are afflicted with rheumatism. 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Brynach Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

The church consists of a small nave, chancel, south fransept, north porch, and a western bell cote. A 
few ancient features were retained in the restoration of 1884. on either side of the low pointed 
chancel arch are two projecting corbels which supported the rood beam. In the chancel is a plain 



124 



piscina with circular bowl and drain; also a portion of a slab upon which is carved a plain incised 
cross within a circle. The font is of the cushion type; the basin 21 in square externally and 16in 
internally by 13 in deep, slopes of a circular shaft on a square base, the total height being 32 in. in 
the churchyard are the base of a cross, and a boulder which is locally said to have been the fragment 
of a cromlech. Visited 24* September 1914. 

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994. 

The nave and chancel are probably 13c and the south transept is probably 14c but the restoration of 

1884 has left no datable features. In the church is a stone from the nearby chapel which once stood 
alongside the nearby holy well. 

Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

St. Bernard: This rectory from the year 1488 has been in private pafronage, and down till 1556 it 
was in the patronage of the Wogans of Wiston. George Owen, writing in 1594, states that the patron 
was then Woogan of Wiston and X that the presentation was "in Grossa," that is to say, not 
appendant to a manor. By 1621 the patronage was vested in the Scourfield family. 
Described as Eccelesia de Monte Henrici, this church was in 1291 assessed for tenths to the King at 
£8. - Taxatio. 

Ecclesia de Mota Henrici. - Ecclesia ibidem es cellaci-one Johannis Woogan armigeri unde 
Magister Thomas Woogan est rector valet eommunibus annis dare 106S. 8d. Inde decima, lOS. 8d. - 
Valor Eccl. 

Under the heading "livings Discharged":- Mota Henrici alias Henry's Mote, alias Castle Henry R. 
(St. Bernard). J. Woogan Esq., 1535; William Seourfield, Esq., 1714, 1763, 1768. Clear yearly value 
£22 8s. 4d. King's Books, £5 6s. 8d. -Bacon's Liber Regis. 

On 7th July, 1784, a faculty was granted for the restoration of Henrys Moat Church. 

In a list of chapels originally built for pilgrimages, but the greater number of which were in ruins 

"Capell Bumagh in Harisemoat" is mentioned. Owen's Pern. 



125 



Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 

Henry's Mote (S. Brynach). — An Elizabethan Chalice and Paten cover, measuring 7 in. in height; 
with the cover, 8 in. The hall marks indicate the year 1574, the maker's mark being AH in plain 
oblong. This maker's mark is also found at Morvil, these vessels bearing the same characteristics as 
those belonging to that parish. In repairing the rim, the bowl of the Henry's Mote chalice has been 
made about an inch deeper. It is ornamented with two belts, the upper intersecting four times and 
enclosing the conventional foliation; the lower containing the following inscription " - POCVLVM 
DE EGLESIE HARY SMOT ". As at Morvil, the space between each word is filled in with graceful 
sprays of foliation, and the knop which divides the stem is ornamented with intermittent lines. 
Beneath the bowl and also on the foot is a band of vertical line moulding. Diam. of bowl, 3 in.; 
present depth, 3 in.; weight, 7 oz. 5 dwts. The Paten cover is 3 in. in diameter and weighs 2 oz. 5 
dwts. The date " 1574 " is engraved on the foot handle within a decorated circle of strap-work. Two 
more of these circles appear near the rim. — 

A Paten 7 in. in diam., having the Birmingham hall mark of 1888 with maker's mark WS; weight, 
70z. lOdwts. The centre is decorated with a cross pattern within a circle, and round the rim is 
inscribed Presented to Henry's Mote Church, Pembrokeshire, by Mrs. Charles Pryse August 
1889". 

Besides a small electro-plated Paten, there is a pewter Plate, 10 in. in diameter, rudely inscribed " H. 
M." and by the same maker as that of the Llanycefn plate, viz. "William Watkins". 



Clergy - Church of England Database 



Philipps , Thomas 


1611 


Rector 


Phillipps , Robert 


1624 


Rector 


Williams, Richardum 


1675 


Rector 


Williams, Davidis 


1675 


Yac(Death) Rector 


Williams, Richardus 


1675 


Rector 


Williams, Richard 


1675 


Rector 


Williams, Ricardus 


1692 


Rector 


Williams, Richardus 


1714 


Yac(Death) Rector 


Thomas, Thomas 


1714 


Rector 



126 



Thomas, Thomas 


1721 


Morgan, Georgius 


1721 


Harris, Johannes 


1732 


Morgan, Georgius 


1732 


Pinand, James 


1734 


Griffiths, George 


1735 


Morgans, John 


1739 


Griffith , Samuel 


1762 


Bowen , James 


1763 


Harries , John 


1763 


Bowen , James 


1763 


Harris , John 


1768 


Bowen , James 


1768 


Harris , John 


1768 


Williams , James 


1788 


Harries , John 


1804 


Roch , William 


1821 


T? r\ n \A/i 1 1 1 Q m 
JvUCii ^ VV iiiid-ili 


1 871 


Harries , Henry 


1821 


Davies , Lewis 


1827 



Yac(natural death) Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Wac(Death) Rector 
Curate 
Curate 
Curate 
Curate 
Rector 

yac(natural death) Rector 
Rector 
Rector 

Vac (natural death) Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Rector 
Curate 
Rector 

Vac (natural death) Rector 
Curate 



1851 Henry's Moat, Dedicated to St Bernard, Parish Church Lewis Davies, Curate 
1929 St Brynach & Parish Church (Castle Bythe) Incumbent and Curates; AW Jones 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

1851 Horeb, Hendrys moat Baptist Erected in 1835 William John, Ebenezer Eynon, Deacons 



127 



1851 Silo chapel, Nery's Moat Ind Erected in 1 842 Day School kept David Owen, Siloh, in Tufton - 
Castell Henri Seilo Ind chapel , restored 1900 still open Dec 2006 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

This parish has no residential clergyman. It is an agricultural parish with three farmers paying over 
£100 per year in rent but no landed proprietor resident who make subscriptions for the maintenance 
of a school. Labourers are paid 8d a day with food and Is without food. The moral character is 
regarded as good. Most of the population can read but not write and there are about 20 children 
who have had no schooling. Information from Stephen Edwards Blaen y wern Henrys Moat. 

Parish of Henry's Moat - Siloh School This school is held in the Independent chapel by the 
minister but is open to all without any restrictions. The master spoke English well. The school had 
not been re-opened since the holidays,. The chapel contained three tables and fifteen benches but 
no maps or prints of any description. The scholars were children of farmers and labourers. Many of 
the latter are very poor. Wm Morris Assistant 



Henry's Moat names for Jottings 

Corbet William 1326 the son of Roger, held of Martin,William lord of Kernes, one fee at 
Henrys Moat worth £4, and one at Diffrantha (Llanfirnach) worth 60s." In 1327 William Corbet 
(then a Knight) was present at the court of Pembroke, and in 1334 he settled his lands in the 
counties of Pembroke, Haverford, and Carmarthen, which included, besides the fees mentioned 
above, the manors and advowsons of Lawrenny and Begelly in the barony of Carew, and a rental at 
Ramascastle in the barony of Walwyns Castle. William Corbet was succeeded by his son, 



Scourfield William 1717 Patron Llysyfran Church Esq 1714 Patron Henrys Moat Bacons 
Libes Regis Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Scourfield William 1763 Patron Henrys Moat . 1768 Patron Henrys Moat Bacons Libes 
Regis. 



128 



Woogan J 1535 Esq Patron Henrys Moat Bacons Libes Regis. 



Woogan Johannis 1534 .armigeri Henrys Moat Valor Eccl 



Woogan Thomas est rector Henrys Moat Valor Eccl 1534. 



David Henry 1670 Henrismote P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Dedwith Griffith Lewis 1670 Henrismote H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Richard 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Griffith George O J 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Griffith Jenkin 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Griffith Lewis 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Hugh Owen 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



James David 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



James Margarett 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



129 



Jenkin John 1670 hooper Henrismote P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Jenkin William 1670 Henrismote H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John David 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Evan 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Phillip 1670 Henrismote H2 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Richard 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John William 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Johnes Henry 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Lawrence Griffith 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Lewis David 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Lewis David 1670 Henrismote H2 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Lewis Owen 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Morice John 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



130 



Morice Richard 1670 Henrismote H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Nicholas Jane 1670 Henrismote H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Owen Lewis 1670 Henrismote H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Owen Thomas 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



Owen William 1670 Henrismote H2 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax. 



Richard John 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Rosser Thomas 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas John 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas Owen 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Vaughan Ursula 1670 Henrismote H4 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Will John 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



William John 1670 Henrismote P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



William Lewis 1670 Henrismote H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



131 



William Roger 1670 Henrismote P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Sites of Interest 
Dyffeyn Stones 

This "Circle" so styled on the Ord sheet, stands on the farm of Dyffryn, on the right bank of the 
Syfnwy stream within a mile of Rosebush railway station. It is known locally as "Gam Ochr". So 
far as the overgrowth permits of examination the monument appears to be the circumference of a 
ruined tumulus. It now displays a circle of thirteen low stones, the diameter of which is 65ft. With 
three exceptions the stones are of the size usually forming the base of a tumuli. Within the circle is a 
heap of smaller stones and soul, havilkg the present height of about 2ft. Twelve yds. to the north 
east are three meine hiron, one erect(4ft) and two fallen which appear to be supporters of the buried 
cromlech; the latter were upstanding within living memory. At a distance of some 700yds, in a field 
calledParc Maen hir , is another standing stone - the Budloy stone, and at a distance of some 30 
yfds to the south east is another prostrate monolith. The Budloy stone id 7ft above ground, and is 
said to be "worked" with a tool on the western side, which is towards the Dyffiyn circle" Arch 
Camb 1911 The markings however are somewhat indefinite. The name Pare y Pist "field of the 
posts" was used to designate the site by one aged inhabitant. This site should receive careful 
exploration - Visited 25* Septenber 1914. 



Holmus Cromlech 

About 300 yds to the south east of Holmus farm house are three prostrate and partially buried 
stones. These were erect within living memory, and are reported to have been the supporting stones 
of a cromlech, the capstone of which was "fired" to furnish building material. To the east of the 
stones and 200 yds distant, is a stone in the hedge on the side of a lane, which may have been 
connected with the cromlech. The two stones, probably taken from the cromlech have been placed 
as rubbing posts for cattle in fields on either side of the same lane - Visited 25"" September 1923. 



Camp 

An oval enclosure 180ft by 150ft surrounded by an earthen bank, now 2 to 3 ft high, and by an outer 
ditch, which in places is 4ft deep, and in others has almost disappeared. On the west side the 
earthwork has been obliterated by the high rod - Visited 19"* September 1914. 

Tufton Castle 

132 



A small circular enclosure about 100ft in diameter, 300 yds north east of Tufton village. It haas 
almost disappeared under cultivation, the bank being almost level with the surrounding surface. It is 
seen at its best on the south west where the bank may be about one ft high. The ditch is practically 
filled up. The entrance was probably the point where the present high road impinges on the 
enclosure. A long narrow field called Llain y Castell divided by many lateral fences. Stretches 
northwards from the earthwork Visited 15* Septemberl914. 



Henry's Moat 

Immediately north of the parish church is a fine mound, which is marked on the Ord. Sheet as 
"Tumulus" It rises to a height of somwe 15ft and has a summit diameter of 35ft; it has a slight 
depression in the centre. The ditch is best seen towards the west; on the east side it has almost 
disappeared(if it ever existed) in the steep slope of the hill. The bailey may have originally taken in 
the "Camp" in which case the castle enclosure was of unusual extent; the two earthworks are now 
quite separate - Visited 29* September 1914. 



St Brynach's Chapel and Well 



About % of a mile north east of the parish church are the ruins of a small well chapel dedicated to st 

Brynach . The chapel has long since fallen into ruin and is now hardly traceable, Fenton (Tour 
p355) refers to the well "Cross over a small brook to St Brynach's Well a redundant spring close to 
the ruins of an old chapel, having an upright rude stone pitched on end near it, rudely marked with a 
cross" [ It is not improbable that the rude stone bearing a cross now preserved in the Parish Church 
is the stone referred to by Fenton.] The spring still flows strongly , protected by a modern masonry 
hood. Adjoining are traces of the well chamber; a hedge now separates the well from the site of the 
chapel. The site itself is a wilderness of undergrowth in which vestiges of foundations can still be 
dimly traced. The little chapel may have had a length of about 30ft - Visited 25* September 1914 



St Mary's Well 

This well stands at the side of an early roadway (marked of the Ord sheet as a "Roman Road") in 
the south comer of the parish, where it adjoins that of Maenclochog. The strong spring is protected 
by a few mountain boulders. The well still goes by the name St Mary's Well , and the adjoining 
cottage to the south west is known as "Ffjomon Fair -Visited 29* September 1914. 



Circle 



133 



Of this circle which is marked on the Ord sheet as lying immediately north east of B M 669 no 
stones appear above ground, but a small patch of green sward stands out on the fern covered 
common - Visited 25* September 1914 



Garreg Wen 

This is a striking natural outcrop of white quart stone which gives its name to the cottage built near 
it Visited 29* September 1914 



Pen y Garn 

The name of a farmhouse possessing no features of interest other than the name - Visited 25' 
September 1914 



Farthings Hook Mill; Farthings Hook Woollen Mill, Henry's Moat 

Building derelict; only parts of the walls survive. RCAHMW 



134 



Little Newcastle 



1811 Fenton Tours Little Newcastle 

Hence turning northward I cross the Sealy to Little New Castle, leaving on m,y right , just above the 
margin of that river , barely the site of martel, the ancient residence of the family of Symmons 
before they came to inhabit Lanstinian and prior to them of Martel or marketil, their ancester who 
gave name to the place. Little New castle is a mean village consisting of a few straggling houses 
and a church of the very meanest fashion, and has at its centre one of those large mounts or tomens 
which whatever might have been its origin or ise vouches the name of the village to justify its 
pretensions to the rank of castle, which was called new I presume to distinguish it from an 
apparently much older work a little above the village. 

The Church was, by the endowment of Adam de Rupe annexed to the priory of Pill, and is now a 
vigarage of small value.. Yet in this miserable village was born a man of strong natural parts and 
great personal bravery, who if he had directed the vigour and energy of his mind to nobler ends 
might have adorned the page of history. This was Bartholomew Roberts the noted pirate. 



1839 Little Newcastle Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 

NEWCASTLE (LITTLE), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of 
Pembroke, South Wales, SVi miles (N. by E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 43 1 inhabitants. It 
derives its name from an ancient mound near the church, called "the Castle," and its distinguishing 
epithet of Little from the inferiority of this fortification to a much older and more extensive work of 
the same kind, at a short distance from the village. The parish comprises a moderate tract of land, 
by far the greater part inclosed and cultivated, the remainder being stony, barren, and unfit for 
tillage, especially the northern portion of it, which is hilly. Fairs are held in the village on May 6th 
and July 10th. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £200 
parliamentary grant; net income, £54; patron, T. Morse, Esq.; impropriator, the Rev. T. K. W. 
Harries. The church is dedicated to St. Peter. A Church Sunday school is held; and there is a place 
of worship for Baptists, with a Sunday school held in it. Near the village is a spring designated 
Golden Well, which ebbs and fiows regularly with the tide in St. George's Channel, nine miles 
distant; the water is said to be efficacious in coughs, and in diseases of the eye. 

1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

Little Newcastle, a mean, unkempt village, presenting few attractions for the wayfarer. 
At Little Newcastle was born a certain Bartholomew Roberts, who, about a century ago, made some 
noise in the world as a successful filibuster. In company with his fellow-countryman Howel Davies, 
(as big a rascal as himself), this notorious freebooter sailed the high seas arrayed in priceless silks 



135 



and jewels galore — as pretty a pair of desperadoes as ever hoisted the skuU-and-crossbones flag, or 
graced the yardarm of a man-o'-war. 



The Parish Church Dedicated to St David? Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

This Church was entirely rebuilt in 1870. The original font has been redressed. It is octagonal in 
shape; the diameter 22 inches, that of the circular basin 17 ins. It has been covered, marks of the 
hinge being visible - Visited 28"" October 1914 

NB According to Dugdale in the grant to Pille Priory the church is described as dedicated to St 
David 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Peter? 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994. 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lacks old features. 



According to Richard Davies "Nineteenth Century Church Reconstruction" Journal of the 
Pembrokeshire Historical Society Vol 6 1994/5 



The ecclesiastical history probably dates back to the Celtic period but the first definite records 
appear at the end of the 12"* century. The medieval church of that time probably consisted of a nave, 
chancel and north aisle. Later the north aisle became ruinous and so the north arcade blocked off 
just leaving the nave and the chancel. In 1811 Fenton described the church as being of the very 
meanest fashion although repairs had been carried out in 1807. This may have been when the north 
aisle was partly re-erected. By 1835, when the Rev Peter Davies Richardson was appointed 
Perpetual curate, the church was in a "thorough dilapidated state" It would appear the materials 
used in the 1807 refurbishment were "of bad quality" The total seating capacity of the church was 
35. 

Rebuilding work started in August 1842 with the parishioners, while it was going on, having to go 
the church at St Dogwells, but the money ran out. Work had been started without the plans being 
submitted to the Incorporate Churches Building Society so the church technically did not qualify for 
a grant but, even so, the building was largely completed by 1843 and reopened on the 12th May 
According to the form the Rev Richardson filled in the church "excluding chancel was 32 feet long 
30 ft wide and 12 ft high inside . It had no gallery, no tower and no spire but it had a bell-cote". The 
door was almost in the middle of the north wall and flanked by two windows directly opposite the 
present churchyard gate. The pulpit was against the south wall with a reading desk flanked by two 
windows. 



136 



By 1870 the church was again in a dilapidated estate and had to a comprehensive restoration which 
completely altered the appearance of the building. 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 1905 

Little Newcastle (S. David) — An Elizabethan Chalice with Paten cover measuring in height 6 in. 
and 1 in. respectively. The only mark found is ^SSS' ^ ^'^ cover is inscribed the date " 1577 ". The 
shape and ornamentation correspond exactly with the Amroth examples. Within the lower band on 
the bowl is inscribed "- POCVLVM « ECLESIE « DE * NEWCASTELL ". The Paten cover is 3 in. 
in diameter. Both pieces are in a beautiful state of preservation. 



Clergy from the Clergy of the C of E database 



1 iiUilid-b , JUiili 


1 Ifsl 


\l '^c* 1 It rt ti ivrt I fi o rtf v\ \ 

y os^ytiulUful ili^Uulj 




Rees , David 


1762 


Curate 




Rees , David 


1763 


Yac(natural death) 


Curate 


Davies , David 


1763 


Curate 




Rees , William 


1769 


Curate 




Rees , James 


1782 


Curate 




Rees , William 


1782 


Yac(natuml death) 


Curate 


Evans , Morgan 


1788 


Curate 




Rees , James 


1804 


Curate 




Davies , Michael 


1816 


Curate 




Harries , George 


1819 


Curate 




Rees , James 


1835 


Yac(natuml death) 


Curate 



Davies Richardson , Peter 1835 Curate 

1851 Little Newcastle Parish Church "Little Newcastle is now consolidated with the adjoining 
Parish of St Dogwells "Peter David Richardson, Perpetual Curate 

1929 St Mary & St Peter (Little Newcastle) Incumbent and Curates; D Morgan 



137 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

Beulah [ Baptists, 1808]. Built 1808, rebuilt 1874 & 1887, restored 1910 Still open 1998 

Beulah Baptist Chapel is located around l/3rd of a mile outside the village of Little Newcastle 
where Baptists are recorded as early as 1697. the original aim for the congregation was for a modest 
building, but John Evans of Rynaston persuaded them to go for amore ambitious structure, and 
played a prominant part in raising the necessary funds. Dying before the work was completed, his 
mantle was taken on by a Mrs Martha Griffiths of Wolfscastle who paid for the erection of the 
gallery. 

The first chapel was completed in 1808, the opening sermon preached on Easter Monday. This was 
built in the long-wall form. The church was incorporated in 1823 with 135 members released from 
Llangloffan. It was rebuilt in 1874, and again in 1887 and restored in 1910. This was major 

reconstruction work carried out by the architects G Morgan & Son of Carmarthen and builder 
Daniel Thomas, and was due to the efforts of the minister Jacob John. Baptisms took place in the 
nearby River Angof In the early 20th century the chapel went into decline and had to rejoin with 
Smyrna in 1927. In May 2014 there was only 1 member and the chapel due to close in the very near 
future. 

The current chapel is of stone, built on the gable entry plan tj^e in the Arts and Crafts Style. The 
fa9ade has a hooded door inscribed "1808 BEULAH 1910" above which is a stepped, flat-headed 
tripartite window containing small panes of leaded green glass. Side elevations are lit by two 
storeys of flat-headed windows. 

The interior contains a small vestibule with a leaded glass window containing leaded coloured glass 
in Art Nouveau motifs, and two doors with leaded glass panels and lights above through to the main 
interior. This has a simple platform pulpit behind which is a match boarded pulpit arch with a 
winged pediment surmounting it. The sedd farw, pews and gallery front are similarly simple in their 
use of match boarded panelling. The gallery pews are raked, being only two levels of pews to the 
sides and five to the rear. 

RCAHMW, May 2014 



Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

This benefice was granted by Adam de Rupe to Pill Priory, and in the grant it is described as the 
church of St. David of Newcastle, but in Parochiale Wallicanum it is ascribed to St. Peter. Its annual 
value including the glebe was in 1535-6 stated to be £40 - (Valor Ecc.) 



138 



In 1594 it was in the hands of the Crown as being part of the possessions of that priory. - (Owen's 
Pern.) 

In 1536 the rectory of Newcastle and Rupe [Roch] was leased to Edward Lloid of the Household 
for 21years. - (State Papers.) 

The tithes of Little Newcastle were in 1645 owned by Sir John Stepney of Prendergast, Perns. Bart., 
who was MP., for Haverfordwest in 1640. Sir John had been taken prisoner at the capture of 
Hereford in December 1645 by Col. Birch, the parliamentary commander and was imprisoned in the 
Compter, Southwark. Sir John alleged that he had not been in arms against the Commonwealth but 
had arrived in Hereford three week before his capture, and was waiting there for a pass from the 
wife of Major General Laughame. This defense however proved of little avail, and Sir John was 
fined £1230. 

On 31 May, 1649, the inhabitants of Newcastle in Kemes petitioned the Commonwealth for an 
augmentation for their minister, their maintenance being only £4 a year, so that they could not 
procure any godly and able minister to reside amongst them. Sir John Stepney held the tithes, which 
were worth £20 on 18 June 1649, Sit John's fine was reduced to £530 provided he settled £70 yearly 
on certain rectories. - (Compound. Papers.) 

On 13 Jan., 1845, the benefices of Little Newcastle and St. Dogwells were united under an Order in 
Council. 

On 8 Sept., 1870, plans for the rebuilding of the church of Little Newcastle were approved by the 
Chapter. - (Chapter Acts.) 

Little Newcastle Names for Jottings 

Bevans Margaret 26 July 1828 William Bevans Ambleston, Labourer Charged with 
Murder of Margaret Bevans by poisoning her porridge and broth with arsenic. Prisoner aged 51. 
Little Newcastle , Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



139 



Barti Ddu -Little Newcastle 

An extract from "The Maritime Heritage of Dyfed" . National Museum of Wales ISBN 0 7200 0268 
0 

" The smuggling activities of the men of New Quay and Penbryn pale into insignificance however 
when compared with the exploits of Dyfed's most famous pirate - Barti Ddu or Black Bart. 



Bom in 1682 in the village of, Bartholemew Roberts was perhaps one of the most successful pirates 
of all time, and is reputed to have been first to hoist the Skull and Crossbones flag, universally 
recognised as the dreaded hall-mark of pirate vessels. 

He first went to sea at the age of thirteen, serving in naval vessels during the war of the Spanish 
Succession, and after a number of years on board slaving vessels, he joined the crew of the Royal 
Rover, a pirate vessel in 1719. Within a few months, the captain of this vessel was killed in an 
engagement, and such was the esteem with which the crew already regarded Roberts, that he was 
made captain. Within a short period of time he sailed down to Brazil, and in the sight of forty 
Portugese men o'war, captured the prize vessel, Sagrada Familia, bearing a cargo worth about two 
and a half million pounds in present day terms. 

This was to be the first in a series of daring raids and actions that returned a fortune in excess of 
eighty million pounds for Roberts and his crew by 1721. Despite his fierce reputation, Bartholomew 
Roberts had a number of beliefs and habits not usually associated with the accepted image of a 
pirate captain. He was a strict tee-totaller and Sabbatarian, and allowed no gambling nor prostitution 
on board his vessels. When engaging his intended prize, he appeared on deck dressed in a crimson 
coat and breeches to the accompaniment of a band that sailed everywhere with him. 

This flamboyant character ultimately met his end however off St Lopez in January 1722, where he 
was confronted by H.M.S. Swallow commanded by Captain Chaloner Ogle. Ogle, who had been 
given a particular commission to seek out and destroy pirate vessels, hoisted the flag of a Portugese 
merchantman, and Roberts moved in for the prize. As he came alongside. Ogle opened fire, and the 
pirate captain, conspicuous in all his finery, was killed in the first exchange. His crew, utterly 
demoralised by the death of their captain, surrendered, and many were later hanged. 

So ended Black Barty's life as a pirate, a life that he is said to have described as he lay dying a ' a 

merry life, and a short one' " [Pat Sewell 19.4.2000 D ] 



David Morgan 1694 Yeoman Little Newcastle emigrated before Quaker Immigrated to 
Pennsylvania Glenn 's Welsh Founders of Pennsylvania 



140 



deRupe Adam cl200 Roch Little Newcastle Church granted to Pille Priory church of St 
Kewit de Steynton granted monastery of Pill Perns — New Moat Church foundation charter to Pill 
Priory Acc to charter! 5 Edw In 8 Pembrokeshire Parsons Dug Monastic 



Gilbert de Vale 1234 also granted to Fitz MartinNicholas lord of Kernes pleas of theft and 
murder in all his lands in Kemes except Little Newcastle 



de Vale Robert 1268 the last of the male line who was one of the leading men in 
Pembrokeshire in the reign of Edward 1 He was a witness to the charterof Wallensis Thomas 
mentioned above and to the Precelli charterof Nicholas Fitz Martin in which last he is described as 
a Knight" He had bought land at Little Newcastle of Isabella the wife of Roger the Carver and 
there is extant a bond by Isabella for the quiet enjoyment of the land by the lord Robert de Vale 
under a penalty of one hundred pounds of silver and excommunication by the Lord Bishop of St 
David's " 



John Moses 1 October 1781 Llanych Overseer of the poor Offence Neglect of duty 
by refusing to support Elizabeth Jones and her children, her husbandGeorge Jones , Little 
Newcastle, militiaman, having substituted for Edward Jenliins, who had been balloted for the 
quota of Llanych- Llanych Prosecutor Martha Mathias, Thomas Richard & John Rees 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



John Thomas 23 February 1797 Little Newcastle Yeoman Offence Treason - aiding and 
abetting the French army, numbering one thousandand four hundred soldiers, in their invasion of the 
Kingdom. On examination 'some of the French... observed a great many more than three hundred 
soldiers he the said Thomas John replied that half were women with red flannels'. Prisoner 
spoke English.. John Reed of Llanwnda, Yeoman, implicated but not indicted Llanwnda 
ProsecutorRichard Foley, deputy clerk to the crown. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Lloid Edward 1536 lease Little Newcastle Rectory State Papers. 



Morgan David 1694 farmer Little Newcastle emigrated to Pennsylvania before 1694 Acc 
to A History of Quakers in Pembrokeshire by Stephen Griffith. 



141 



Owen David 6 February 1821 St LawrenceLabourer Offence Poisoning his spouse Owen 
Margaret with intent to murder her by mixing copperas with 'guts' which had been prepared for 
her, Prisoner aged 28, St Lawrence Prosecutor Reynolds, Martha Little Newcastle, Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Robert Mary 24 August 1766 Little Newcastle Singlewoman Offence Infanticide of a male 
bastard child of Morgan Mary, Little Newcastle, widow, by throwing him against the ground. 
Little Newcastle Guilty. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Roch Adam late 12c Roch Castle -founder of family was Adam, who founded Pill Priory at 
the close of the 12th century in the general words at the end of his charter he gives the churches of 
all the lands he had acquired he must have added considerably to the family acres, for he gives to 
St. Mary, St. Budoc, and the order of Tiron, the land on which the Priory was built, other lands in 
Roose and at New Moat, and the churches of St. Cewydd now St. Peter at Stainton, St. Mary of 
Roch St. David now St. Peter of Little Newcastle, and St. Nicholas of New Moat. 



Seaborn Lettice 24 August 1766 Alias Lettice Sober Little Newcastle Married 
Offence Infanticide of male bastard child of Mary Morgan, Little Newcastle, widow, by throwing 
him against the ground. Little Newcastle Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Smith John 10 July 1830 Little Newcastle Labourer Offence Breaking and entering 
prosecutor's house and stealing wearing apparel belonging to prosecutor, Maria Salmon and David 
Williams, Prisoner aged 24, Little Newcastle Prosecutor Vaughan Thomas Verdict Guilty, 
Punishment Death Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Sir John Stepney of Prendergast, Perns. Bart., The tithes of Little Newcastle were in 1645 owned 
by Sir John Stepney of Prendergast, Pems. Bart., who was MP., for Haverfordwest in 1640. 



David John 1670 Lt Newcastle H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David Margarett 1670 Lt Newcastle P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 



142 



David Thomas 1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan David 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Edward 



1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Morgan 1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Phillip 1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Thomas 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Evan Thomas 



1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Howell Thomas 1670 Lt Newcastle H2 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Jeffery Edward 1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Sibell 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Thomas 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Watkin 



1670 Lt Newcastle H2 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Lewis David 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



143 



Morgan William 1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Owen John 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Rayad James 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Richard Griffith 1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Richard Griffith 1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Richard James 



1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Robert George 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Symyns John 1670 Lt Newcastle Colston H3 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Thomas Evan 



1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



William Owen 



1670 Lt Newcastle H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



WUliam Watkin 1670 Lt Newcastle P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

The Parish of Little Newcastle -Mrs Bevans School The Reverend P D Richardson Curate, 
pays for the cottage in which this school is held. It is in good repair, and there are plenty of 
benches , but no desks, except planks lent by the farmers, which are used as desks. The room is far 



144 



too small to accommodate the scholars. The Reverend Mr Rischardson spoke very highly of the 
master. The school has been the means of doing much good already. The scholars are the children of 
farmers, mechanics and labourers. The school was closed for the holidays, and would not reopen for 
a fortnight. The master was from home. January 11* 1847 Wm Morris Assistant 

A single storeyed, single-roomed building with small entrance porch in gable-end. Appears to be 
annotated school on OS 1/2500 First Edition. 

Sites of Interest — Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 
Colston Cromlechau 

About mile south east of Little Newcastle village on the farm of Ffynnonau is a small but perfect 
cromlech, and on its south side the ruined remains of a second. The first cromlech is separated from 
the road to Beulah bridge by a fence which is carried iover the mound on which the stones are 
placed. The capstone measuring 82 in by 75 in with a thickness of 37 in, is supported on three short 
stone pillars. The structure stands east and west. The stones of the second cromlech were broken up 
about the year 1815. This is said to have had a "room under it". Endeavours were made to remove 
the ring of stones around the comlechs; a sufficient number yet remain to show that the mound had 
a base circumference of some 350ft. About 50 yds due south of the cromlechs is a pointed stone 
standing 40 in above ground, which may have been connected with them. The existing cromlech is 
usually spoken of as "the Altar" - Visited 28* October 1914. 

Castell Pentre 

A semi circular enclosure 500 yds south east of Pentre farmhouse, and half a mile north west of 
Little Newcastle village; the high road forms the chord of the arc. The rampart 400ft in length, is 
best preserved on the north side where its height is 6ft, with a fall of 10ft to a 10ft ditch. The 
interior is level. To the south of the existing rampart and closely adjoining it , is a strong spring, 
with a slightly sunken trackway leading from enclosure. On the further side of the road are traces 
which suggest the possibility of this having been a circular work.-- Visited 30* October 1914. 

Summerton Camp 

The following account is by Lieut.- Colonel W.Ll. Morgan R.E., F.S.A., 

" This work is one of the most difficult to classify, as either it has been much destroyed, or else the 
defenses when at their best must have been of the most feeble description. It consists of an oval 
enclosure and circular keep, situated on the mountain side, with the ground sloping upwards to the 
north, and protected to some extent by a steep slope to the south. The outer enclosure is 310ft by 
250 ft, and a rampart to thr north against the hill is 7ft high with a 10ft fall to a ditch 5ft deep. To 
the south it is 2ft high, with 7ft fall to a ditch 2ft deep. The inner enclosure or keep is 120ft in 
diameter; the rampart is 3ft with 6ft fall to a ditch 4ft deep; the inner rampart to the north is thus 4ft 
lower than the outer. An entrance for both is to the east, and the outer enclosure has a further 
entrance to the west leaving a terrace between the two enclosures." 



145 



Although possessing many of the features of a Romano-British earth work, this camp is probably of 
Norman origin, and its wooden defences having decayed, the earthen foundations of the keep are all 
that remains of a once formidable work - Visited 30"^ October 1914 

New Castle 

In the centre of the village adjoining the parish church is a mound which has been much tampered 
with. It is grass grown, and its surface is somewhat irregular. The summit diameter varies from 
about 150ft from east to west to about 100ft from north to south. The height is about 10ft. .The ditch 
is obliterated. The dry summer of 1914 revealed signs of stone foundations beneath the soil. To the 
west of the mound are indications of the bailey, to faint to permit of further description. In close 
proximity to the work is a strong spring. This is doubtless the site of the New Castle built in the 12 
century by Adam de Rupe - Visited 28* October 1914. 

Ffynnon Olden 

A never failing spring about 500 yds north west of the village; the water was formerly in repute for 
certain infantile ailments, but no traditions exist which exhibit it as a sacred well. The name by 
which it is known is probably that of a former owner or occupier of the site - Visited 30"* October 
1914 

Pare Castell 

Two fields about one third of a mile north of Castell Pentre. The reason for the name is not 
apparent, there being nothing tin yhe nature of an earthwork -Visited 30* October 1914 



146 



Llandilo (Llandeilo) 



1834 Acc/to the Topographical Dictionary of Wales - S. Lewis 

Llandilo (Llan-Deilo), a parish in the hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke 1 1 miles N of 
Narberth containing 117 inhabitants. This parish, which is not of very great extent is pleasantly 
situated in the eastern part of the county bordering on Carmarthenshire. It derives its name from 
dedication of its church to St Teilo one of the most eminent saints of British antiquity who 
flourished in the latter part of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th c. The surface is boldly undulated 
and in some parts rises into abrupt eminences, among which are some of the highest summits of the 
Precelly range of Mountains. The lands are but partially enclosed and cultivated; and the soil is 
various being in some parts fertile and in others thin and poor. Slate of good quality is found in 
abundance within the parish; some quarries of it are worked with advantage, the produce consisting 
of roofing slates, which are in high estimation. The living is a perpetual curacy annexed to that of 
Llangolman in the archdeaconry and diocese of St David's and endowed with £800 royal bounty. 
There is a place of worship for Independents. The average annual expenditure for the support of the 
poor is £17 10s. 



1847 State of Education in Wales 

There is no resident clergy and the the church is down but there is a Perpetual Curate . It is an 
agricultural parish with labourers receiving 8d a day with food and Is a day on their own finding. 
There is one resident land proprietor with no provision for education of the poor of which 
approxmately 18 children are without any education.Many of the population can read but not write. 

Information George Harries Perpetual Curate of Llandilo 
Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

There appears to be no mention of this church in the Valor Eccl. 

George Owen, writing in 1594, states that it was a curacy appertaining to the vicarage of Maen- 
clochog, which vicarage was then in the Queen's hands, as belonging to the monastery [of St. 



147 



Dogmaels] - (Owen's Pern.) 

In 1536-7 a lease of the rectory of Llandeilo (lately owned by the abbey of St. Dogmaels) was 
granted for 21 years to John Leche of La Haddin (Lawhaden). - (State Papers.) 



1765 Under the heading "Not in Charge":- Llandeilo Cur. (St. Teilaw). The church down — united 
to Maenclochogg. HughBoylen, clerk, 1765. - (Bacon's Liber Regis.) 

The benefices of Llandeilo, Llangolman, and Maencloch-clochog were united be an Order in 
Council, dated 11 July, 1877. 

1898 The church of Llandeilo is now in ruins, and has been in that state for over 70 years. In 1898 
the walls of the nave were nearly gone; the chancel with part of the east wall was then standing, but 
in some places the walls were only 4ft. high or less. - (Arch. Camb., Ser. V. Vol. 15, p 277.) 

1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 

Passing by Temple- Druid, the site of a now destroyed cromlech, we arrive at Llandilo, where we 
search in vain for the church : for this sparsely-peopled parish has been merged into that of 
Maenclochog, in consequence of which the sacred edifice has been allowed to fall into 
disrepair, and is now represented by a few crumbling walls smothered in rank, untended ivy. 
Crossing the stone stile that gives access to the churchyard, we espy upon its southern side a slab of 
greenstone bearing, in rudely- chased letters, the inscription : coimagni fili caveti. A similar stone 
near the east end of the ruined chancel has also its superscription, which reads : ANDAGELli iacit ; 
with a fainter line, possibly fili CNOI, below ; and over all a cross with tridented terminations. 

The earliest incumbent of Llandeilo, of whom there is record, is William Rees, who held it and also 
Maenclochog in 1617. 

1811 The following note appears in Llangolman Bishop Transcript 1811:" 1 hereby certify that 
there are no registers in the parish of Llandilo and that all were for these last twenty years entered 
in the register of the parish of Llangolman". 

1851 No return for the Parish Church 

1929. St Teilo, Llandilo (in ruins) The church was a ruin by 1930. 



148 



The Parish Church Dedicated to St Teilo 

This church has been deserted for nearly a century. It shows the ruins of a small building, 
comprising nave 18ft by 8 Vi ft chancel 14ft by 1 1ft and south door. The round headed chancel arch 
still stands but ruin is fast overcoming it. It is 8ft high to the crown, 6ft wide and 2 ft thick. 
Round the nave there ran a low stone bench. 

The ecclesiastical parish with that of Llangohnan was united to Maenclochog by Order in Council 
of 11 July 1877. 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 

Llandilo (S. Teilo). — ^Here is a Chalice and Paten cover of peculiar interest, bearing the hall marks 
of 1639 and maker's mark L.B with what appears to be a crescent beneath. Under the plain bowl 
which rests upon a trumpet-shaped stem and base, is a collar or flange. This form of cup was made 
in the reign of Edward VI and some examples are found in the early Elizabethan period. Its re- 
appearance between 1630 and 1640 when the popular pattern was the baluster stem or a modified 
Elizabethan shape is very remarkable. Mr. Wilfred Cripps thought that this resemblance was too 
marked to be accidental and gave it as his opinion that the silversmith who 'revived' the fashion 
must have been well acquainted with the work of the Edwardian and early Elizabethan smiths . On 
the bowl of the Llandilo chalice is inscribed " Llandylo Parish " Height, 5 in.; diam. of bowl, 3 in.; 
depth, in.; The Paten cover which is quite plain has been roughly used; diam. 4ui.; height, an in.; 
weight, 3 oz. 3 dwts. The inscription on the cup is here repeated. 

Inscribed Stones 

Two incribed stones which formally stood in the churchyard, have recently been erected on either 
side of the primitive wicker gate. 

The taller stone stands 68 in above the soil. It bears in Roman letters the inscription ANDAGELL - 
lACIT FILI CAVETI, and in Ogam ANDAGELLI MACU CAVI. The head of the stone above the 
inscription, carries a Latin cross, the ends being forked. 

The second stone stands 40in above the soil. It has the simple incription in Roman letters - 
COLMAGNI FILI CAVETI. 

Unfortunately both stones have been so fixed as to be exposed to the full force of the prevailing 
winds and rain, and in consequence are weathering badly. It is much to be desired that they should 
be removed to a place of shelter and safety - Visited 9* October 1914 

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994 

Llandeilo Llwydarth St Teilo 

149 



Only the lower part of the walls of this remote church now survive although it was roofed until 

early this century. In a brick pump house serving the nearby farm is St Teilo's well. It was said to be 
the skull of the saint himself and has now vanished, (but see the Welsh Churchman May 1994 page 
4). 

The waters were said to be effective as a cure only if drunk early in the morning out of part of the 
skull which was purchased by museum officials in 1950 



St Teilo's Church, Llandilo, RCAHMW 

The ruined nave and chancel (possibly 12th century) of the church of St Teilo, abandoned by 
C.1850, are set within a circular churchyard at Llandilo. Two inscribed pillar stones of early 
medieval date have been removed from the site and installed in Maenclochog church. J.Wiles 
21.03.02 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

Chapel ~ Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

At a distance of Vi a mile north of the deserted parish church, is the ruined chapel known as Hendy 
cwrdd "the old meeting-house " ; they show a building 40ft by 15 ft, with a door to the south. The 
headstones cover the years 1752 to 1840, some of those of the 19"* century marking burials within 
the foundation walls of the chapel. - Visited 9* October 1914. 

1851 Llandilo Ind Erected before 1800, rebuilt in 1845 Benjn James, Independent Minister, 
Llandilo 

Chapel [Independents, 1714]. Buih 1714 modified, altered or rebuilt 1786, 1845,1882 and 1931 
Still open 1998 - Shown as still open on the Union of Welsh Independents site Dec 2006 

Landilo Hearth Tax 1670 

Evan John - Landilo- H 



150 



Thomas Griffith - 



Llandilovach Landilo-H4 



Howell Evan - 



Landilo- 



H2 



Melcher William - 



Landilo- 



H2 



Griffithes Griffith - Landilo- 



H2 



Sites of Interest 

St Teilo's Well, Llandilo RCAHMW 
HOLYWELL 

Spring in rough stone grit enclosure, reputation for healing properties, the water being drunk from 
part of a human skull. 



St Teilo's well and skuU RCAM 
St Teilo's Well 

This is a strong and never failing spring which rises about 100yds north east of St Teilo's church, on 
the farm owned and occupied for many generations by a family named Melchior. The well is a plain 
roughly constructed stone girt enclosure which, it is clear was never intended for the total 

immersion of adults. The overflow passes into a pond. There are no remins of early masonry at the 
well head. The water has a widespread reputation for the healing of pulmonary complaints , and still 
attracts pilgrims from far and near. 



St Teilo's Skull 

The receptacle from which the water is drunk is a human skull - the reputed skull of St Teilo, in 
Welsh called "Penglog Teilo" of which the representative of the Melchior family residing at the 

farm is the hereditary keeper. To ensure the full benefit of the water the skull must be completely 
filled and the vessel offered to the pilgrim only by the senior living member of that family. The 
cranium is evidently old and is polished from constant handling. Apart of the superciliary ridge 
remains and this is of a slight elevation as to make it almost certain that the skull is that of a female, 
while the open sutures point to the same conclusion. 



151 



Until well within recent years the skull was in constant requisition. Most of the votaries were 
sufferers from tuberculosis; but many visiters came to register pios vows, and in the early days of 
the recent war pilgrims visited the well to drink from the relic to a speedy termination of hostilities. 
The late Mrs Melchior, who died at a great age, remembered persons coming from Haverfordwest 
and more distant places. When as a child she herself suffered from whooping cough, she was taken 
to the welland made to drink out of the skull. There appears to be no doubt that the skull is a 
genuine pre-Reformation relic. —Visited 2P' September 1914. 



According to information from Llandeilo Llwydiarth - The Well and the Skull by Kemmis Buckley 
MBE, DL, MA 

For nearly five hundred and fifty years the skull of St Teilo was held in the keeping of two families, 
the Mathews and the Melchiors. In 1403 the tomb was pillaged and desecrated. Shortly after this 
Owen Glyndwr sacked both the Cathedral church and the Bishops' Palace and the necessary work of 
restoration to the Saint's tomb was undertaken by Sir David Mathew presumably because his family 
had come to be thought of as its keepers. As a reward for this act of devotion, the Bishop gave Sir 
David the skull of the saint, set in a costly reliquary, to be an heirloom in his family 

The reliquary remained in the hands of the Mathew family for seven generations until William 
Mathew died without issue at Llandeilo Llwydiarth in 1658. Before he died William handed the 
skull, by that time taken from its reliquary, to the Melchior family who owned Llandeilo farm; and 
it remained in their possession until this century. A few hundred yards from the farm is St Teilo's 
Well (Ffynnon Deilo). The water, which is bland to the palate, has recently been tested and found to 
be drinkable. In earlier times the overflow must have fallen into a pond, the outlines of which can 
still be seen. 

The water was said to be particularly effective in the treatment of chest complaints and it was 
doubly so if it was drunk out of the skull. The height of efficacy came when the skull, filled with 
well water, was handed to the sufferer by the hands of the hereditary keeper himself 

The said skull of St Teilo is, I am informed, reputed to have been taken from St Teilo's Tomb in the 
fifteenth century by Bishop Marshall and to have been given by him to Sir David Mathew and to 
have remained in the Mathew family until the year 1658. It is reputed to have been kept in 
Llandeilo by one, William Mathew, a descendant and on his death that year to have been given into 
possession of the family of Melchior, to which family I belong. It has certainly been in the 
possession of the Melchior family for a very considerable period, and has been for eight years past 
in my possession and during the whole of my recollection at Llandeilo. It have been agreed to sell 
the said skull to Gregory Macalister Mathews desendant of the above named Sir David Mathew for 
the sum of £50. When he had received the skull Gregory Mathews had it examined by Sir Arthur 
Keith, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, 'who pronouced it of undoubted antiquity, of Welsh 
origin and of a small man between fifty and sixty years of age' Having done this he had the relic set 
in a reliquary. 



152 



It is a curious fact that whereas the whereabouts of the skull were widely known from 1450 to the 
time Gregory Mathews acquired it in 1927, it became progressively more difficult to trace 
thereafter. This may well have been because Gregory Mathews and his son Alister both lived in 
England and their ties with Wales were loosened. When I began the search in 1991, the trail had 
gone completely cold and I began to think I would have to make inquiries in Australia as the relic 
might well have gone to the descendants of Gregory Mathews' brother who was mentioned in his 
will. In fact the skull had gone to Australia: Alister Mathews had died in 1985 but before this he had 
sent the relic to his cousins in New South Wales.This remarkable story ends when the present Dean 
of Llandaff, the Very Revd. John Rogers, rang me up in early February this year to say that Captain 
Robert Mathews, the Hereditary Keeper, would be coming from Hong Kong to present the skull to 
the Cathedral at Sung Eucharist on St Teilo's Day, 9 February 1994. The skull had come home for 
the first time since 1450. 

At The service the Chancellor in his address told us that it would eventually be placed in a reliquary 
in St Teilo's Chapel. 



The Prescelly Group Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

On the highest point of the Prescelly range 1760 ft above o.d. is a small group of Tumuli. Mounds 
occur over the entire length of the range and on both sides of it, some appearing to stand singly 
others so close together of two or three that their proximity must be intentional. 

What seems to be the principle member of the group now in question was opened by Fenton in 
1806. His account, which is valuable not only for his description of what he found but for the 
complacent story of his method of exploration, runs as follows :- 

"In the autumn of that year, having had permission from Lord Milford to explore any part of the 
waste within his manors, for antiquities, and wishing to examine the contents of the most 
conspicuous barrow in the county, a day was appointed for the undertaking, and a party made up of 
all the beauty and fashion of the county to attend this solemn ceremony. Though I had ten miles to 
travel, such was my zeal for the business I was at my post on the mountain top by sunrise, with the 
pioneers. The morning was remarkably clear and mild, the view most charming, and everything 
auspicious to our plans. 

We were not long at work before we discovered that under the outer greensward there was a 
camedd of pretty large stondes. We removed those in the centre, and came to a large coarse stone 
that covered a circular cist regularly lined round with flags, and with a flag at bottom, on which an 
urn was placed with with its mouth dounwards; but in consequence of the side flags of the cist 
having in the lapse of time departed from their perpendicular, the incumbant stone thereby sinking, 
had crushed the urn that came out in several fragments, yet leaving sufficient of it together to enable 
the young draughtsman, my son, to form an accurate idea of its dimensions and shape. The pottery 



153 



was very rude and ill baked, but the model elegant, and the ornaments singular and more varied 
than usual. In one part there was a raised line encircling it.... the urn contained a large quantity of 
charcoal ashes and small pieces of bone, not perfectly calcined . 

T then proceeded to make sections of two smaller tumuli, but as they were composed of spongy turf 
and heavy whitish clay, the work was tedious and could not go on with spirit -{tour 349)" 

The rifled monument is again grass grown, but the marks of the operations of 1806 are still 
perceptible. The cairn is built of local stones and has a base circumference of 300ft with a height of 
5ft. On its summit has been a modem construction for bonfires. Examination of the disturbed placs 
shows much white quartz stone on the surface 



154 



Llanfair Nant Gwyn 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day with 
food and Is a day on their own finding. There is no resident land proprietor or day school provision 
for education of the poor of but almost all go to Sunday school. Many of the population can read but 
not write. Information from Thomas Griffiths Dyffryn Manor Eglwyswrw 

Llanfair Nant Gwyn 

1839 Llanvair Nantgwyn (Llan-Fair-Y-Nant-Gwyn)Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 

Llanvair-Nantgwyn (Llan-Fair-Y-Nant-Gwyn), a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of 
Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 7 miles (S. by E.) from Cardigan; containing 241 
inhabitants. This parish, which is pleasantly situated in the north-eastem part of the county, derives 
its name from the dedication of its church to St. Mary, and the distinguishing adjunct to its name, 
probably from the abundance of white quartz stones scattered over the lands and in the bed of a 
brook by which it is watered. It comprehends a tract of about 1400 acres of rather flat but dry land, 
for the most part inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation; the soil, though light, is in general 
fertile, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture. The scenery is not distinguished by 
any peculiarity of feature, but from the higher grounds are some good prospects over the adjacent 
country. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty; net income £80; patron 
and impropriator, Thomas Bowen, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of 
£105. The church is not distinguished by any architectural details of importance. There is a place of 
worship for Baptists, with a Sunday school held in it. John Jones, in 1729, bequeathed a rent- 
charge of 205. to the poor, and a similar sum to the officiating minister for preaching four sermons 
annually; but this charity is at present suspended. 

Church St Mary's 

1855 isolated church designed by R. J. Withers wooden spire. 
The Parish Church dedicated to St Mary RCAM 

A modem building consisting of nave, chancel and porch. Nothing has been preserved from the 
former church except a few tablets now fixed against the west wall - Visited 8* September 1914 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994. 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features 



155 



Acc/to Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

This living is a perpetual curacy now held in plurality with Whitechurch Rectory. In pre- 
Reformation times it was a free chapel and was with the free chapel of Penkelly Vachan held with 
the vicarage of Eglwyswrw which was appropriated to the abbey of St. Dogmaels. 
In 1594 the living is described as a free chapel curacy, in the hands of the King.Owen's Pern. 
Under the heading 'Not in Charge' :-Llanvair Nant-gwyn C. (St. Mary), annexed to Whitchurch. £3 
certified value. - {Bacon's Liber Regis.) 



Mining Llanfair nant gwyn 

Un-named Mine Exact location not known; trials carried out in south eastern part of the parish at 
some date prior to 1875 



Sites of Interest 
CasteU Coch 

The remains of a circular earthwork are barely perceptible on a field known as Pare CasteU Coch 
half a mile to the north east of the parish church. The diameter of the enclosed area is about 200 ft. 
Nowhere is the bank above 2ft in height, and in places it has disapeared. The east side is merged 
into a hedge which probably conceals the entrance. Any ditch which may have surrounded the bank 
has disapeared. The third field west of the earthwork is known by the name Pare y ffynnon goch it 
contains a good spring. The field next east is called Pare y cerrig gwynion - Visited 8* September 
1914. 

CasteU Duffryn Mawr 

This is a fine Norman mound placed practically on the western boundary line of the parish, about 
50yds to the south east of Dyffryn Mawr farm house. It rises to a height of over 20 ft from the 
bottom of the surrounding ditch. The centre of the summit which is 60 ft in diameter has a saucer 
like depression of some 10ft. Around this basin are the stone foundations, 5 Yi ft wide, of what was 
probably the turret ore manor house. The ditch is 8ft wide and 10ft deep; the counterscarp is 
crowned with a thick quickset hedge. There are no signs of a bailey. The field on which the mound 
stands is still known as Pare y domen. 



156 



In the spring of 1920 a narrow trench was driven into the west side of the mound , revealing two 
post holes each about one foot square, in the hard soil just outside the stone stone foundations. At 
the foot of each hole was a bed of decayed timber a foot thick Visited 22°'' April 1920. 

St Meugan's well 

The well chapel of St Meugan has entirely disapeared, but there is no doubt that its site is occupied 
by the farmstead of Pisctill Meugan which is situated immediately on the parish boundary , rather 
more than half a mile east by north of the parish church. It was a site for fairs and also of the game 
of knappen between the Kemes men and the Emiyn men against the men of Cardiganshire. 
However an order was received from London " Thes are to will and require you being gent'men to 
us knowne to be well affected and forwarde in her Ma'tes service and good of the countrie 
forthwidth with all convenient spede and to repaire to the place called St Meygans where somtyme 
offerings & superstitions pilgrymages have bene used, and there cause to be pulled downe and 
utterlie defaced all reliques and monuments of that chappell, not leaving one stone thereof upon 
another". 

A strong spring still flows in the foldyard of Pistill Meugan Farm but of the chapel not a trace 
remains above ground. Visited 8* September 1914. 

Carn Our 

The third field of Meugan Well farm is so called but the name is not remembered, and no local 
traditions that would explain it seem to have survived. 

Pare Maengwyn ueha and issa 

Two fields belonging to Berthwyd Farm. In the headge are a few white quartz stones which appear 
to be natural features Visited 8"" September 1914 

Bwleh y garreg Iwyd. 

This is a farm at the place indicated. The name is doubtless to be associated with Pare y maen Uwyd 
the site of a removed maenhir. About 600 yds east of Bwlch y garreg Iwyd farmhouse is the 
homestead of Cwm Bettws, a name betokening a small religious building of which no traces 
remain. The latter site is a little over a mile directly north of Pistill Meugan. 



157 



Llanfyrnach 

A hamlet to the SE of Crymych. Surprisingly, in such a Welsh area, the church has a tower unusual 
in a welsh area. There used to be much industry hereabouts - traces can be seen in the abandoned 
lead workings NE of the hamlet and in the massive slate quarry at Glogue. Slates from this quarry 
used on the roof of the Palace of Westminster. 
Damaged Ogham stone in nearby Glandwr Chapel. 



1811 Fenton Tours Llanvyrnach 

Still pursuing the vale , and at no great distance from the margin of the river, I come to Llanvymack 
church, of mean structure, with a glebe house near, having an air of neatness and comfort. Not far 
from the church, adjoining a farmhouse, is an immense tumulus, such as frequently occurs in this 
county; and as 1 have often had occasion to remark, might have been in after ages surmounted with 
the usual wooden caste let for the defence of the pass. 

Though all the churches in this district and all around the range of our mountains ,are dedicated to 
St Bemach, this is the only one that bears his name; and Edward Llhwyd, in a MS note of his, has 
preserved a curious tradition to account for it. On the saints coming into this country, he first 
stopped at Llanbeudy, where he was lodges in a cow house, and therefore gave the church a name 
significant of his reception; from thence he went to Cilymaenllwyd, where missing entertainment he 
was forced to shelter himself under a grey stone the maen Uwyd, and so named the church; but at 
Llanvyrnach, being better treated, he called the church after his own name. 

Still following the course of the Tave,l come to the lead mines of Llanvyrnach, situated close to the 
banks of the river, where though now stopped , there are evident indications of its having been a 
great work. For some years this mining adventure was carried on with great success, and held out so 
flattering a prospect from the quantity and quality of the ore raised as to become a fair object of 
speculation, and induced several gentlemen of the first rank and fortune in the country, by 
increasing the capital of the concern, to give new life to the works. That the acting part of the 
concern thus assisted derived great wealth fi-om this little Potosi is too well known; but I fear the 
sleeping partners, who were the main spring of the enterprise, had not even lead for their gold. 

The land involving these mines was the only remnant left of the once immense estate that 
appertained to the house of Blaenbullen, and was the property of the late Maurice Morgan Esq. The 
last of that name and family, whom it just survived, having been sold by his executrix soon after his 
death, and now belongs to Thomas Lloyd Esq of Bronwydd. 

There was a report in circulation two or three years ago, that the works were to be revived with 
suitable means, on a much greater scale, and the better to contribute to it, that there was a project of 



158 



making the Tave navigable for that purpose, a plan I conceive would not be difficult to accomplish 
from the nature of the level, and if ever carried into execution, could not fail to be of incalculable 
advantage to this interior part of Pembrokeshire,and the adjoining counties, and consequently the 
most remote from coal and lime, those great contributors to the melioration of the soil, which is 
naturally good, and the advancement of agriculture. 



1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

Llanvimach 

The neighbouring village of Llanvimach is said to derive its name from the following 
circumstance. When the good St. Bymach was makhig his pilgrimage through this portion of the 
country, he could at first obtain no better quarters than a cowshed ; thus, as the story goes, arose the 
name of Llanbeudy, theJChurch of the Cowhouse. The next day the saint fared even worse, for, 
coming to Cilmaenllwyd, he was obliged, for lack of better accommodation, to repose beneath the 
gray cromlech that gives the place its name. The third night, however, St. Bymach came to a place 
where he was accorded a kindly welcome, and provided with a comfortable night's lodging. 
Overcome with gratitude for this hospitable reception, St. Bymach declared the place should ever 
after bear his own name ; and hence it is called to this day Llanvimach, or the Church of St. 
Bjmiach. 



Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 1833 



LLANVYRNACH (LLAN-VRYNACH), a parish in the hundred of KEMMES, county of 
PEMBROKE, SOUTH WALES, 8 miles (S.W.) from Newcastle-Emlyn, containing 979 inhabitants. 
This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, is situated in the north eastem 
part of the county, bordering upon Carmarthenshire, and comprises an extensive fract of land, of 
which the greater portion is enclosed and cultivated. The surrounding scenery, though not 
characterized by any peculiarity of feature, is generally pleasing and in some instances picturesque: 
the soil, though inferior in fertility to that of other parts of the county, is not unproductive. An 
extensive common, connected with Precelly mountain, rises to the west of the village, but an 
enclosure of land was made in the parish a few years ago. On the banks of the river Taf, and at no 
great distance from its source, are some extensive lead mines, which were formerly worked with 
great success; but for some years the works have been suspended. The living is a discharged rectory, 
in the arch-deaconry of Cardigan, and diocese of St. David's, rated in the king's books at £10, and in 
the patronage of the King, as Prince of Wales. The church, dedicated to St. Brynach, is not 
remarkable for any architectural details of importance. There are places of worship for Baptists and 



159 



Presbj^erians. On the common above the church are four large erect stones, visible at a great 
distance, marking out, according to tradition, the graves of two chieftains who were slain in a 
desperate battle which is said to have been fought near that spot: and near the church is a large 
tumulus, which is supposed to have been surmounted by a castle, or fort, to defend the pass. There 
are several mineral springs within the parish but their peculiar properties have not been ascertained. 
The average annual expenditure for the maintenance of the poor is £194. 9s 



Parish Church dedicated to St Brynach Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

NB The church was appropriated to the Knights Hospitallers of Slebech by Robert son of Stephen 
under the title ecclesia Sancti Bemachi de Blaentav 

The present structure was erected in 1842. It consists of nave , chancel, and low west tower. The 
font is a plain octagonal basin of 25 Vi in. exterior and 20in. interior diameter, chamfering off to an 
octagonol shaft of modem masonry; the base id concealed beneath the wooden floor. On one of the 
faces of the bowl the letters T.D. have been rudely cut - Visited 16* September 1914. 

Lost Inscribed Stone 

A sepulchral slab bearing an inscription appears to have been in existence in this church at the 
commencement of the 1 8* century. A hitherto unpublished letter written to Edward Lhuyd on the 
26* September 1708 by Mt Ddavid Lewis of Pnat y benne Llanboidy, co Carmarthen runs as 
follows :- 

"Happened to be at Llanvimach Church in the County of Pembroke 1 took notice of a stone lying 
under the altar in the chancel about two ft. broad each waye and Sin. Thick It was a sort of ragged 
milstone of the nature of the stone at Parke. 1 turned the stone, and ordered yit to be washed, and 
there discovered some lettrs which 1 have transcribed to the best of my endevor and care thus 

TAVUS — Fl but it seems yet there [are] more lettrs, but yet they were woren out or yet the 

stone laid in some other place regardless till it was carried there. The first letters gives me some 
apprehension or light yet from Tavus the man whos sepulchral monument it was the river Tafer 
might be denominated, for this place being within two short miles to the spring of yt river. Morover, 
here is a Barrow about the bigness of yt att Llanboydy, hollow within and about 5 or 6yds deep and 
about the bigness of a cocpit in the bottom, and a camp about a bow shot from it. And some 
farmers bouse near this church called y Tre fawr joi'r dheubarth, and the old Roman way menc' oned 
in my description of Lhanboydy is visible here as[? In} several places the east side of the river 
(Ashmolean Collection, No 1816, fo 38 Bodleian Library)" 

It is probable that this important inscribed stone was utilised in the rebuilding of the church in 1 842, 
and may lie hidden in the modem stmcture, or it may have been removed at that date to one of the 
neighbouring farmsteads. Careful search should be made for it, and in subsequent alterations to the 
church its possible presence in the walls should not be forgotten. 



160 



I 

Acc/to The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features 

Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

Described as Ecclesia Sancti Bemachi de Blaentav in Bemeys, the church of Llanfnnach, with 100 
acres of land, was granted by Robert, the son of Stephen, to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of 
Jerusalem. — Anselm's Confirm. Charter. 

This grantor was the son of Stephen, constable of Cardigan Castle, and Nesta his wife, the daughter 
of Rhys ap Tudor, Prince of South Wales widow of Gerald de Windsor. On the dissolution of the 
establishment of Slebech, this living came into the hands of the Crown. 

Described as Ecclesia Sancti Bemaci super Taff, this church was in 1291 assessed at £6 13 s. 4d. for 
tenths to the King. - Taxatio. 

Uanvemach super Tave. — Ecelesia ibidem ex coUaci-one preceptoris de Slebech unde Thomas 
Lloid clericus est rector valet eommunibus annis dare £10. Inde decima 20s. - Valor Eccl. 
Under the heading 'livings Discharged': lanver-nach alias Llan Femach R. (St. Brynach). Precept-de 
Slebech Patr. The Prince of Wales.. Clear yearly value, £40, £60 - Bacon's Liber Regis. 

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles, 

St Brynach received a warm welcome here after failing to find shelter elsewhere and gave the place 
his name. The church along with eight others in north Pembrokeshire is dedicated to him. 

1851 Llanfemach Parish Church No information 
1929 St Brjoiach Incumbent and Curates; T M James 



161 



Non Conformist 
Glandwr Chapel 



The present building is the successor of the structure erected here by the Independent connection in 
the year 1712. The congregation originated at Aber Elwyn, in Carmarthenshire. In 1717 and again 
in 1774, the first building was enlarged, and in 1836 much improved. In the burial ground is the 
grave of one David Williams of Bwrrws, who died 14* December 1788; above it is a flat unhewn 
boulder. 



The Tre Hywel Ogam Stone 

This inscribed stone now reserved in Glandwr chapel has been described by Sir. John Rhys 

In 1908 Mr Arthur O Griffiths Glandwr and Mr Llewelyn James noticed that the gatepost near Tre 
Hywel farmhouse bore traces of ancient markings and of the outlines of a cross. Previously , 35 
years before the stone had been brought down from an exposed hill known as Mynydd Stambar. 
The stone stands 5ft above the ground ; the face on which the cross has been traced measures 12 Vi 
in across and the face to the right of it is 15in. across. It is the edge between those adjoining faces 
that bears the Ogam scores. The arms of the cross are enclosed in a circle. The inscription has been 
badly damaged over time But Professor Rhys suggested it read "EFESSAor O NI ASEGNI" Arch 
Camb 1913 Visited 23 June 1920 



1851 Glandwr Ind John Davies, Minister Erected before 1 800 in Glandwr village [Independents, 
1712]. still open Dec 2006 

I851Hermon Baptist Walter Davies, Baptist Minister Erected in 1808 rebuih 1863. Still open 1998 
Brynmyrnach Ind chapel, Hermon Built 1888 still open Dec 2006 

1851 Tymawr Ind Not a separate building, not used exclusively as a place of worship "Tymawr is 
a dwelling house licensed for religious exercises ...."John Davies, Minister, Glandwr 



162 



1851 Antioch Ind Simon Evans, Minister, Eglwyswrw "It is also used as a day school .... " Erected 
in 1846 Seion Baptist chapel, Crymych Buih 1900 Still open 1998 Antioch Sunday School, 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6s and Is a day. 
There is no resident land proprietor but six farmers pay more than £100 per annum with no 
provision for education of the poor of which many are without any education. Many of the 
population can read and write. Information Hugh Howell Rector Newcastle Eml5ni. 

Parish of Llanfyrnach - Village School — This school is kept in a schoolhouse erected at the 
expense of the parish on the land of Mrs Lloyd of Bronwydd, close to the church yard. Mrs Lloyd is 
willing, I was informed by the Rector, to secure it by deed. 

The schoolroom is in good repair, except the windows. The furniture consists of three desks one 
table and fourteen benches. The Rector subscribes £8 a year to teach 17 poor children. 

The master has a good control over his scholars and pays much attention to them. The scholars are 
farmers mechanics, and labourers children, and were almost all well dressed. 

They read the fifth chapter of St Matthew, many of them withease. To questions proposed by me, 
partly in English and partly in Welsh, they answered a few Scriptural questions but not very readily. 
Had poor knowledge of geography. But good on arithmetic and had knowledge of trignometry and 
grammar. The above efficient day school is due to the exertions of the Rector. 

TT^^ January 1847 Wm Morris Assistant 



Mining Llanfyrnach 

Fronlwyd Mine A small silver-lead mine comprising two adits (both open) and an associated shaft, 
500 yards west of Crjmiych village. Worked as a trial circa 1 864 and in 1 874. No structures survive. 

Llanfyrnach Mine. Includes the Llwyncelyn Mine. Extensive silver-lead workings on either side 
of the Afon Taf 700 yards north east of Llanfjmiach Church, partially within Clydey parish. 

The earliest documentary evidence of working on this site is for the setting of tributes on the 
Llandre section west of the river in 1752. At that date Llandre and the Llwyncelyn section, east of 
the river, were under separate ownership and worked independently. Amalgamated as one working 
and eventually brought under one owner, the mine was at work until the 1790s when drainage 
difficulties caused its abandonment. 

Reworking commenced in about 1840 and continued unbroken until 1890. Peak production came 



163 



late in its life at a time of falling lead prices when the output of silver-lead ores was supplemented 
by a moderate amount of zinc ores. The mainstay of output at that time was a rich ore body, on the 
Water Lode, confined to the Llandeilo beds and dipping under the north western hill. This was 
worked fi-om North Shaft to a depth of 96 fathoms below adit. When the lode was displaced by a 
cross course and not immediately relocated heavy drainage costs caused final abandonment in 1890 
and the sale of the plant in the following year. A number of schemes for reworking the mine have 
been put forward but never implemented. 

The Llanfymach site is relatively undisturbed, there having been no reworking of spoil or tailings, 
and it is one of the better examples of a late 19th century silver-lead mine in South Wales. Although 
in a ruinous state it displays a wide range of 19th century mining and dressing technology 
underlying which will be evidence of 18th century working. Any development or landscaping of the 
site should be monitored to prevent disturbance of sub surface stratigraphy, or at lease record the 
evidence before it is lost. 

The main features of the site are as follows - 

18th century shallow shaft workings along outcrop of two veins on hillside to west of the river 
remain undisturbed. Other 18th century workings to the east covered by 19th century operations 
comprising three engine / winding shafts, various minor shafts and two adits all now filled or 
collapsed. 

Boiler house (ruin) with round chimney (intact) at No.2 Engine Shaft, circa 1850. 

Cornish style beam pumping engine house (ruin), originally housing a 40" cylinder engine, erected 
in 1860; adjacent to No.l Engine Shaft. 

Waterwheel pit (intact), pumping and winding, adjacent to No. 1 Engine Shaft 
Pumping and winding engine sheds (foundations only) adjacent to North Shaft . 

Masonry lined pit for drawing machine circa 1860 (intact) adjoining Chain Shaft . 

Ore hoppers and loading platform (substantial walling and support columns remaining) adjacent to 
North Shaft . 

Tramway system (earthworks only) from North Shaft to spoil heaps and dressing floor; from Chain 
Shaft to spoil heaps east of river; and from dressing floors to tailing heaps. 

Dressing floors including ore hoppers (ruin); four round buddies with associated waterwheel pit 
and settling tanks (earthworks); dressing waste heaps. 

Spoil heaps, comprising extensive heaps from North Shaft on western hillside, 1880s; and from 
Chain Shaft on the east side of the river, 1 860 - 70, all displaying indications of temporary tramway 
system. 

Tailings heaps, with earlier heaps around dressing floor and extensive later heaps at southern end of 
site. 



164 



Leat system - comprising leat from stream to south east of site feeding pumping waterwheel to west 
of, and connected with, No.2 Engine Shaft, probably of 1 8th century origin (feeding stamps mill), 
with later compensation dam (earthworks); engine leat from Afon Taf to area of No. 1 Engine Shaft, 
plus compensation dam two miles upstream at (substantial earthworks); and late 19th century 
turbine feed, leat system originating near Bwlch Stop to the west of Hermon with storage ponds on 
hill top to west of mine and pipeline under spoil heaps south of North Shaft (earthworks plus some 
in-situ pipes). 

Offices and housing - including a building with flue system, possibly used as drying room, to west 
of No.l Engine Shaft (ruin); mine captain's house and offices at (ruin); worker's housing, Brick 
Row formerly 12 back to back cottages (intact but much altered, inhabited) and Storehouse (ruin); 
lessees house, now known as Carregwen (intact and inhabited). 

Un-named Mine SN 20163304 (approx.) Adit reportedly discovered near Glantaf. No historical 
detail available. Not yet positively identified on ground. 

Llanfyrnach names for Jottings 

Davis John 18Junl828 bom Llanf5anach Pembroke Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Davis John Phillip 12 Jan 1 823 bom Llanfyrnach Pembroke Died 3 1 Dec 1 887 Salt Lake City 
Salt Lake Utah Married to Nicholas Margaret on 29 Jan 1878 at Salt Lake City Married to Davis 
Maria on 1 1 Apr 1 846 at Abergavenny Parish Monmouth Wales Left Aberdare for USA on 20 
Febmary 1 865 Arrived in New York City on 6 March 1 865 Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 



Howell David 17 March 1775 Penrith Offence Theft of wool and a cheese 
Llanfymach Prosecutor David,Hannah Llanfyrnach, widow Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830 



Lloid Thomas 1534 .clericus unde est rector Llanf5anach church Valor Eccl 

Robert ? early 1 100. the son of Stephen constable of Cardigan Castle Llanfyrnach 

Pembrokeshire parsons 



165 



Williams John 17 March 1775 Llanfjonach Yeoman Offence Theft of wool and a 
cheese. Llanfjmach Prosecutor David, Hannah Llanfymach, widow Verdict Guilty to the 
value of 1 Id. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Williams John 24 July 1 827 Llanfyrnach Labourer Offence Theft of wearing apparel, 
Llanfyrnach Carmarthen Prosecutor Evan Samuel Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730- 
1830, 



Llanvirnach Hearth Tax 1670 



Howell Griffith 


Llanvirnach 


H 


James Morice 


Llanvirnach 


H 


Thomas Phillip 


Llanvirnach 


H 


James Phillip 


Llanvirnach 


H2 


Thomas Owen 


Llanvirnach 


H2 


Llewhelin John 


Llanvirnach 


H2 


Eynon John 


Llanvirnach 


H 


David Thomas Rejoiald 


Llanvirnach 


H 


John Phillip David 


Llanvirnach 


H2 


Owens Thomas 


Llanvirnach 


H4 


Thomas Lewis 


Llanvirnach 


H2 


Owen Roger 


Llanvirnach 


H 


Phillip Phillip David 


Llanvirnach 


H2 


James Elizabeth 


Llanvirnach 


H 


John David 


Llanvirnach 


H 


Griffith John Rees 


Llanvirnach 


H 


Morice Evan 


Llanvirnach 


H 



166 



William David 


Llanvimach 


H 


Morice Evan 


Llanvirnach 


H 


Phillip Morice 


Llanvimach 


H 


Thomas Jennett 


Llanvirnach 


H 


John Duthgy 


Llanvimach 


H 


Richard Lewis 


Llanvimach 


H 


George John 


Llanvimach 


H 


Morgan Henry 


Llanvimach 


H2 


Thomas Reynald 


Llanvirnach 


H 


Devenalch John 


Llanvimach 


H2 


Thomas Reynald 


Llanvirnach 


H3 


Rees Henry 


Llanvimach 


P 


Pugh Lewis 


Llanvirnach 


P 


Harry James 


Llanvimach 


P 


Jenkin James 


Llanvimach 


P 


Lewis EUinor 


Llanvimach 


P 


John Johan 


Llanvimach 


P 


? Katherine 


Llanvirnach 


P 


James Gwynllian 


Llanvimach 


P 


Thomas Rees 


Llanvirnach 


P 


Richard Lewis 


Llanvimach 


P 


Richard David 


Llanvimach 


P 


Robert William 


Llanvimach 


P 


John Sampson 


Llanvimach 


T) 

r 


John Morice 


Llanvirnach 


P 


John James 


Llanvimach 


P 



167 



Griffith John Rees 


Llanvimach 


P 


Thomas Richard 


Llanvirnach 


P 


Phillip Henry 


Llanvimach 


P 


Jenkin Evan 


Llanvirnach 


P 


Evan Elizabeth 


Llanvimach 


P 


Edward Lewis 


Llanvimach 


P 


James Llewhelin 


Llanvimach 


P 


Howell Jennett 


Llanvimach 


P 


Will Katherine 


Llanvirnach 


P 


Richard Maud 


Llanvimach 


P 


Beavan Thomas David 


Llanvirnach 


P 


John Phillip taylor 


Llanvimach 


P 


James Morice 


Llanvirnach 


P 


Prodderch John Rees 


Llanvimach 


P 


Rees John 


Llanvimach 


P 


David Mary 


Llanvimach 


P 


John Anne 


Llanvimach 


TJ 

r 


Evan John 


Llanvirnach 


P 


Morice Griffith 


Llanvirnach 


P 



Sites of Interest 
Arch Farm Cairn 

Scanty remains are left of this cairn which is situated on the farm called Arch about 400yds directly 
south of what is spelt on the Ord, sheets as Crugiau Dwy; by which is probably meant Crugiau 
duyw, the caim of the god. The barrow has a base circumference of some 250 ft. a prostrate stone 
might possibly have been the cover of a cist -Visited 9* June 1915 

Crug bach. 



168 



This apparently sepulcharal mound is marked on the original lin but not on the 6in Ord sheet. It 
stands immediately west of Crymmych Arms village on the south side of the lane leading from 
Henffordd to Fronlwyd. The base circumference is 250 ft and the heuight 3ft. It is grass grown and 
presents no sign of disturbance. Visited 9"* June 1915 

Maengwyn hir 

A white quartz srtone ,stated by popular tradition to have been thrown from the summit of Frenny 
fawr by St Samson. It now lies prostrate on the boundary line between Pembrokeshire and 
carmarthensire, 600 yds south of Castell y Blaidd tumulus in the parish of Clydai. Mr David 
Maurice who resides in the adjoining house remembers it stood erect on its present site. It was 
overturned some 48years ago because it stood in ythe way of the plough. Its length above the 
ground when erect was 50 in and wifdth 26in -Visited 17* September 1914. 

Meini Hiron 

About Vi mile west of the village of Llanfymach are three erect stone in close proximity. 

1] in the north west comer of Pare y Maen on the farm of Nant y groes. The height from the ground 
to the somewhat pointed top is 72 in and the greatest width 28 in. 

2] Also on Nant y Groes Farm. The stone has a height above ground of 104 in with a maximum 
width of 54 in It is said on the farm that another and somewhat similar monolith stood near it. It was 
buried to facilitate ploughing. 

3] About 200 yds north by west of the last stone are two adjoining erect stones. The field hedge has 
been brought up to the taller of the two; this rises 134 in above the soil. The second stone is 96 in 
above ground -Visited 16* September 1914. 

The stones here enumerated are doubtless those described in Lewis's Tp Diet as "four large stones 
on the common above the church, visible at a great distance marking out, according to tradition the 
graves of two chieftains who were slain in a desperate battle which is said to have been fought near 
that spot." 

Caer at Glandwr 

An earthwork apparently circular, but much obliterate, stands on the third field west of Glandwr 
farm house. The bank is fairly perfect around the southern part of the circle; to the north it has been 
cultivated entirely away. In its length of 135 yds it only rises at its best to 3ft, and falls 5ft to the 
outside level. There is no trace of a ditch. According to the 6in Ord sheet a "sword , etc" were found 
here in the year 1808, but all enquiries respecting such a find have been without result. Visited 24* 
June 1915. 

Mound 

A motte castle with fraces of a bailey court, immediately north west of the parish church; on the 6in 
Ord sheet it is marked as a tumulus. The mound rises to a height of 25ft; its summit is 60 ft in 



169 



diameter. In the centre a depression of from 8 to 10 ft is surrounded with fraces of stone 
foundations. There have a width of 8ft. The mound, the sides of which are heavily clothed with 
vegetation is being dug for gravel; otherwise it is well preserved. Between it and the churchyard are 
faint fraces of the bailey -Visited 16"* September 1914 



Ffynnon Fyrnach 

About 1 Vi mile south of the parish church is a well which is known as Bemachs or Brynachs Well, 
traditionally stated to possess healing properties. The site id marked "spring" on the present 6in. 
Ord map, but on the earlier lin it is styled "Ffynnon deg" the fair well. The spot is not far from the 
source of the Dyfnant, and close to the ford over that streamlet called Rhyd y maengwyn. There is a 
Ffynnon wen, the white (of holy) well in the Carmarthenshire parish of Eglwys Fair a churig, a sjort 
mile south of the above. 

Ty un nos 

A small cottage at Hermon 200 yds north west of Capel Brjai Mmjoiach, which calls for no mention 
as an anyiquity apart from its name and the example it affords of a sysyem that must have bbeen 
fairly prevalent in Wales before the days of Inclosure Acts. This is a "One night house" as it is 
called; put up inaccordance with an arrangement made between a man and his friends to erect a 
dwelling in one night on unenclosed land belonging to the lord of the manor, or ground over which 
he claimed to have control. All the materials having been got ready for the purpose, a night was 
fixed for the errection of a dwelling of turf and stones; a few domestic articles were taken in, a fire 
kindled in the hearth, and the family was in full possession by the morning; if possible a small 
garden patch was added. If the manorial magnate did not demolish the cot( a course which was 
seldom resorted to), or had not claimed it at a nominal rent within a year and a day of such erection, 
he could not afterwards interfere with it, but might continue to exact the small rent as evidence of 
his rights. 

Ruins of Chapel and Burial Ground 

On the second field east off Tre Henry farm house is a circular enclosure which is known locally as 
"The Chapel". Green mounds aberaging one ft in height mark the former presence of a building 
about 24ft by 12 ft. The enclosure has a circumference of 300 ft, its south west boundary being a 
dry wall construction of small stones on which still stand a few aged trees. Visited 16* September 
1914. 

Nant y Groes 

This is the name of a farm immediately north of Tre Henry chapel and burial ground, where there 
may have been a medieval cross, but of such there is no frace - Visited 16* September 1914. 

Bronze Celt 

A fine bronze celt was found in the year 1841 on land then recently enclosed and appropriated to the 



170 



farm of Yet wen in the immediate neighbourhood of the Caer (Cam?) near Glandwr, where it is said 
that a sword was unearthed in 1808. It iss now in the museum of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian 
Society. 

Coins Roman 

In the year 1828 "Roman Coins" were found on the summit of Begney . No particulars of this hoard 
can be traced. One small silver coin of the find - too much worn for identification , but undoubtedly 
Roman - is carefully treasured up by a lady in the near locality to whom it passed fi-om her 
grandfather, who had been present at the discovery - Seen 15"^ June 1920 RCAM 

RCAHMW 

Rhyd-Y-Garth Cross, Llanfyrnach 

A rough pillar-stone, built into a wall, but having previously served as a gatepost, is 1.7m tall and 
has an incised linear Latin cross inscribed upon it. 

There are several other monoliths in the locality, RCAHMW J. Wiles 28.02.02 
Llanfyrnach Railway Station, Whitland And Cardigan Railway 

Llanfyrnach Railway Station was on the Whitland and Cardigan Railway (npm 410169) and it 
opened in 1875. There was a single through line served by a passenger platform (on the up side) 
with a passing loop to the north or Cardigan end. Llanfjmach Silver-Lead Mine (npm 34019) lay a 
short distance beyond, on the north side of the railway, and was once served by a short siding from 
the railway. The station closed in 1962; the platform building and two-storey Station House both 
survive. B. A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 26 January 20 1 0. 



171 



Llangolman 

1839 Llangolman (Llan-Golman) Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 

A parish, in the poor-law union of Narberth, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South 
Wales, 8 miles (N.) from Narberth; containing 255 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name 
from the dedication of its church to St. Golman, was formerly a chapelry under the parish of St. 
Mary's. It is pleasantly situated on the Eastern Cleddy river, in the eastern extremity of the county; 
and is bounded by the parish of Mynachlogdu on the north, by that of Llandissilio on the south, by 
Carmarthenshire on the east, and by the parish of Llandilo on the west. It is intersected by the 
turnpike-road from Newport to Narberth, and its northern part by that leading from Fishguard to 
Narberth; and comprises 2912 acres, of which a considerable portion is arable, and the rest pasture, 
with a few acres of woodland: the chief produce is barley and oats, with a little wheat. The scenery 
is pleasingly varied, and the views over the adjacent country embrace some interesting features: the 
gentlemen's seats are Llangolman and Plas-y-Meibion. Slate of good quality is found in the parish, 
and some quarries are worked upon an extensive scale, affording employment to such of the 
inhabitants as are not engaged in agriculture. The living is a perpetual curacy endowed with £800 
royal bounty, with the living of Llandilo annexed, also endowed with £800 royal bounty: the total 
net income of the joint living is £97. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £1 10, of 
which £76. 6. 8. are payable to T. Bowen, Esq., the patron. The church is a plain edifice, forty-five 
feet long and fifteen wide. In the parish is a place of worship for Independents, called Llandilo 
chapel, in which a Sunday school is also held. 

1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

Llangolman 

Onwards to Llangolman, the country is crumpled up into a succession of hills and narrow, rocky 
dingles, whereby the numerous streamlets that enliven this locality find an outlet from the foothills 
of Precelly. In one of these dingles is St. Teilo's Well, a wayside spring frequented by that saint in 
days of yore. 

Llangolman Church, perched on its isolated monticle, presents a sorry spectacle of desecration 
and decay ; its windows battered and broken, its roof open to the vault of heaven, while the rusty 
bell hangs cracked and useless in the dilapidated turret. 



Quakers 

(Acc/to A History of Quakers in Pembrokeshire by Stephen Griffith.) 
THE SUFFERERS. No dates are given for imprisonment in Haverfordwest. 
"The following were certainly residents of the County of Pembroke:" 
Llangolman Lewis James 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 

No description or valuation of this benefice is contained in the Valor Eccl. George Owen states that 



172 



it was a curacy which, together with the curacy of Llandeilo, belonged to the vicarage of 
Maenclochog, that vicarage being in the patronage of the Queen, as part of the possessions of the 
monastery [of St. Dogmaels]. - (Owen's Pern.) See under Maenclochog. 

Inl536-7a lease of the rectories of Maenclochog, Llandeilo, and Llangolman was granted by the 
Crown to John Leche of La Hadden [Llawhaden] in South Wales. - State Papers 
The living according to Bacon's Liber Regis (1786) was united to Llandeilo and Maenclochog and 
the same authority gives the following details in regard to it:- Llangolman Cur- (St Colman). Hugh 
Bowen, clerk. 

On 1 1 July, 1877, the livings of Maenclochog, Llandeign and Llangolman were united under an 
Order is Council. 

The earliest mention of an incumbent of this curacy is WUliam Crowther in 1765. 
The Parish Church dedicated to St Colman. 

Llangolman church stands on high ground just to the south of the main village. The current building 
is Victorian or early Victorian with little to show of the original medieval building that once 
stood on the site. Of historical interest is the recording in the 19th century of a stone gate post 
about 100 to 200 yards from the churchyard. This stone, known as the Maen-ar-Golman (the 
stone upon Golman) is about 7 feet tall with a number of cross markings carved on the to stone. 
The stone appears to have no inscriptions. The local belief is that Golman is buried nearby. 

Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments. 

The church was rebuilt from its foundations in 1866, and nothing of archaeological interest remains. 
The oldest tombstone to be noticed , that of Stephen Lewis of Llangolman bears the date 1778 
- Visited 8th October 1914 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 

Llangolman (S. Colman). — An Elizabethan Chalice, 6 in. in height, with its Paten cover. The foot 
of the latter has been replaced by an ivory knob. Both pieces bear the maker's mark only, viz. '^'^jjj'^. 
The decoration as usual with this maker's vessels, consists of two bands round the bowl. The upper 
encloses woodbine foliage and intersects three times, whilst a spray of foliation is carried above and 
below each intersection. Within the lower band is engraved "+ POCVLVM » ECLESIE w DE « 
LLANGOLMAN »". Between the bowl and the stem and also on the base is a band of vertical line 
moulding. Diam. of bowl. Bin. The Paten cover measures 3 in. in diameter, and is quite plain. 

Besides a brass Alms-dish there is also a Paten of plated metal, 7 in. in diam. In the centce of its six- 
lobed depression is engraved the sacred monogram. Underneath is inscribed " Llangolman Church 



173 



Rebuilt by Voluntary Contributions. Reopened 6 July 1866. Thomas Walters, Incumbent; William 
Gibby, Stephen Evans, Churchwardens. This Paten is the Gift of Griffith Phillips of Cardiff". 

1851 Llangolman Parish Church "Llangolman and Llandilo are consolidated, Llandilo is in ruin..." 
George Harries, Maenclochog 

1929 Parish entry for M5Tiachlogddu with Llangolman 

St Dogmael&St Colman (Llangolman)Incumbent and Curates; W Evans 



Nonconformist Chapel 

Llandilo Congregational chapel, (appears just within Llangolman parish although part of Llandilo 
village).The current Llandeilo chapel was built in 1882 though earlier Chapel structures are 
recorded in the immediate vicinity. 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d a day with food 
and Is a day on their own finding. There is no resident land proprietor with day school 
provision for education of the poor of but almost all go to Sunday school. Many of the 
population can read but not write. 



Llangolman Parish Hearth Tax 1670 

Morgan Morice Llangolman h3 



Griffiths David Rees 
Rees LLewhelin 
William Thomas 
Morice James David 
Thomas Morice 
James Lewis 
John Thomas 



Llangolman h 

Llangolman h 

Llangolman h 

Llangolman h2 

Llangolman h 

Llangolman &Pennsylvania H2 

Llangolman h 



174 



T^hr\Tn5ic Tr\h"n 


T l5inoT\lTn5i"n 
J_/ Idll^Li lllldll 


11 




_L/id.liHUillid.li 


li 


JUllCiS illUllld-O 


J_/lclll^Ullllclll 


11 


T f*TI71C TlQAT'l/l 

J_/CW11S Ivd-VlU. 


J_/lClll^U lllldll 


11 


J Uiiii J Uiiii dp 


l_/id.ii^Uiilid.ii 




JalllCiS illUllld-lS 


L Idll^U llllall 


h 
11 




T laTitTnlman 


h 


Uav liX illUIIlac) Wllllalll 


J_/idlig,Uillidll 


111 




T IjiTicrnlrnfiTi 

L/ldllgVJlllldll 


no 


licn/iH T Ip^TXT'nTXT'lin 
Ivo-VlU. J_/1CW 11 Willi 


T l5i"noT\lTn5in 
J_/ldll^Ll lllldll 


11Z> 




T lantTolman 

J-j IClllg V/ lllldll 


hi 




j-j 1 dii^ \j 1111 dii 


hi 

11^ 


Rees Tames 


T >lanffolman 


r> 
P 


TciTnf^c T^nr\Tn5ic 
J dlllCo 1 lHJllldo 


T l5inoT\lTn5in 
J_/ Idll^Li lllldll 


P 


Tohri l-TiiTTmHrpv 

tf yjLLLL J. i Lt-l-L-LL/J-i-L ^ V 


T Ifnioolmfin 

1 / 1 CM I 1 >< \ 1 1 1 1 1 <4.l 1 


p 


TnArori T5lTnP>C 
JJ/ V dll J CllllC O 


T 1 cin oT^lmciTi 
J_/ldll^Lflllldll 


P 


T^fiviH WilliaTTi 

J-/CI-V1\J- VV -ll-l-lCUll 


T IfintTnlmfin 

■ / 1 Ctllj^ \J 11 llCIll 


P 




J_/idlig,Uillidll 


P 


rial 1 y i ilUlild.lS 


Lldll^U lllldll 


•f-\ 

P 


illUllld.i3 UavliJ. 


J_/ldllgUlllldll 


P 


Tamp*; Tolrn 


T lanonlmfin 

J_/lclll^VJllllclll 


P 




T lanffnlman 

J^ld'll^VJllllCI'll 


F 


Phillirxs WilliaTn 

1 lllllllJij VVlllld-lll 


T laTioT^lmaTi 

J_/ldll^«-Flllldll 


p 


Tolrn 1? pp<i 


T lantTolman 

J-j 1 Clllg V/ lllldll 


P 


ToHn ToHn an 


T lancTolmaTi 

l-^lCill^V'llllCill 


P 


XVCCIS iVialgcllcLL 


J_/ldll^U lllldll 


P 


Thomas Evan 


Llangolman 


P 


John Thomas 


Llangolman 


P 


Griffiths Roger 


Llangolman 


P 



175 



John James 



Llangolman 



P 



David Morgan 



Llangolman 



P 



David Evan 



Llangolman 



P 



Rees Jennett 



Llangolman 



P 



Phillipps Evan 



Llangolman 



P 



Lloyd Jenkin 



Llangolman 



P 



Sites of Interest 

Llangolman House;Llangolman Farm, Llangolman 

Apparently straight forward 18th C. Welsh house, but although most of the current house probably 
dates from the 18th century, the rear wing of the house has an older structure that includes 
barrel vaulting. There are two vaults one above the other. The lower vault covers the underlying 
cellar which has three rooms. The end room in the cellar and deepest includes a fresh water 
well. The first room, entered from an open arched doorway includes square holes in the vaulted 
ceiling that allowed butter to be easily dropped into the cellar for storage. Above the cellar 
vault is a second vaulted ceiling. 

A 2-storey house with a slate pitched roof, stone end stacks, 3 -window front (sash windows) 
and a modem projecting porch.RCAHMW 

RCAM 
Burial Places 

"There are two long mounds, apparently burial places. The local legend reports that the combatants 
slain in a battle were interned in these; victors in one, vanquished in the other. They do not 
appear to be Stone Age long barrows" Pern Arch Survey 

The mounds could not be found. They are either completely overgrown or have been levelled, or the 
location is erroneously given 

Waun Clun Coch Circles 

Owing to the and almost impenetrable overgrowth on the site it is impossible to be certain of the 
character of the remains that exist here. There are several more or less pronounced saucer 
shaped depressions within a nearly circulat dry stone wall, forming an enclosure of about 200ft 



176 



diameter; but whether the remains are those of a series of hut dwellings in the last stages of 
decay and ruin, or whetherthe pit loike hollows have been formed by the uprooting of a circle 
of hughe boulders, it is impossible under present conditions to decide . Richard Fenton was 
here about the year 1800, and the melancholy disorder which prevails may be due to his ill 
regulated zeal. {Tour 351). Visited 19* June 1914. 

The Gaer, Bryn Golman 

In a field on the farm of Bryn Golman, called Gaer Meadow are slight evidences of an earthwork, 
but it has been so defaced that it is impossible to judge of its former nature of extent. The 
enclosed area is about 225ft across. There are slight indications that the entrance was to the 
west where a modem hedge crosses the circle. Visited 8* October 1914. 

Castell Pengawsai ( known locally as Castell Blaenllechog). 

This is a small circular enclosure having a diameter of about 50 ft, situated about 180 yds west of 
Pengawsai farm house. The surrounding earth bank rises to a maximum height of 6ft, but has 
been removed for a secyion of the circuit. Outside is a broad ditch now only 2ft deep and in 
places altogether filled up, doubtless with the contents of the denuded and demolished 
bank. The entrance facing east has been altered. The earthwork would appear to possess many 
characteristics of the medieval moated homestead., though the latter is usually rectangular in 
form. The surrounding area is level, and the enclosure itself so feebly defended as to make it 
improbable that it was intended primarily for defence. Visited 18* September 1914. 

Clun Saithmaen 

"from a longstone which formerly stood in this farmyard six others in different directions could at 
one time be seem" (Pem arch Survey p24) 

About 200 yds away in a north west by west direction, the Survey reports a monolith which "stands 
against a bridge and has marks of chiselling on it" This stone is not indicated on the Ord sheet 
and could not be located. 

The sites denoted by the following place names probably indicate the former presence of several of 
the "saith maen which are visible from one of them: - 

Pare Maen Hir 

Pare main [? maen} hir 

Pare Maen issa, eanol, ueha. 

Meine Hirion 

Garn and Garn issa - No indication of an antiquity 



177 



Pare Garn On the farm of Pen Nebo 



Pare yr hen gireh [? gaerau] A neighbouring house called Caerau indicates the fonner presence of 
several monuments. 

Fron Garn On Mjaiydd bach 



Llangolman Slate Quarries 

Geologically the area has a seam of Lakeland green slate running roughly east- west along the Taf 
Valley. The slate is generally of a greenish-gray or light blue colour. Many of these quarries are 
located near Llangolman Farm with one of the quarries located immediately north of the farmhouse. 
The slate itself was exploited at least as early as 1860 although there is some suggestion that the 
Gilfach quarry may have been worked as early as the 16th century. The the slate industry went into 
decline after the 1890s and by the 1930s quarries were closed due to competition from cheaper 
sources athough Gilfach quarry was still in operation until 1987. 



178 



Llanllawer (Llanhawer) 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d a day with food 
and Is a day on their own finding. There is one resident land proprietor William Gwynne of Court 
and three farmers paying more than £100 rent per annum but no day school provision for education 
of the poor. Many of the population can read and write. 

Topographical Dictionary of Wales 1839 Lewis 

LLANLLAWER (LLAN-LLAWEN), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of 

Kemmes,county of Pembroke, South Wales, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Fishguard; containing 1 14 
inhabitants. This parish is pleasantly situated in the northern part of the county, and on the river 
Gwajm, which falls into Fishguard bay. It comprises 1 163 acres, of which nearly one-third is 
mountainous, the remainder being inclosed and cultivated. The scenery is finely varied, 
combining features of picturesque beauty with mountains of rugged aspect; and the distant 
views extend over a remarkably interesting tract of country. Court House, in the parish, is a 
good family mansion, occupying an agreeable situation. The living is a rectory not in charge, 
annexed to the living of Llanerchllwydog: the church is not remarkable for any architectural 
details. On the side of Llanllawer mountain, which terminates in a rocky point, and is hence 
called the Maiden's Breast, numerous Druidical relics and ancient carneddau are profusely 
scattered, supposed to have been places of sepulture; and adjoining is a mineral well, formerly 
in high repute for its efficacy in the cure of ague and other diseases, but now neglected. 



1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales 

described Llanllawer like this: 

LLANLLAWER, a parish in Haverfordwest district, Pembroke; on the river Gwajoi, 2 miles ESE of 
Fishguard, and 12 NNW of Clarbeston-Road r. station. Posttown, Fishguard, under 
Haverfordwest. Acres, 1,202. Real property, £687. Pop., 117. Houses, 21. Court House is a 
chief residence. Much of the surface is hill. There are Druidical and other antiquities. The 
living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llanychlwydog, in the diocese of St. 
David's. 



Church St David 

Tiny church in prehistoric stone ring, strangely marked stone used as lintel to doorway has a fish 
inscribed on it acc/to Roger Worsley he believes 2nd C. 



179 



Church largely rebuilt in 1859. There is a holy well also used a cursing well (only 2 exist in Wales). 

Two 7c stones with a Latin cross used as gateposts to churchyard 

Nearby Neolithic cromlechs and standing stones and the Pare y Meirw stone alignments. 

Parish Church dedicated to St David Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

This is a practically new church on the foundations of an earlier one which had fallen into great 
decay, and was taken down in the rear 1860, the old material being used for the new building. 
The church calls for no description here, the only item of archaeological interest preserved 
from the earlier building being the so-called "weeping stone" This occupies its original site at 
the ground level of the extreme north west angle of the nave. Partly hidden within a plain niche 
is a circular hollowed stone, doubtless once a stoup, 29 in in diameter, the basin itself being 
1 lin across and 6in deep. The cavity holds about a gallon, and is said never to become dry. On 
the occasions of three surprise visits to it in the exceptional dry summer of 1915 the basin was 
full. An aged parishioner Mr Thomas of Pare Coitan Arthur, has no recollection of ever seeing 
it dry. Visited Augustl915 

Incised Stones 

In the churchyard wall, on either side of the entrance gate , are two stones, each bearing an incised 
cross, but showing no inscriptions. In their present position the backs and sides of the stones 
cannot be examined. 

1] a round header slab 26in by 14 Vi in with a Latin cross 23in by 13 in. 

2] an irregularly shaped slab 3 Sin bt 27 in bearing an incised Latin cross 20in by 14 in. 

St David's Church, Llanllawer RCAHMW 

St David's Church was a chapehy during the post-conquest period, belonging to the Deanery of 
Cemais. It is home to four medieval cross-incised stones . Two are incorporated into the 
churchyard wall, with the other two incorporated into the present church building. The pattern 
of one of the latter includes a linear Latin cross with a lozenge shaped ring at its upper end, and 
with stones at St Tecwyn's Church, Llandecwyn , St Tanwg's Church, Llandanwg and St 
Sulien's Church, Silian is one of only four examples in Wales. Llanllawer Holy Well also 
known as Ffynnon Gapan is located some 40m north-east of the church. The well reportedly 
had a reputation for its miraculous healing powers, and was reputedly particularly effective in 
curing sore eyes. In 1998 the church had been redundant for some years. 

The form of the medieval church building is unknown. It was entirely rebuilt in 1860, on the 
same location as its predecessor, but retaining nothing from the earlier fabric. 



180 



The current church is constructed of limestone and slate rubble. It consists of two-bayed 
chancel, wider two-bayed nave, vestry (north of the chancel) south porch and west single 
bellcote. There is a re-used stoup set within a niche in the north-west angle of the nave. It is 
filled by a spring which permeates up through the church walls. 

Sources include: Cambria Archaeology, 2000, Carmarthenshire Churches, gazetteer, 48 
Edwards, N, 2007, A Corpus of early Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculpture in Wales: 
Volume II N Vousden, RCAHMW, 30 May 20 1 3 

Inscribed Stones, St David's Church, Llanllawer RCAHMW 

This group of stones is scheduled, and includes four cross-incised pillar stones, two of which are set 
either side of the churchyard gate, the other two being built into the fabric of St David's Church 
. The former are both thought to date to the ninth-eleventh century. One of the latter, also 
thought to date to this time, is built into the external west vestry wall. It is decorated with a 
linear Latin cross with a lozenge shaped ring at its upper end. It is one of only three definite 
examples in Wales, The fourth stone is thought to be ninth-tenth-century in date. 

Sources include:Edwards, N, 2007, A Corpus of early Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone 
Sculpture in Wales: Volume II N Vousden, RCAHMW, 30 May 2013 

The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 1994. 

The church has been rebuilt but has at one comer a "weeping stone" ie. a spring said to never run 
dry. 

Redundant Church Church of St David, Llanllawer 
at Llanllawer was for sale in 2012 at £25,000.-- 

Sale discription:- 

Standing in a commanding position above the Gwaun valley and within sight of Mynydd Dinas, this 
Victorian reconstruction replaced a C 12/1 3. church, itself probably built on a pre-Christian sacred 

site. Nearby is a Holy Well and there is also a small water-fill hollow under the north wall of the 
church. On either side of the entrance gate are pillar stones with engraved crosses and the graveyard 
is a roughly circular shape suggesting ancient origin. 

Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

This benefice, originally a chapel, has always been appendant to the barony of Kemes, and in 1594 
it was annexed to Llanychllwyddog chapel. - {Owen's Pern.) 

181 



No valuation of this benefice is given in the Valor EccL, and Bacons Liber Regis contains only the 
following brief reference under the heading 'Not in Charge':- Llanllawer Chapel. 
The earliest institution to Llanllawer of which there is record is of Peter Lewis, who also held 
Llanychllwydog. From that date all subsequent incumbents held both benefices. 



Clergy CCEd Llanchlwydog with Llanllawer 



Owen , Evan 


1626 




Lloyd, Jenkinus 


1663 


Rector _ 


Lloyd, Jenkin.. 


1663 


Rector _ 


Picton, Owenum 


1663 


Rector _ 


Picton, Oweni 


1663 


Vac (Death) Rector _ 


Williams, Owen 


1664 


Curate _ 


Lewis, Petrus 


1674 


Rector _ 


Lloyd, Jenkini 


1675 


Vac (Death) Rector _ 


Lloyd, Edward 


1675 


Rector _ 


Lloyd, Davidem 


1675 


Rector 


Lloyd, David 


1675 


Rector _ 


Lloyd, David 


1692 


Rector _ 




1 MA 


IVCL-LUl 


Morris, Hugo 


1714 


Curate _ 


Lewis, Petrus 


1714 


Rector _ 


Morris, Hugo 


1717 


Curate _ 


Lewis, Petrus 


1717 


Rector _ 


Lewis, Petrus 


1718 


Vac {natural death) E 


Gosse, Henricus 


1718 


Rector _ 


Goffe, Henricus 


1719 


Rector _ 


Morris, David 


1720 


Curate _ 


Goffe, Henricus 


1720 


Rector _ 



T Qi 1 frn QT*n iri ill mi i c 
J-zaUgjiiaiiiC, VJUiiCiiliUo 


1 771 

i / Z, i 


1? f*r*fr*i* 
rvCL' LUi 


IrOCCf* l-ri=^ni*l 1^1 1 c 


1 771 

i / Z, i 


V dC filClLLtfU.1 ClC-ClLrlJ XVCCLUi 


l-Tr^l 1 n Mi n ol a c 
nUiid-iiU., IMiCiiUid-o 


1 7^6 


1^1 ll*Qf 


T Q 1 1 rr n q i*n W/^i 1 1 1 q m 
-L/d-U-Kii^^iiiC, VV iiiid-ili 


1 1SR 


V dC yLJt^tlLrlJ iVCCLUi 


\A rwcTdvi ^iTTir^n 
iVlUig,d.ii 5 kjiiilUll 


1 765 


1^1 iftlff^ 


\A rwcTdvi ^1 tnr^Ti 
iVlUlK^Aii ? kjiillUil 


1 770 

1 / / u 


V-zUi aLC 


_Dd.LCilid.ii 5 1 iiUiiido 


1 784 


rVCL- LUi 


i_/dUg,iiaiiiC , VV iiiidili 


1 784 


YdL- \^LK^!^CilUtlJ XVCLLUi 


iJdLCiiidii 5 1 iiUiiido 


1 784 


XVCCLUi 


XZ/Vdiio , i--/dViU. 


1 788 
1 / oo 


1^1 lT*Qf 

V^Ui dLC 


J_I/Valib , LJcLyiU. 


1 7QS 


1^1 IfQff* 


JDdLCiiidii , 1 iiUilida 


1 807 


VdL \LK^!^CilUtlJ XVCLLUl 




1802 


R ppfni" 


Bateman , Thomas 


1804 


JVC V./ LUi 


Bateman , Thomas 


1825 


Vac (natural deathJRQctor 


Williams Thomas, Watkin 1825 


Rector 


Fenton , Samuel 


1826 


Stipendiary Curate 



1851 Llanllawer Parish Church, annexed to the Mother Church of Llanychllwydog Wilkin William 
Thomas, Rector 



1929 St Brynach & Parish Church (Llanllawer)Incumbent and Curates; W G Williams 



Nonconformist Chapels: None found 



Llanllawer Names for Jottings 



Gwynne ? Mrs Court house Llanllawer The Topograpical Dictionary of Wales S Lewis 



183 



1834 



Lewis Peter Llanllawer Chapel Acc to Pembrokeshire Parsons 



Mendus Lettice 26 February 1800 Dinas Widow Offence Receiving stolen sheep 
Prisoner aged 46 Llanllawer Prosecutor Gwynne,John Llanllawer, gent Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Thomas David 25 February 1800 Dinas Husbandman Offence Theft of food, cheeses 
Recognizance refers to Breaking into a cheese house Prisoner aged 39 Llanllawer 
Prosecutor Gwynne John, Llanllawer, gent Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Hearth Tax 



Bateman Anne 



1670 Llanllaweme H3 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Bateman Eynon 



1670 Llanllaweme H3 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Bateman Thomas 



1670 Llanllaweme H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David Arthur 



1670 Llanllaweme H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David Jenldn 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David John 



1670 Llanllaweme H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



David Thomas 



1670 Llanllaweme H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



184 



Griffith Phillip 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Gwyllim James 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Harry Griffith 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Harry Phillip 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Hugh Anne 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



James Owen 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John Anne 



1670 Llanllaweme H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



John James 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Morice Margarett 1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Morice Owen 



1670 Llanllaweme H2 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Owen Margarett 1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



Owen Thomas 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



William Anne 



1670 Llanllaweme P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 



185 



Sites of Interest 



Holy Well RCAM 

In the enclosure of Ymyl yr Eglwys "the churchyard precincts" just outside the churchyard wall to 
the north east, is the well noted by Fenton (tour 570) as "a sainted well abundantly supplied with the 
purest water, that once had the reputation of most miraculous efBcacyin various disorders, and was 
consiquently much frequented; but of late years its virtues got into disrepute, or the popular faith in 
them so weakened that the visitors and votive offerings are very few." On the day of the inspection 
the well was much overgrown and the flow of water weak. The spring is enclosed by a chamber or 
well head of rough masonry measuring 6 I/2 ft from the rudely vaulted crown to base; it is evidently 
constructed for total immersion. The Rev T G Mortimore , a recent vicar recollected people 
resorting ro the well "and if they wished good they threw in straight pins, and if evil, crooked pins. 
The water was supposed to be good for sore eyes and when resorted to by a man from Fishguard he 
threw in a coin as an oblation " (Pem Arch Survey) - Visited 17th August 1915 
Llanllawer Well; Ffynnon Gapan, Llanllawer RCAHMW 

Llanllawer holy well, also known as Ffynnon Gapan, is located some 40m north-east of St David's 
Church, Llanllawer. Thought to have been constructed for bodily immersion, the well reportedly 
had a reputation for its miraculous healing properties, and was especially renowned for curing sore 
eyes. Coins and pins were reputedly thrown into the well as offerings, and bent pins were thrown in 
as curses. 

The stone well chamber is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. It measures some 3.5m x 1.5m, and the 

chamber is corbelled to a pointed arch. In 1966 the well was noted to have dried up. 

Sources include: Jones, F, 1992, The Holy Wells of Wales N Vousden, RCAHMW, 30 May 2013 

Mynydd Llanllawer, Pillow Mound RCAHMW 

The mound, which is composed of mixed grade stones and overgrown with heather and gorse, 
measures 13.7m long (NW-SE) by 3.8m wide with a height of about Im. It is flanked on its long 
sides by shallow ditches, no more than 0.2m deep. 

The appearance of the mound, long, thin and sharply profiled, is typical of late pillow mounds. Its 
location close to the interface between between farmland and open common would be consistent 
with Post-Medieval, say 18th century, attempts at rabbit farming, visited DKL 26.2.96 

Pare Maenhir Stone, Llanllawerparc Maenhir Stone, Llanllawer RCAHMW 

Monolith, 2.4m high, in a field named Park Maen Hir, halfway to becoming a gatepost. J. Wiles 

14.03.02 

RCAM 

Pare Y Marw Alignment 

The earliest notice of this alignment would seem to be the following by Rev E L Barnwell:- 
In the north part of Pembrokeshire is a single line of stones of great size which Fenton does not 



186 



mention although he deliberately pulled to pieces a fine cromlech near it [?Coitan Arthur, - Fenton 
died in 1821 and this cromlech was not razed until 1844] and which seems to have been connected 
with this row of stones, for it was probably continued further northwards than at present. On 
refering to the Ord. Map, a little to the right of the work 'Lanllawer' will be seen the position of the 
line called on the map 'pare y marw'(field of the dead). And a little further to the east, but slightly to 
the north, is marked down the cromlech .. of which only some small fragments remain. The line of 
stones is parallel to the narrow road, and if continued would pass within a few paces of the ruined 
cromlech. Here the name points to the character of the monument; for experience has shownthat 
local names of this kind in Wales, handed down from time immemorial, may be generally depended 
upon. Local tradition, however, adds an account of a desperate battle fought on the spot among the 
pillar stones themselves .. The height of the stones is not so striking, as their lower part is embedded 
in the tall bank of earth that the duty of an ordinary hedge, but some of them are full 16ft long.. 
There are no traces to be discovered of any second or other lines of stones... 

Our Officer , on the date of inspection, was fortunate in having the personal guidance of Mr Samual 

Thomas (age 75) of Pare Coitan Arthur, who has a lifelong knowledge of this district, and takes a 
special interest in the site. All the stones have somewhat square tops, with the exception of N02 
which is pointed. Two have fallen in the lifetime of Mr Thomas, but that gentleman had no 
knowledge of some "incised curious lines which are not modem work," said Mr Barnwell to have 
been seen by him on one of the stones, and which Laws describes as "a horseshoe-shaped mark, 
evidently made by man, and seemingly not recent" —They could not be found by our Inspector - 
Visited 1 7th August 1915. 

Coitan Arthur 

This stone known as Coitan Arthur, Arthur's Quoit - probably the capstone or supporter of a 
demolished cromlech stood in a field appurtenant to the farm of Trellwyn ucha. It was destroyed 
about the year 1 844. " The Rev T G Mortimore remonstrated with the destroyer, and with a view of 
inducing him to desist reminded him of the old saying that ill luck befell those who destroyed the 
Druid's altars. Some years afterwards the vandal admitted that the house he had built of the stones 
had not brought him good luck!" (Pem Arch Survey) - Visited 17th August 1915 

Pare caer 

A Field on the farm of Court, a name that probably belongs to the period of Welsh land tenure, and 
that may have itself succeeded a site of trible gatherings. There is now no appearance of antiquarian 
interest - Visited 1 7th Augustl 915. 

Pare y garn and Maenllwyd 

On the farm of Pen y mynydd. The names point to former monuments of which no signs at present 
remain. The maenllwyd may be a natural object. Visited 17th August 1915. 

Pare Maenhir 

A field on the farm of Trellwyn with no sign of a standing stone Visited 17 August 1915. 
Roeking stone 

At the spot indicated on the northern boundary of the parish, the Pem Arch Survey locates a 

Rocking Stone "which has not been thrown out of balance" It is not marked on the 6in Ord sheet 
and our Inspecting Officer was not able to discover it. To the east of the above site the Ord sheet 
prints "Piles of Stones" the usual heaps marking the line of demarcation between adjoining 
parishes . Visited 1 7th August 1915. 



187 



Pare y Marw, 

The field next west to the alignment is marked on the 6in Ord sheet as the site of an antiquity 
though nothing visible on the ground to jsutify the description. The tradition still current in the 
locality as to the spot, is tah "a lady, clad all in white appears to those who are rash enough to walk 
that way by night; and so ancient is this tradition .. That a short distance from the stones, a fr)otpath 
by long use become public , turns across the fields to the left making a detour of nearly a mile 
before it leads again into the road. During daytime the peasants do not think it necessary to take the 
roundabout course. Arch Camb 



Llanwnda 



Llanwnda is a rural village and historical parish to the north of the Welsh county of Pembrokeshire 
and part of thecommunity of Pencaer. It lies some two miles northwest of the port of Fishguard and 
is inside the boundaries of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. 

To the north of the village is the rocky outcrop of Gamwnda, which was the site of a French 
soldiers' camp during the Battle of Fishguard. On the north side of Gamwnda is a prominent 
cromlech excavated by John Fenton in 1847. 

A fascinating hamlet with a boulder-strewn rough "village green" (with remnants of stone circles on 
it?) and a simple unpretentious bellcote church. There has been a church here since early Christian 
times, and Asser the friend of King Alfred, was educated here. There are a number of inscribed 
stones in the vicinity, and prehistoric remains are abundant. There is a suggestion that the village 
green may have remains of a stone circle on it. 

1833 Lewis' Topographical Dietionary of Wales 

Llanwnda (Llan-Wyndav), a parish in the hundred of Dewisland?, county of Pembroke, South 
Wales, 2 1/2 miles (North. West.) from Fishguard, containing 1046 inhabitants. This place appears 
to be of very remote antiquity, and the adjoining disfrict is supposed to have been a favourite resort 
of the ancient Druids. That there was a principal station for the solemnization of their rites is plainly 
indicated by the number of Druidical. remains that are scattered over the parish and throughout the 
vicinity, and also from various adjacent spots which still retain the names "Llan Druidion," "Fynnon 
Druidion," and others of similar import and origin. Near Fynnon Druidion were found five 
instruments of flint, supposed to have been used in flaying the victims devoted to sacriflce; and in 
the vale below is a circular earthwork, marked out by a solitary erect stone, probably to defend the 
pass of a small stream by which it is skirted, and perhaps also to protect the avenue to the 



188 



consecrated region. According to tradition, an ancient town called Trev Culhwch is said to have 
existed here at a very early period, of which evidence is frequently obtained in the foundations of 
ancient buildings which still obstruct the plough in various parts of the farm on which it is situated. 

About the year 1076, Trehaem ab Caradoc, Prince of North Wales, led his forces into South Wales, 
for the purpose of subjecting this country to his dominion, and at Pwihgwttic was boldly 
encountered by Rhys ab Owain, the reigning prince, with all the forces he could levy: here, after a 
long and sanguinary conflict, Rhys was at length defeated, with the loss of most of his army, and 
being himself closely pursued by the victor, he was at length taken prisoner with his brother Howel, 
and both were put to death by Trehaem in revenge for the murder of Bleddjoi ab Cjoivyn, which 
they had previously committed. 

The French effected a landing on this part of the coast in the year 1797, and, after plundering the 
inhabitants for some time, the soldiers becoming insubordinate through excess, their commander 
found it necessary to make an unconditional surrender to the local forces brought against him by 
Earl Cawdor. 

The parish is pleasantly situated in the north-western part of the county, and is bounded on the north 
by St. George's channel, and on the east by Fishguard bay, forming a promontory with a bold and 
precipitous shore, and indented by several small bays, the soundings within half a mile of the coast 
being from seven to twenty fathoms. The surrounding scenery is diversified with features of 
romantic grandeur; and the views from the higher grounds embrace extensive prospects over the 
channel and the adjacent country, which abounds with objects of interest. Off the north-western 
coast, in Garregonnen bay, are two small islets of a similar name. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of St. David's, rated in the king's books at £3. 5. 2 I/2 d, 
endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the 
Precentor and Canons in the cathedral church of St. David's, to whom the rectorial tithes are 
appropriated. 

The church, dedicated to St. Gwyndav, is not distinguished by any architectural features of 
importance. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists. William Hugh, in 
1778, bequeathed £20 to the poor not receiving parochial relief 

A strong chain of well-connected forts, extending in a direction from east to west throughout the 
whole length of the parish, is said to be of British origin: that on Gam vawr rock comprises an 
extensive area, enclosed by strong ramparts of uncemented stones, on the most accessible parts, 
flanked with portions of the rock which project in the form of natural bastions. On the summit of 
the hill above Goodwick pier is a rocking-stone, weighing about five tons, and so nicely poised as 
to yield to the slightest pressure. A little beyond it are three remarkable cromlechs in a right line, of 
which two have been overturned, but one still preserves its original position. Another cromlech 
stands on the ledge of rock just above the village, the table stone of which is fifteen feet in length, 
nine feet in width, and of an average thickness of two feet; and to the west of the site of the ancient 
town of Trev Culhwch are the majestic remains of several cromlechs, of which one, more perfect 



189 



than the rest, has a table stone fifteen feet long, eight feet wide, and two feet and a half in thickness. 
On opening a cairn, in 1 826, for the purpose of widening a road near the sea, in this parish was 
found a brass instrument, about nine inches long, with a circular ring at one end, and a flat triangle 
at the other, and pierced with two round holes in the neck which connected these together; it is now 
in the possession of D.O. Lewis, Esq., of Swansea, but no satisfactory conjecture has been offered 
as to the use to which it was applied. Near Trev Asser, in this parish, is a tumulus surrounded with a 
moat, which, on being opened some years since, was found to contain fragments of urns, and other 
indications of its having been a place of sepulture. 

Trev Asser is said to have been the birthplace of Asser, the friend and biographer of Alfred the 
Great. The celebrated Archdeacon Giraldus Cambrensis, who attended Baldwin, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, while preaching the crusades throughout the principality, and is better known for his 
literary works and numerous ecclesiastical appointments, was for some time incumbent of this 
parish. 

The poor are supported by an average annual expenditure amounting to £382. 7. 



1847 State of Education in Wales 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day with 
food and Is a day on their own finding. There is no resident land proprietor with day school 
provision for education of the poor of but almost all go to Sunday school. Many of the population 
can read but not write. 

Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 

Llanwnda little out-of-the-way village.The church stands in an isolated position overlooking a 
piece of 

rough ground that does dut)- as village ' green," a place scattered over with gray tumbled stones that 
seem to group themselves into the lines of rude hut-circles. Two or three low thatched cottages, that 
might pass for Irish cabins, appear to have been ' dumped ' down haphazard, and 

look old enough to have seen Giraldus Cambrensis when he held the benefice here. 



Built in a strong, simple manner well-suited to its exposed situation, Llanwnda Church has some 
characteristic features. Above the western gable rises a low double bell-cot, while a similar but 
smaller erection for the sanctus bell divides nave from chancel roof As we enter the low- 
browed porch, we espy a cross of archaic type carved upon a stone slab in the outer wall; and two 
similar crosses are to be seen upon the exterior of the chancel gable. 



190 



The nave retains its dark, oaken timbered roof, having a rudely carved head upon the eastern side 
of one of its ancient beams. The openings to the rood-loft are now blocked up, but at the time of the 
French incursion these apertures afforded a hiding-place to a servant - maid and child, who 

peeped out in trepidation whilst a gang of ruffians played havoc in the sacred 

edifice, setting fire to everything inflammable they could lay hands upon. 

After some little persuasion Mary Reece, the sprightly nonagenarian care-taker, is prevailed upon 
to produce the communion chalice for our inspection. This little vessel has a history of its own, 
having been stolen by a Frenchman, who endeavoured to dispose of it at Carmarthen, trying to pass 
oft" the word Llanwnda engraved upon the cup as La Vendee, a name of France. The chalice, which 
is much cracked and dented from the rough handling it has undergone, bears upon the exterior the 
inscription : poculum eclesie DE LLANWNDA. 



Church St Gwyndaf 

The church of St Gwyndaf is a Grade II listed building 

- small bellcoted church with strange severed head wooden carvings on the roof beams. 
Giraldus Cambrensis held living in 12c. It was restored in 1870's. 

There has been a church on the site since pre Norman days the monk Asser later an adviser to King 

Alfred and co founder of Oxford University, was educated here. 

Outside the church there is an incised Dark Ages grave slab with what appears to be a head, there 
are also inscribed stones from c600AD, a Holy well and Pilgrims crosses. 
Neolithic burial Chamber. 

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles 

The Church serves the wide headland of Pen-caer with its scattered farmsteads farmsteads and 
cottages. It has a double bellcote and sanctus. There are 5 cross incised stones built into the exterior 
wall of the church, one of which has a stylised human face. During the French invasion of 1797 a 
French Officer stole the chalice and, when trying to sell it in Carmarthen said that he had brought it 
from France and that the inscription LANVNDA was a rendering or La Vendee. Below is the 
rugged coastline of Pen-caer, a peninsular having many prehistoric remains including burial 
chambers at Gamwen, Penrhiw, Gamwnda and Gam Gyllwch, and an Iron Age fort on Gam Fawr. 



191 



The French landed at Carreg Wastad on this coast. 

1994 The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 1994. 

Much of the church is of 1881. The north aisle containing a rood-loft staircase and porch are both 
vaulted. Features of interest are the two piscinae, the crosses on the chancel walls and the head of a 
priest on a 15c roof beam. 

1921 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1921 The Parish Church Dedicated to St 
Gwyndaf, 

The church was rebuilt in 1881 on the earlier foundations. On plan the structure shows a chancel 23 
Vi ft by 14ftnave 20ft by 14 ft, north aisle 18ft by 8 % ft south aisl 22 ft by 8ft, a south porch 8ft 
square. The north aisle and porch retain their vaulted ceilings, and a single trifoliated lancet in the 
north wall of the chancel has been reconstructed. The porch has a peep hole to the south aisle, and 
stone seats. In the wall of the north aisle or chapel are the remains of a stairway, and near by is a 
rude corbel. The font is, 19in ,intemally, 15in square with a depth of 10 Vi in. It stands on a plain 
shaft and base of two steps. A stone bench runs along the west wall. Two piscinas, discovered 
during the reconstruction have been inserted, one a plain circular bowl in the south wall of the 
chancel; the other square in shape in the east wall of the south aisle, which would seem to have been 
its original position in what may have been a chantry chapel. Some of the medieval roof beams have 
been utilised to the present nave and on one of them is carved in high relief the head of a tonsured 
priest which appears to be of the early 15"" century date. The bell-cote is double; a sanctus bell cote 
remains abov the east gable of the nave. 

{Glynne Notes (Arch Camb 1897 p47) 



Crosses 

Built into the exterior walls of the chancel, where tthey are showing signs of weathering , are 
several crosses discovered during the restoration of the building. 

A Cross of which the lower arm was probably intended to correspond in length with the upper, but 
has it made a trifle longer. The cross is enclosed within a margin which follows the outline of the 
inner figure, thus making the design into that of a double lined cross; the outer measurements are 19 
in by 14 in. 

This cross is 17in by lOin; it bears "three transverse bars distinctly marked at the head of the cross, 
two being possibly intended to mark the 'titulus' or inscription over the head of the Saviour" 
(Westwood). These transverse bars are more probably intended for a rude canopy above the 
crosshead. 



192 



A plain incised cross with a single line border and rounded head; 16in by 9 V2 in in measurement. 

A fragment bearing what is probably part of a plain incised cross of single lines within a circle, but 
having the two remaining quadrants divided into urregular spaces intended to represent rough 
cuspings - This could not be found. 

An incised and omamental gravestone which was found buried in the wall of the parish church in 
1881 and of which the late Professor Westwood gived the following account in Arch Camb for 1882 
p 104. "the portion of the stone which still remains is 54in long and 18in wide and is marked with a 
large rudely formed face surrounded by four parallel lines forming the outline of the face; above 
which is a St Andrew's cross,each limb of which is also formed of four straigh incised lines. Below 
the face the incised lines are continued obliquely on each side representing the shoulders of the 
figure, the space between the face and the shoulders forming a triangle. There is a certain 
irregularity in the arrangements of the lines although the general effect appears at first sight to be 
uniform. The figured portion of the stone is 36 in long. This stone is set in the outside of the east 
wall of the south chapel. 

Ecclesiastical Figure 

Found by our Assistant Inspecting Officer on the day of his visit underneath one off the sittings in 
the south transept but unnoticed by any previous writer, is a fragmeny of what appears to have been 
the carved capital of the churchyard cross. It shows part of the figure of a cleric his right hand raised 
in blessing, his left clasping a staff The upper part of the head and feet are unfortunately missing. 
The height of the frasgment is 9 inches. 

Fragments 

On a stone ledge inside the porch and above the outer entrance, are two loose fragments of stone 
bearing carved wotrk. They are possibly portions of the carved cross head just mentioned; or may 
be parts of the crosshead conjecturally restored and illustrated in Arch Camb 1899 p 43 - Visited 
18* May 1921 

1851 Llanwnda, St. Gwyndaf 

Llanwnda Parish Church "The Church of Llanwnda is situated on the Northern side of the parish, 
the bulk of the population is at the foot of a steep hill on the Southern side" A H Richardson, 
Minister 

MH Feb 2006 Parish Church; The populated area was Goodwick and Llanwnda church is still out in 

the relatively unpopulated country. Goodwick has its own St Peters church, originally a daughter 
Church of Llanwnda and built for the influx of mainly English speaking families associated with 
Fishguard Harbour and the GWR. 

1929 

St Gwjoidaf & St Peter's (Goodwick) & St Mary (Manorowen) Incumbent and Curates; J Jones (J G 



193 



Davies) 



Llanwnwr Chapel and Burial Ground. 

This is the larger and more important of the two chapels subordinate to Llanwnda church mentioned 
by Browne Willis in his Parochiale Wallicana. The site was in or close to the fold yard of the 
farmhouse of Llanwnwr 2 V2 miles west by north of the parish church. A considerable number of 
flag lined graves have from time to time been brought to light in the yard, and after rain the outlines 
of burials can be traced. In 1883 on the occasion of the Cambrian Archaeological Association visit 
to the place, one of the graves was opened; it contained to be not more tan a foot deep. Some of the 
others was said to have contained ashes as well as bones. 

Cross Incised Stone 

Standing against the front of the farmhouseis a cross stone which was removed some years ago, 
from the granary steps. It carries a plain cross within a circle, the lower limb being extended beyond 
the circle. Ita entier length is 22in; the diameter of the circle is 14 ins and the overall height 63 in. 

St Degan's Chapel 

The second of the two chapels named by Browne Willis. It stood on the exposed cliffs in the north 
of the parich, nearly two miles north of the parish church. The site is still known as Pare Capel and 
faint traces of the foundations are at times to be seen in the grass near a natural outcrop knownas 
Cnwe St Degan. Fenton (Tour 20) in whose time ruins of the little building were visible, preserves a 
copy of a letter written to Brown Willis in 1720 by Henry Goffe, subchanter of St David's 
Cathedral— " There is a remarkable habit of this St Degan, preserved for several ages: the person 
that has it now having had it in his custody for 40 years, to whom it was handed down by an elderly 
matron of upwards of ninety years of age. This habit, a piece whereof I have sentyou enclosed, I 
had the curiosity to see; it is much in the form of a clergymans cassock but without sleeves. There 
were to of them of the same make nearly a yard in length nut having the little slit or hole at every 
comer on each end, and on the brim of each side were loops of blue silk" Fenton adds " the 
veneration for this little duodecimo saint is hereditary among the inhabitants of this district .... 
When very young I recollect an old man who said he remembered the chapel up, and in a part of it 
then roofed, the saint's sacred vest was preserved and shown, which was purchased by a stranger 
travelling in those parts; with the removal of his robe, the fame of his sanctity died away - Visited 
18* May 1921. 

Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

The church of Lanwodaf [Llanwndajwith its appurtenances was granted by Bishop Anselm to the 



194 



Chapter of St. Davids Cathedral, and this grant was confirmed by Bishop Reginald Brien on 1 8 
May, 1352. — (Stat. Menev.) 

292Described as 'Llanuda,' this church was in 1291 assessed at £16 for tenths to the king, the sum 
payable being £1 12s. — (Tcaatio.) 

Llannanda Vicaria:~Grifiinus Roger vicarius per-petuus ibidem habet altileg' et oblaciones dicte 
ecclesie que valent in toto singulis annis Ixyjs viijd inde sol' in ordinatia visitacione quolibet tercio 
anno xiiijd ob. Item in visitacione quolibet anno pro sinodalibus iiijd. Et remarket dare 65s. Id. Inde 
decima 6s. 6d. - (Valor Eccl.) 

On 10 July, 1656, an order was made by the Trustees for the maintenance of Ministers under the 
Commonwealth, granting to Adam Hawkins, the successor of the late Stephen Love at St. Mary's. 
Haverfordwest, £16 5s. from the tithes of Llanwnda. 

Under the beading 'Livings Discharged': — Llanwnda V. (St. Wnda). Visit, quolibet tertio anno. Is. 

2d. Syn. quolibet anno, 4d. Habet altareg. and oblat. Chantor and Chapter of St. Davids Patr. and 

Impr. Clear yearly value, £14. King's Books, £3 5s. 2d. - (Bacon's Liber Regis.) 

The accounts for the year 1490 of William Waryn, the Communarius of the Cathedral, shows that 

the tithes of Llausvnda were then leased to Master Thomas ap Howell, at the yearly rent of £8, 

payable to the Chapter, and £8 to the vicar of the church. On 2 July, 1550 a lease of the tithes and 

the advowson of the vicarage was granted for 40 years to Arnold Butler of Janston [Johnston] 

Pems., at a rent of £16, which included the vicar's stipend, and on 28 July, 1565, a lease of the 

rectory of Llanwnda (the vicarage excepted) was granted for 4 years at the same rent to Gellie 

Mericke of South Hooke, Pems., gent., the term to commence at the termination of the previous 

lease given to Arnold Butler. In 1626 John Mericke of Monkton Pems., Esq., obtained a lease of 
the tithes for 21 years, at a rent of £16 for which he paid a fine of £66 6s. 8d. and in this instance the 

advowson of the vicarage was reserved to the Chapter. 

On 25 July, 1668, the Chapter granted a lease of the rectorial tithes of Llanwnda to William 
Wogan, of Grays Inn, Middlesex, Esq., and Dame Elizabeth Jacob (the widow of Sir John Jacob, 
of the City of London, Knt., and Bart, deceased) who in or about that year married her co-lessee, the 
term granted being for the lives of the two lessees and of Hugh Wogan, gent., the youngest brother 
of William Wogan, the reserved rent being £16. 

According to Canon Pajaie's MS., Sir William Wogan, judge of the Great Sessions for the three 



195 



counties, obtained in 1697 a lease for 21 years of the tithes, the refit being raised to £24, but in this 

case the stipend of the vicar was paid by the Chapter. On 25 July 1704, William Wogan [of 

Llanstinan, the nephew of the previous lessee] obtained a renewal of the lease, for 21 years at the 

same rent, and this lease was renewed in July, 1734, for 21 years at £15 6s 8d rent, by John 
Symons of Llanestinan, who inherited the property of his uncle, William Wogan. On 26 July, 1749, 
John Symons paid a fine is of £66 5s. to renew the lease for another 21 years, and in July, 1770 he 
paid another fine of £105 to renew the lease for 21 years. 

On 4 June, 1881, a faculty was obtained for the restoration of Llanwnda Church. 

Browne Willis in his Paroch Wall mentions two chapels, called Capel Began and Llanwnewr, as 

subordinate to Llanwnda, the former being dedicated to St. Began and the latter to St. Gwynswr. 

Referring to Capel Began, Fenton's Pems. says, "Upon the edge of a cliffe overhanging a small 

creek in this parish are the almost obliterated remains of a chapel dedicated to St. Tegan or Began." 

The site of Llanwnewr Chapel was evidently in or close to the yard of the farm of that name, and it 

is clear fi-om the large number of graves that have been found in the farmyard that the chapel must 

have been of some considerable importance. As described a few years ago to the writer by the 

occupant of the farm, the sides of the graves were formed of flag-stones set an edge, and covered by 

one or more flag-stones. It was quite a common event, he added, for an animal to break through into 

a grave. 



Clergy CCEd 



Price, Gulielmus 




Curate 


Price, Robertus 


1688 


Curate 


Price, Robertus 


1692 


not given 


Rice, Griffinus 


1714 


Curate 


Rice, Griffinus 


1717 


Curate 


Price, Gulielmus 


1718 


Vicar 


Price, Gulielmus 


1720 


Vicar 



196 



Price, Gulielmus 


1722 


Vac (natural death) 


Vicar 


Morris, David 


1722 


Vicar 




Winter, Edward 


1735 


Curate 




Thomas, William 


1739 


Curate 




Morris, David 


1746 


Vac (resignation) 


Vicar 


Bowen, James 


1746 


Vicar 




Jenkins , John 


1762 


Curate 




Jones , Rees 


1788 


Curate 




Bowen , James 


1804 


Vicar 




Jones , Rees 


1804 


Curate 




Bowen , David 


1808 


Curate 




Rees , Francis 


1809 


Vicar 




Bowen , James 


1809 


Vac (natural death) 


Vicar 


Bowen , John 


1824 


Curate 




Harris , John 


1826 


Vicar 




Rees , Francis 


1826 


Vac (natural death) 


Vicar 


Harris , John 


1826 


Vicar 




Jones , John 


1827 


Curate 




J_>UWtii 1, J Uiiii 


1 878 






Propert Williams , James 


1830 


Curate 




Harries , William 


1831 


Curate 





Nonconformist Chapels: 

Harmony, Pen-caer, Strumble Head [Baptists, 1828]. 1851Harmony Baptist Erected in 1828 "The 
Chapel is a station, or a Branch of the Baptists Church at Llangloffan in the Parish of Granston, 
Pembrokeshire" Henry Davies, Minister 



197 



1851 Beracah CM Erected in 1830 David Meyler, Supplying Minister 

MH Feb 2006 Beracah was Calvinistic Methodist and changed to English (speaking) Methodist to 
attract worshippers from the new inhabitants. 

1851 Salem Independents or Congregationalists Erected in 1840 David Bateman, Minister. MH 
Feb 2006 Salem was situated on the road to Strumble Head and 1 am told that the graveyard is still 
in existance behind a tatty modern bungalow called Salem. It is not possible to see it. Apparently 
the chapel just fell down 

Names for Llanwnda 

ap Howell Thomas 1490 lease of the tithes Llanwnda Pembrokeshire Parsons. 
Brien Reginald Bishop 18 May 1352 Llanwnda Stat Menev. 



Butler Arnold 2 July 1550 of Janston Johnston Pems lease of the tithes Llanwnda . lease of the 
Rectory of Camrose 1st May 1543. Pembrokeshire Parsons 



Cambrensis Geraldus 1 146. ( Gerald de Barri) Gerald of Wales son of de Barri William a 

Norman lord and Angharad daughter of the Norman de Windsor Gerald (who 

had a castle at nearby Carew) and the beautiful and notorious Welsh, princess Nest born Manorbier 
c 1146. held living of Angle 1215 ? Manorbier Intro 1188 Camrose (South Wales by Wade 
iPiJ/administrator of the See of St Davids visited Ireland 1183.Made archdeacon of Brechnock 
plus additionalholding at Mathry Llanwnda & Tenby 11 75. held living of Llanwnda in 12c 



Davies David 4 January 1779 Alias David John Evan David Dinas Mariner Offence Assault on 
prosecutor in the execution of his duty Llanwnda Prosecutor Evans James clergyman JP Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Fenton John 1848 July 24 Llanwnda Article on the cromlech Arch Camb 1848 



Griffiths Samuel 23 February 1797 Brawdy, Yeoman Offence Treason - aiding and abetting the 
French army, numbering one thousand and four hundred soldiers, in their invasion of the Kingdom. 



198 



The French General an American - General Tate. One French soldier asked if they had arrived on 
'the north point of Ireland', another mentioned 'a great preparation in Brest'. Reed John of 
Llanwnda, Yeoman,impIicated but not indicted. Llanwnda, Prosecutor Foley Richard, deputy clerk 
to the crown. Before thePembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Hawkins Adam, the successor of the late Steplien Love at St Mary's. Haverfordwest, £16 5s. from 
the tithes o{ Llanwnda 



Jacob Elizabeth July 1668 Dame the widow of Sir John Jacob of the City of London Knt and Bart 
lease of the tithes Llanwnda Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Mericke Gellie 28 July 1565 of South Hooke Pems gent lease of the tithes Llanwnda 
Pembrokeshire parsons 

Mericke Gellie 28 July, 1565 of South Hooke, Perns., gent., a lease of the rectory of Llanwnda the 
vicarage excepted was granted for 4 years the term to commence at previous lease given to Arnold, 
Butler. 



Mericke John 1626 of Monkton Pems Esq lease of the tithes Llanwnda Pembrokeshire parsons 



Roger Grifinus 1534 vicarious Llanwnda Valor Eccl. 



Symons John July 1734 of Llanestinan lease of the tithes Llanwnda Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Vaughan Anne 1 1 May 1762 John Vaughan Llanwnda Miller, Charged With Murder of his wife, 
Anne Vaughan by pushing her against a cheese press. No indictment. Llanwnda Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-18 



Vaughan John 1 1 May 1762 Llanwnda Miller, Offence Murder of his wife, Anne Vaughan, by 

pushing her against a cheese press. No indictment. Llanwnda Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 
1730-1830 



199 



Williams William October 22 1 829 of Llanwnda baptized Penbont Zion Hill Independent parents 
William Williams Gentleman & Martha nee Rees Came 



Wogan William 25 July 1668 of Grays Inn Middlesex Esq judge of the Great Sessions lease of the 
tithes Llanwnda. 



Wogan William 25 July 1704 of Llanstinan lease of the tithes Llanwnda Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Mining Llanwnda 

Un-named Mine SM 886.378. Cave in cliff top below Cam Ogof could be mined; steel / iron 
shovel and pick found there by local boys. 

Un-named Mine SM 888.386. Copper trial on landward side of Dinas Mawr on north side of 
Pwll deri. No historical detail available. Adit (open) in clifif above high water mark at Aber 
Twn. 

Sites of Interest 

1848 Cromlech at Llanwnda Arch Camb John Fenton 

The cromlech is placed on a sloping angle of rock called Camwnda, at a considerable elevation 
above the level of the surrounding country, and high above the church of the parish: the later lying 
from it at no great horizontal distance. 

The greatest length of the upper stone, from east to west, is 13 ft, and from north to south 9 ft 7 /4 
in. The height above ground of the only supporting stone , which is towards the northem end is four 
ft 3in.The superincumbent stone has evidently been moved forward from its original position; and 
the principal supporting pillar to the north, and the only one upon which it now rests, in front, is 
much further in than at firsts while the end of the upper stone to the south, has, in consequence, 
declined so as to touch the smaller stones which originally encircled the cistvaen, and which 
probably were not the old supporters. 

I attribute this alteration to the cromlech having been at some former period dug into for the sake of 
exploring the recess undemeath, — which circumstance led me also to be cautious in making any 
deeper search; but from the quantity of red and black ashes mixed with portions of what seemed to 



200 



be decomposed burnt bones and small fragments of very rude pottery, which I found at the time in 
the hollow below, I felt no hesitation in forming a conclusion that it had been a place of interment. 
The upper side of the incumbent stone is free from all marks of fire, so as to render it doubtful 
whether it had ever, subsequently, been used for sacrificial purposes. Many displaced large stones 
are scattered about, some of which probably might have been supporters to the cromlech when first 
erected; and to the south, nearer the main rock, from which no doubt these were detached portions, 
there lies one, of dimensions nearly equal to that of the cromlech itself, ready as it were to have 
been appropriated to a similar purpose. 

The stone of which Camwnda is composed is extremely heavy and solid, and is a species of 
greenstone or basaltic trap, the common material of this locality. 

There is a curious looking stone upon the summit of the ledge of rock to the south east of the 
cromlech, and overlooking it, which with a little imagination might be converted into a rock idol, 
and has every appearance of having been placed in its present singular position. It seems quite 
detached from the main rock. 

It may be observed that this transition from the use of places for sepulture to that for sacrificial 
purposes, is to be accounted for inasmuch as it is a received opinion that the graves of heroes, and 
chief priests of antiquity, were ever held sacred and resorted to upon high occasions: whence also, 
in process of time, the subjects of such commemorartion became, in the ages of superstition, 
deified, and might have given rise among the Druids to altar worship. The relic in question is rather 
interesting, because it proves the fact that churches were frequently founded where such remains 
existed, probably with a view to do away with the old pagan rites by substituting, upon the same 
spot, a monument of Christian worship. 

(John Fenton. Glynamel, Fishguard, July 24th, 1848. ) 



1921 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments - Parish of Llanwnda 

The parish of Llanwnda comprises the larger portion of a quadranular shaped peninsula which juts 
out directlynorthwards from the body of the county into St Georges Channel. Its northernmost 
projection at Strumble Head is the nearest point of South Wales to the chief western and south 
western harbours - Wexford and Waterford - of the neighbouring island of freland. Though the 
norther and western sides of the peninsular extend for about four miles in their respective directions, 
the eastern border is no more than half the length of the corresponding western line, and the 
southern (or landward) boundary follows practically an oblique line drawn from Goodwick on the 
east to the tiny inlet of PwU crochan on the west with a big dent in itdue to the prolongation of the 
soutward lying parish of St Nicholas. The whole area may be said to form an irregular square of 
about twelve square miles. 



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The surface is rocky and uneven, especially towards the north side of the peninsula where the rocks 
rise to a height of five and six hundred feet above sea level, and develop into a line of his stretching 
disconnectedly fi-om one side of the district to another. The northern part of the peninsula between 
broken ground and the sea is called Pen Caer, the name being probably derived fro the fine military 
position called Gaer (modernised into Garn) Fawr at the western end of the line of hills. Most of the 
eminences in the short range are crowned with a stone enclosure or cairn. The entire peninsula is 
open to every wind that blows, and the winter storms break over it with great violence. Along the 
complete length of its coast line , extending for about fourteen miles, there is no spot that affords 
safe landing for small craft except under favourable climate conditions, though doubtless the creek 
at Fishguard (or Goodwick) at its south eastern corner has provided easy access at all times. 

1811 Fenton' 

His remarks on the prehistoric remains of this parish are of importance. They run as follows :- 

"Remains of Druidical monuments and other ancient works meet you here at every tutn; yet on the 
other side of the ridge of rocks separating the flat on the sea coast from the country to the south 
east, there is a spot that particularly claims attention; from the appearance of which, at present 
exhibiting a vast quantity of loose stones, disposed of in various forms of enclosure, scattered 
everywhere over the declivity of the hill, I am lead to suppose that here must have been an 
extensive settlement of the earliest inhabitants; a supposition I am confirmed in by the evidence of 
the farmer now occupying that and several other contiguous pieces of land , which with difficulty 
he can force his ploughshare through, such it meets fi-om with from lines of foundations branching 
out in all directions. Besides there is a tradition of a town having existed here, called Tref Culhweh. 
The side to the west seemed to have been appropriated to druidical ceremonies from the many 
cromlechs, some overturned and some in their original position.There is one more remarkable than 
the rest; a large unshapen mass of serpentine 15ft by 8ft and 2 Vi ft average thickness; under the 
edges of it are placed nine or ten small pointed upright stones, embedded in a strong pavement , 
extending for some way round. The small supporters are seemingly fixed without any regard to their 
height as only two or three bear the whole weight of the incumbent stone, one of which is so 
pressed by it as to have become almost incorporated with it. On the upper surface of the cromlech 
are three considerable excavations near the centre probably intended to have received the blood of 
the victim, or water for purification, if (as is the most general opinion) they were used as altars, 
being similar to those so often mentioned by Borlase under the name of rock basins. This stone has 
a small inclination to the north east. Its height from the ground is very inconsiderable, being scarce 
one foot high on the lowest side, and on the other only high enough to admit of a person creeping 
under it, though when once entered the space enlarges from the upper stone having a considerable 
concavity. The earth below is rich and black, but that may be owing to it having been for years the 
sheltering place of sheep in winter. The farmer told me that, not many years ago, near this place 
two spear heads had been found laid across each other, and a knob of metal suspected to have been 
gold. That this was a favourite place resort of the Druids and Bards, the names of the surrounding 
places clearly indicate, as Llandruidion, and F5ninon Druidion; near the latter of which, and not far 



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from a small cromlech and the consecrated well which characterises and gives its name to the spot 
were found five flint instruments having the broad end worn down to a rounded edge, and the 
smaller end chipped out in little hollows, to admit of a firmer grasp. They differ essentially from the 
flint celts found in the barrows of Wiltshire and elsewhere whose broad edges are much blunter, and 
narrow parts more smooth 

A little below in the vale to cover a pass over a small stream that skirts it, and perhaps tp protect the 
avenue to this consecrated region, stands a circular earth encampment marked by a solitary maen 
hir; and more westward in the same vale a large druidical circle with one of the encircling stones on 
the south side, super-eminent above its fellows, being about 1 1ft high above ground within its area 
was dug up a stone hammer. 

By the very strong fortifications crowning the summits of those rocky eminences which extend 
from Gamvawr , the western extremity of the parish of Llabwnda to PenjThiw eastward, and form a 
chain of well connected posts, evidently British, there is every reason to suppose that the country 
the French fixed on for making their descent was chosen for the same purpose by the earlier 
piratical invaders, as at the base of Gamvawr, a point of land projects into the sea, called to this day 
Trwyn y badau, the cape of the boats, terminating in a bold rock shaped like atruncated cone, and 
only accessible by a narrow isthmus on the south side of which, by a rock shelving towards the 
water, now much eaten away, the ascent must have been effected through a hollow covered way, 
still visible, protected from the sight of the camp above, and continued so as to bring them 
unobserved to the more accessible side of the mountain, and into the flat country to the north of it, 
which probably the plunderers might have got possession of 

The British post on Garnvawr a rock of no small height, consists of an extensive area surrounded by 
vast ramparts of loose stones and bastion like portions of the natural rock, by four or five lines on 
the most accessible side towards the land; but on the other sides being almost precipitous, by fewer, 
and otherwise strongly defended by nature; high as the situation is, there appears to have been a 
sunk well within the area of the camp, now filled and choked up with stones. 

On the land side, about half a mile off on a furzy plain there are two remarkable meini hirion, about 
300 yds from each other, erected probably to commemorate a battle fought between the natives and 
the invaders, as from this spot a well pitched military road may be traced up to the camp. 

The gate on the high road leading from the above rude columns is called the Lady Gate, from a 
belief prevailing among the common people there , that treasure ids hid near, and that a lady is often 
seen by night hovering round as if wait for the happy person who is fated to be enriched by her 
discovery of the mysterious and valuable deposit" (Tour 1811 pp21-6) 

Garn wen Remains 

On the 6in Ord sheet "Cromlechau" are marked as standing on Garn wen headland, immediately 
above Goodwick harbour, at an altitude of over 300ft above sea level. In the year 1883 the 



203 



Cambrian Archaeological Association visited the spot and found "in one place three cromlechs in a 
line directly North and South at a short distance from each other. The first of these , locally called 
'Carreg Samson' has a capstone 12ft 9in in length by 1 1ft in breadth, and an average thickness of 
2ft; the supporting stones have been displaced, but the line of the enclosing circle is distinct enough. 
The same remark will apply to numbers two and three. In the second case the supporting stone 6ft 
and 7ft in length, have given way; the capstone is 12ft by 8ft, with an average thickness of 12 in. 
Close to these is a well defined circle , divided by a line through the centre, and approached by a 
passage which pointed towards a low tumulus" {Arch Camb 1883) 

Twenty years later it is reported that there were "nine cromlechs more or less perfect , a tumulus, a 
large circle including a hut foundation, and several standing stones. Recently a tumulus was 
removed by the railway men. This contained a quantity of calcined stone, some above, some below 
the level of the natural soil" {Pern Arch Survey) 

In the last twenty years, especially during the period of the war, most of the features visible in 1883 
have been obliterated. Our Inspecting Officer was quite unable to locate the cromlechs, but the 
tumulus and the hut circle remain -Visited 2°'' June 1921. 

Carn Wnda Cromlech 

On Carn Wnda 521ft above sea level and 300 yds south of the parish church, are the remains of a 
cromlech. The capstone 1 1ft in length, with an average depth of 1 Vi ft and a breadth of 10 Vi ft., is 
still supported by one pillar standing 5ft above the soil. The other end of the covering stone rests 
upon rock. The cromlech was ruined before Richard Fenton's time {Tour pl8) John Fenton wrote 
about it in 1846 {Arch Camb 1848) Sir Gardner Wilkinson F.R.S. says of it " Beneath it is a Hollow 
formed by excavations in quest of treasure (and now filled with water) in which nothing was found 
except some sea worn pebbles and charred wood of more recent times, I could discover no trace of 
the basin said to be upon the capstone of this cromlech" {Collectanea Archaeologica 1871). Some 
years ago "excavations were made under the stone, and a small urn containing calcined bones was 
discovered. From the description we have obtained of the urn it was of coarse manufacture and 
crumbled to pieces" {Pem. Arch. Survey) Visited 18* May 1921. 

Gyllweh Cromlech 

At the foot of a rocky protuberance called Carn Gyllweh (Ord. Maps Carn Gilfach), over one third 
of a mile west of Y Cam cromlech are one fairly perfect cromlech and traces of another. That 
marked on the 6in. Sheet, where charcoal and pottery are stated to have been found in the year 
1800, has a capstone 13 '/i ft in length 8ft in breadth and 2 Va ft in depth, which apparently stands on 
four supports about 1 Vi ft above the surface; rank vegetation may hide a fifth, and several small 
packing stones lie about. About 30yds to the south are the remains of a secoind cromlech, with a 
capstone 8ft in length 5ft in breadth and 1 Vi ft thick. . The supporters have fallen beneath it, one is 



204 



still standing though leaning at an angle of 45degrees. 

Lhuyd in his ms. Account of the district says of the second cromlech: "Less than a bowshot from 
Tre GwUwch is Man y Cromlech w'ch is one yard and a half long and 4ft broad and above 2 thick. 
One of the supp'rs is above 4ft high, the second about 3ft and Vi; the 2 middle ones are fallen 
forward the 5*^ is abt. 3 foof . 

In the field next south, known as Llain garreg hir is an erect stone , which may have been connected 
with the cromlechs. It has a height of 3 Yi ft above the level - Visited 24* May 1921. 

Y Garn Cromlech 

The 6 in sheet marks the site of a cromlech on Y Gam, over one mile south west of the parish 
church, and immediately east of Gam Bwlch house. The spot is so covered with gorse as to make a 
satisfactory examination of it impossible. There would seem to be one support in situ, about 5ft in 
length and now almost prostrate. The capstone is apparently gone - Visited 24* May 1921. 

Pencwm Cromlech 

On the west slope of the headland facing Fishguard Bay, in the second field north east of Pencwm is 
a mined cromlech, of which the capstone measures 17 '/^ in length, 8 % and 2 72 ft in thickness. Its 
supporters have fallen and the spot is so overgrown as to prevent a carefiil examination of the 
chamber. The cromlech was erect and perfect some eighty years ago according to the memory of the 
late Mrs Clement Bowen of Coodwick. The white colouring of the stone makes it a prominent 
object in its setting of yellow gorse. 

Serving as a gate post in the south angle of the field next west to the capstone is a fine erect stone 8 
Yi ft above the surface, which has every appearance of having been connected with the cromlech. Its 
companion gate post is of the ordinary height, some 4ft above the soil - Visited 18* May 1921. 

Penrhiw Cromlech 

On the field known as Pare y gromlech next north of Penrhiw farm house stands a cromlech, the 
chamber of which is now filled with field gathered stones. The capstone has been overthrown and 
lies at the feet of its quondam supporters; it has a length of 13ft 10 in and a breadth of 8ft. The 
supporting pillars differ from those of other cromlechs in the parish in that they are laid lengthwise 
and not on end, and they thus form a perfect cist or chamber. The two long stones on the north and 
south sides of the cist are from 8 Yi ft to 9ft in length and 3 ft above the level; those to the east and 
west are of somewhat smaller proportions. Although the field has been under cultivation for many 
years it is evident, when viewed from a short distance that the stmcture stood upon a low mound, 
and photographs of this cromlech taken about the year 1865, and now in the museum of the 



205 



Carmarthen Antiq. Society show that several base stones of a superimposed cairn were then in situ - 
Visited 24* May 1921. 

Pare Hen Stone 

An erect stone in the field next to and north east of Henner school house, it stands 80 in. clear of 
the soil, is somewhat square in form with a breadth to the north east of 58 in. It is not marked on the 
6in. Sheet. --Visited 18*^ May 1921. 

Tre Sinwen Stone 

In the second field east of Tre Sinwen farm house is an erect stone standing a clear 5 Vi ft with a 
breadth of 4 Ya ft it faces south. -Visited 18* May 1921. 

Cross incised Stone 

Built into the wall at the cemetery cross roads is a stone upon which is incised a cross of rude 
character. The cross 2ft in length is formed by two incised lines. There is no surrounding circle. It is 
said locally that the other corners of the cross roads bore similarly marked stones within almost 
living memory. The two fields at this spot are known as Pare y Groes. Visited 24* May 1921 Arch 
Camb 1883 

Llanwnda Green 

On the village green, due west of the church, are a number of stones, some of which appear to have 
been placed in position by human agency. Though much denuded, it is possible to trace a circle of 
considerable dimensions. 

Sir Gardner Wilkinson F.R.S. in 1871 saw "a fence near the village of Llanwnda some large stones , 
but not part of a circle as some might imagine" (Collectanea Archaeologica p231) . The remark 
would seem to refer to some naturally placed stones which form part of a hedge west than the Green 
-Visited 18* May 1921. 

Garn Wen Hut Circle 

Immediately adjacent to the tumulus on Gam Wen headland is the foundation of a circular hut 13 Vi 
ft in diameter. It is possible , not withstanding much disturbance to trace its outline, many of the 
foundation stones being still in position; some of them rise to a height of 2ft. The entrance was 
probably to the south. The interior is filled with debris and rank vegetation - Visited T"^ June 1921. 



206 



Dinas Mawr 



A typical Pembrokeshire cliff castle, placed on a promontory about one third od a mile west of Gaer 
Fawr camp and defended on three sides by steep precipices to the sea; the narrow neck connecting it 
with the mainland is fortified by two banks 150 ft in length and 50ft apart. The banks are largely 
constructed of stone, and it is possible that they were originally faced, as the opening in the main 
rampart is approached Irom the outer entrance by a causeway, the sides of which (especially that on 
the south east) are lined with slabs. The principal rampart has a height of 4ft and a fall of 5ft to a 
ditch 10ft in width, now much filled in. the outer bank is slightly lower. The inner entrance has a 
width of 20ft, the outer 12 fy. The enclosed area is protected from the prevailing winds by the 
pinnacle of rock; at its foot are slight fraces of hut circles. On the eastern side is a narrow winding 
and well wom path down to the sea. Between the promontory and a small rocky inlet to the west is 
a straight narrow gorge, through the sea races with force; the side of the pathway next the islet bears 
evidence of considerable weathering. On the east side of the promontory, between it and Trwyn y 
Badau, skiffs point is Ogo's march, the horseman's cave, wherer according to tradition still current 
among the fisher folk "a number of Danes in full armour" lie buried. - Visited 25* May 1921. 

Dinas Mawr, Llanwnda 

The ramparts at Dinas Mawr, Llanwnda, Pen-caer were once stone-walled and are pierced by 
central gateways, the inner lined with slabs. Although there are traces of at least one hut circle just 
inside the gate, most of Dinas Fawr comprises a towering pinnacle of rock, with little space for 
settlement. In instances like this, where much prehistoric effort was dedicated to defending a very 
restricted coastal promontory, it is hard not to wonder if there was some ritual or ceremonial use for 
the 'fort' positioned in a 'liminal' space between land and sea. Dinas Mawr resembles the Channel 
Island coastal site of La Pinnacle on Jersey, which was used for axe-making, settlement and ritual 
activities for thousands of years Driver, T. 2007. ^Pembrokeshire, Historic Landscapes from the 
Air', RCAHMW, page 102, Figure 153. 

Gaer Fawr 

This, one of the most striking of the stone forts of the United Kingdom, may be said to be 
practically unknown to antiquaries past and present. It is also of importance as being the only one of 
the county early monuments of which anything like an adequate description was written over two 
centuries ago, when its features were doubtless far more distinguishable than they are at this day. 

From the British Museum Ms Stowe 1023-4 two volumes of drawings and sketches by the 
celebrated Welsh antiquary Edward Lhuyd ( died 1709) keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Oxford, 
or by one of his companions in his wanderings through the Principality Lhuyd in addition to a rough 
plan of the defences at Gam Fawr, appends the following account on the work :- 

cl700 Description of the Intrenchment at Y Gaer M [Vawr} Pembrokeshire 



207 



The inward intrenchment from East to west is about 50 of Mr Lhwyd's paces, and from North to 
South about a hundred, having on the south 2 cabanes ( by 'cabanes' Lhuyd means 'cabins' that is 
small retangular enclosures , or hut dwellings) 3 on the west and one in ye middle. The 2°'' 
intrenchment on ye east is about 180 paces long. The spot of ground that lyes between the 1st and 
2"'' wall being about the same length, but 50 [paces] broad. The 3"* Intrenchment is about 140paces 
in length, and the ground lying between the 2°'' and 3"* id on the same but 60 [paces] broad. 

The 2"'' Intrenchment on ye south side is about 200 paces in length, having 3 rocks and 2 caban, and 
the ground between it and the first is of the same, but in some places 20, 12, and 6 [paces] broad. 

The 3'^'' wall on ye south side is about 260 paces in length, the ground between it and the second is 
of the same, but in some places about 20, 12 and 6 [paces] broad in which there are 7 caban. 

The 2"'' Intrenchment on the west is about 50 paces long, between this and the first wall on this side 
there is a spot of ground about 12o paces long and 60 broad, and likewise a small ingress on ye 
North Westlying near ye rocks ( which secure ye North side of ye Gaer). This 2"*^ wall westward 
hath also 2 caban. By the ingress on the west there is a small wall which runs from it northwards 
and under the rocks of about 20 paces in length. Tthe north side of the Gaer is altogether rocky. 

The only other description of this earth work is contained in a ms. account of his visit to it about 
the year 1890 by Lieut-Col. W LI Morgan R.E., F.S.A., an ex Commissioner. He writes :- 

"Situated on the highest point of land immediately behind Strumble Head. Several tors play a 
prominent part in the defence which mainly consists of two lines of ramparts connecting three tors; 
but on the East side, where the approach is not so steep, are three lines at varying ontervals, and 
further strenghtened by an earthern rampart and ditch. The stone ramparts have been so ruined by 
depredations of farmers for the purpose of building stone walls within the camp that it is impossible 
to decide what their dimensions may have been, or anything further except the direction in which 
they run. The camp certainly belongs to a class similar to Cam Ingi. There may still be seen the 
remains of hut dwellings on the South West side, and doubtless many may have been destroyed." 
The geological formation is trap, and some beautifiil and perfect specimens of romboidal basaltic 
columns are to be seen on the western tor. It is plain that loose stones were not so abundant in the 
interior of this camp as at Cam Ingli, and consequently the supply was insufficient, and had to be 
supplemented from some distance on the outside. One stone in particular was most noticable - an 
ordinary granite about 8in to 12 in.long evidently an erratic and brought from some distance. 

The earthen ditch and rampart call for particular attentions as to whether it was part of the original 
camp, or an addition at some later time. At its northem extremity the rampart seems to run into and 
cover the outer face of the stone wall, which here is more complete than elsewhere. Along the 
centre of the course it can hardly be considered that the stone wall could be part of the same defence 
as the rampart and ditch unless the former were of much larger dimensions than any other walls in 
the neighbouring camps which still remain perfect. The conclusion must be that the rampart and 
ditch were additions for some particular purpose, for the difficulty of making the ditch, owing to the 
nature of the ground was so great, and the ease which the stone walls could have been raised ( if 



208 



such additions were necessary to strengthen the defence) so obvious, that unless the ditch was 
absolutely necessary it would never have been attempted. Probably this was done at the time of the 
Danish invasion, and if the work of the invaders, the small cliff castles below were made to keep 
their connection with the sea. 

Sling Stones 

On the day of his visit our Assistant Inspecting Officer found an the south west side of the camp, 
just behind the short length of wall where the outer facing of it is still fairly perfect, a pocket of four 
sling stones - water founded pebbles about the size of a pigeon's egg. These are now in the museum 
of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society at Carmarthen. 

Flint Chips 

According to Pem. Arch. Survey flint chips have been found within the walls of Gam Fawr, but no 
further particulars are given -Visited 25* May 1921. 

Gaer Fach 

Two hundred yards to the east of the hill upon which is placed the great camp of Gaer Fawr, is a 
lesser knoll which is crowned with a low stone wall. Lhuyd notices the camp on these terms :- 

"On the east side of Gaer Mawr lyes another Intrenchment on the top of a hill called Y Gaer Vychan 
having two rocks one on the north and one on the south. Its ingress is on ye west, and in a manner 
opposite to the ingress of the Gaer Vawr" 

The stone walling is much dilapidated but it is evident it could never have been a strong wall of 
defence; it probably formed the enclosure for cattle of the tribe, whose fighting position was on the 
neighbouring hill. 

Ysgubor Gaer 

At the foot of the south slope of Gaer Fawr is an oval or oblong enclosure, having well rounded 
corners, ahich, although now completely hidden beneath dense undergrowth woud seem to be fairly 
intact. A somewhat slight bank built of loose stones and earth rises to a maximum height of 4ft. The 
enclosure had an entrance to the south, and possibly to the west.. Its purpose is by no means 
evident. The name predates an agricultural origin, and the work may have been a medieval 
stockade. 

CasteU Bach 



209 



Only slight traces of this earthwork remains. It stood upon a field known as Castell Bach nessa a 
quarter of a mile south east of Llanferran farm house, and almost on the parish boundary line. The 
work at present shows a bank running north and south, having a length of 75ft and a height of 3ft; 
there is a slight ditch to the west. It appears to have been circular in shape, with an enclosing bank. 
The entrance may have been to the east. The three adjacent fields to the east and south are known as 
Castell ucha. Pare castell draw and Castell bach - Visited 24* May 1921. 

Castell Cleddau 

Slight traces of this work are visible on the farmstead of Castell, three quarters of a mile west of 
Llanwnda village. It was probably oval in form. Recent building operations have altered and 
obscured the site. Visited 18* May 1921. 

Castlell Poeth 

Immediately north of Tref Asser cross roads is what appears to be a circuklar mound 30 yds in 
diameter slightly raised above the adjoining ground; it is surrounded by a moat 6ft to 8ft in depth 
and 20ft wide at the top, which at the western end is filled with water. Owing to quarrying and other 
operations it is difficult to classify this work. It would seem to be a medieval mound without a 
bailey court. According to Lewis {Top Diet 1833) where it is mentioned as a "tumulus surrounded 
by a moat" it was "opened some years since and found to contain fragments of urns, and other 
indications of it having been a place of sepulture". Against this theory must be placed the name 
"Castell" "Dancastell," a cottage adjacent to the moat, and "Weirglodd castell" two fields 
immediately north of the mound - Visited 24* May 1 92 1 . 

Tre Gyllwch 

On the farm of this name (spelt Gilfach on the 6in Ord map are ther eamains of several early 
enclosures of which the following description is given by Edward Lhuyd (1700) :- 

"Within less than two bow shts of this Gaer Vychan, south east lyes 1 round and 5 square 
Intrenchments, each joined to one another, called by the neighbourong inhabitants Tre Gyllwch in 
the parish of Llanunda. The circular Intrenchment is about 30 paces in circumference . The square 
ones are of an equal magnitude; each being about 12yds long and 6yds broad." 

The site of this early settlement in not marked on the Ord sheets, and the only other allusion to it is 
that of Lewis {Top Diet) :- "The ancient town of Trev Culhwch". 

The enclosures are still traceable, though there appears now above the shallow soil only the 
foundation stones of what may seem to have been walls, which may have been quite distinct in 
Lhuyds day. It is, however , pretty clear that he could not explain the appearances, and it is still 



210 



more difficult at the present day to offer a probable suggestion. Possibly the site is that of a Welsh 
tribal homestead, and if carefully cleared and examined it might reveal the details of a Welsh Chiefs 
dwelling at an earler period than has yet been met with. —Visited 25* May 1 92 1 . 

St Degan's Well 

According to Fenton, near the chapel site was " a spring named after the saint; and above the said 
spring a tumulus called St Degan's knwe or knoll, where people resort to seat themselves on 
holidays and Sundays" No sign of a spring at this spot could be traced in May 1921, nor is one 
marked in the 6in sheet, which however, gives the name of Ffynnon Degan to a spring half a mile 
due south of the chapel site. 

Pen y groes 

The name of a cottage which stands at the junction of three lanes one-third of a mile east of 
Llanferran house. The field immediately west of it is known as Llain y groes. 

Tref Asser 

A hamlet half a mile south of gam Fawr where Assurius Menevensis, bishop of St David's AD. 707 
and author of the Life of Alfred, may have dwelt. In that work he states that he went to Wessex from 
the furthest coasts of Westem Britain, as his friends hoped that if he could secure the favour of the 
king they would be protected from king Hemeid, a petty prince of Demetia, who often plundered 
the monastery and diocese of St Deguus [Dewi} and sometimes expelled the prelates "as they 
expelled Archbishop Novis, my relation, and myself. While there is no doubt that bishop Asser was 
a native of the parish of Llanwnda, and of the free tribesman's holding of Treff Asser, it should not 
be forgotten that there was also a canon of this name who is mentioned by Giraldus as a supporter 
of his claims to the bishopric {De Jure, Rolls ed iiip214 ) 

Cross Incised Stone 

In 1883 at Pont yr Eglwys, about one third of a mile west of the parish church, the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association was shown a "stone with a cross incised upon it" which then formed 
one of the supports of the bridge. Our Inspecting Officer was unable to find the stone, though the 
removal of the dense undergrowth might reveal it. —Visited 18 May 1921. - Arch Camb 1883 
p344. 

Goodwick Moor 

Here Rhys , son of Owain ap Edwun, was defeated and slain in 1074 by Trahaeam ap Caradog 



211 



(Bruty Tywysogion ). The moor is now waterlogged and marshy - Visited 2°'' June 1921. 
Carreg Gwastad Point 

The landing place of the French under General Tate, in February 1797. 

The memorial stone placed here reads — "1797 . Carreg Goffa Glaniad y Ffancod Chwefror 22 
1797. Memorial stone of the landing of the French February 22 1797." 

In a field of Cam gowil farm called Pare y Ffranewr, the body of one of the French soldiers of the 
revolution is said to have been buried. 

Carregwastad Point;Carreg Wastad, Near Llanwnda 

Carregwastad Point is the landing-place of a French force, under the command of the American 
General Tate, in February 1797, in an attempted invasion of Britain. The force was between 1200 
and 1500 and they landed at Carregwastad Point with orders to sack Bristol and start a revolution. It 
is believed that the invasion was unsuccessful. In 1897, a memorial stone, Carreg Goffa (npm 
309039), was erected nearby to commemorate the event. 

In a field of Cam Gowil farm, called Pare y Ffranewr, the body of one of the French soldiers of the 
revolution is said to have been buried. (Source: RCAHMW, Pembrokeshire Inventory, ii, no.592). 
B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 16 September 2003. 

Finds 

Stone Axe 

A finely polished axe head stated to have been found at Cwmfelin, now in Tenby Museum; probably 
to be identified with one found in this parish by a Mr Bateman, who is known to have been the 
donor of the specimen in the museum. 

Stone Hammer 

In 1859, John Fenton exhibited to the Cambrain Archaeological Association at Cardigan a 
"hammer of trap found in a camedd in Llanwnda parish" {Arch Camb 1859 p 349). Nothing could 
be learned of Fenton's numerous antiquarian finds. 

Stone Disc 

On the surface at Pen Cw, now covered bt the approach to the North Breakwater, was found a 



212 



perforated stone disc of rough manufacture. It is now in Tenby Museum - Seen 2P* May 1920. 
Bronze Object 

Writing in the year 1 829 Dr W Owen Pughe says ( Arch Camb 1855 p 273)- "in one of the 
cameddi or stone heaps in the parish of Uanwnda was lately found a brazen instrument unique in its 
kind .... 8 in in length" Lewis Top Diet 1833 added that it was found in 1826, on opening a cairn 
for the purpose of widening a road near the sea. The writer describes it as "a brass instrument, about 
9 in long, with a circular ring at one end, and a flat triangle at the other , and pierced with two round 
holes in the neck which connected these together" Nothing is known of its present location. 

Quern 

The upper stone of a small quern 35 in in circumference, with a hole for handle, was found a few 
years ago behind some panelling in the entrance hall of Penysgwame house where it still remains 
—Seen 24* May 1921. 

Quern 

The top stone of a circular quern found at Pont lago is preserved at the farm house 
RCAHMW 

Goodwick Moor; Battle Of PwUgwdig; Battle Of Llanwnda, Near Fishguard 

"Goodwick Moor. Here Rhys, son of Owain ap Edwyn, was defeated and slain in 1074 by 
Trahaearn ap Caradog {Bruty Tywysogion). The moor is now waterlogged and marshy. Visited, 2nd 
June 1921." 

[The 'Brut' gives a date of 1078, see below. 

Source: RCAHMW Pembrokeshire Inventory, 1925, ii, no.591. 

1078: "And then there was the battle of PwUgwdig. And then Trahaearn, king of Gw5aiedd, 
prevailed. And then all Rhys [ap OwainJ's warband fell." 

Source: Thomas Jones, The Chronicle of the Princes, 1955, p. 29. 

"In 1078 Trahaearn of North Wales invaded Dyfed, defeated Rhys [ab Owain] in the battle of 
Goodwick, not far from Fishguard ..." 

In a footnote the battle is referred to as 'urwydyr Llan wnda' (battle at Llanwnda). 
Source: J.E.Lloyd, A History of Wales, vol U, 1912, p.377; p.393 & n.ll4. 
B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 27 October 2006. 

Ciliau Ganol Farm, Llanwnda 

Ciliau Ganol Farm is situated approx. half a mile east of the village of Llanwnda. The farm has been 



213 



added to considerably over the years. Ciliau is denoted on the 19th century Ordnance Survey 
County Series Mapping (Pembrokeshire sheet IV 1 1, 1st edition, 1889) as several separate 

complexes. The complexes have been substantially altered and expanded, and now Ciliau Ganol 
Farm forms the central complex, while Cilau West and Ciliau Farm lie either side. Tracks run from 
the farms, northwards over Ciliau common. 

Photographed during aerial reconnaissance by RCAHMW on 16th November 2010. 
L. Osborne, 28th Oct. 2011. 

Castell Bach, Llanwnda 

Castell Bach, Llanwnda is a much denuded oval enclosure, c.l20m by 85m, defined by scarps to the 
west and north-west, with the remainder of the circuit visible as soihnarks to the east and followed 
by a modem hedge bank to the south-west. J. Wiles 14.05.02 RCAHMW 

Trehilyn farmhouse 

The purchase of a semi-derelict farmhouse (Trehilyn) by the broadcaster Griff Rhys Jones and the 
ensuing BBC television documentary, A Pembrokeshire Farmhouse, which recorded its restoration. 

Llanychaer, 

1839 Llanychaer (Llanerch-Aur) Lewis 

LLANYCHAER (LLANERCH-AUR), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of 
Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2 miles (S. E.) from Fishguard; containing 207 
inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of the county, upon the river Gwayn, which falls into 
the bay of Fishguard. The surface is varied, and in some parts has a very considerable elevation; 
about one-half of the lands is inclosed. The surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified, and from 
the higher grounds are some fine views over the adjacent country. The living is a discharged rectory, 
rated in the king's books at £3. 6. 8., and endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary 
grant; patron, the Rev. James Williams James. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of 
£75. The church, dedicated to St. David, is not distinguished by any architectural details of 
importance. 

1872 Parish church of St David's Llanchaer Glynne July 9*" 1872 Arch Camb. 



214 




Llanycbaer Church. 



This church is fast hastening to decay, and presents a sad spectacle. It consists of a nave, chancel 
and a south aisle or chapel westwards joined on and no steeple. The design is curious and the work 
extremely rude. The walls are very low, and over the west end is a bell gable. There are no windows 
on the north and other windows have been mostly destroyed of modernised. The roof is dreadflilly 
out of repair, the furniture ruinous, and the church disused save for flinerals. There is a plain round 
arch between the nave and chancel, and a rude flat arch between the eastern and western divisions 
of the north aisle; between the chancel and the south aise is no arch, but merely a flat beam. 

CI 898 The Rev T G Mortimer writes of this church :- 

"The arch between the nave and chancel was pointed. The church was originally built in the form 
almost universal among the old churches of North Pembrokeshire; it consisted of nave chancel, and 
south transept. There was a large hagioscope or rather arched passage from the transept to the 
chancel (as is still to be seen at Pontfaen). At a later period, another transept to the east of the 
original transept and touching it was built— I imagine as a chapel for the family of Ciliffeth, who 
were very wealthy; that however must have been some centuries ago as the family became extinct 
in the later days of Queen Elizabeth,and the greater portion of the house , Cilciffeth was then pulled 
down. 

Llanchaer church was rebuilt on the old foundations about twenty years ago (cl876). The eastern 
transept has now a lean to roof; the other particulars are retained as far as form is concerned ; but 
the chancel arch had been , I am sorry to say made larger than it used to be; the arch between the 
transepts is retained". 



215 



Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments The Parish Church dedicated to St David. 

This Church was rebuilt on the old foundations about the year 1876. It consists of nave, chancel, 
south transept, a second transeptal chapel of later date to the east of the first, and a double bell cote 
over the west gable. The font is probably of the Norman period. It has been re-dressed Visited 4th 
June 1915 

Incised Cross Stone 

During the year 1923 an incised stone bearing a circle divided into four equal sizeed spaces by lines 
drawn Irom the centre to the circumference. And with a cup like depression in each quadrant has 
been found in the south wall of the church. 

Early Inscribed Stone 

In the British Museum Ms., Stowe 1023 is the sketch of an inscription borne by a stone in this parish 
which was taken by Edward Lhuyd or one of his assistants in the year 1698. A side note to the 
sketch states that the stone was then "on the north side of Llanychaeth church" and it would appear 
from the drawing that it then stood upright in the churchyard, or was built into the church wall. . 
Trom a camparison with other inscriptions both in Ireland and in Wales it is evident that in the 
present instance the letters have nor been properly read, and the following reading may be 
suggested:MACUDEC[C] ETI FILIUS EOROCAN. It is unfortunate to conjecture whether the 
stone also bore an Ogram Inscription, or was marked with a cross.; the important clan name Deceti 
would lead us to expect the former. 

Note - Llanchaer church has been restored, perhaps more than once during the last % of a century, 
and the stone, if formerly in the church or churchyard, may have been buried or used up in the 
walls; or it may lie unnnoticed in one of the farm buildings or fences of the parish. It should be 
carefully sought after.. 

The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 1994. 

Bellcote church, rebuilt 1871, dedicated to St David. 7-9c memorial in churchyard. 

A Norman font remains in a church of 1876. 

2003 St David's Church, Llanychaer RCAHMW 



216 



Church of medieval origin, rebuilt 1923. Associated with holywell and inscribed stone(s) 
.RCAHMW J. Wiles 02.09.03 



Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

Apparently this rectory has always been appendant to the manor of Llanychaer; at all events it was 
so in 1594, when Owen Johnes was the patron. — {Owen's Pern) 

Described as Ecclesia de Launerwayth, this church was in 1291 assessed at £4 6s. 8d. for tenths to 
the King. — (Taxatio.) 

Llanuchaieth: — Ecclesia ibidem ex presentacione pat-ronorum ibidern unde Philippus Adam 

clericus est rector valet communibus annis 66s. 8d. Inde decima 6s. 8d. — (Valor Eccl.) 

Under the heading "Livings Discharged": — Llanichaith alias Llanychaeth (St. David). John 

Vaughan, 1728; Thomas Warren, Esq., 1729; Thomas Williams, Esq. and Anne his wife, 1762. 
Clear yearly value, £13. King's Books, £3 6s. 8d. - (Bacons Liber Regis.) 



Clergy 



Lewis, Jenkinum 
Owen, Richardus 
Owen, Richard 
Ford, Alexander 
Phillips, David 
Gambold, Gulielmus 
Gambold, Gulielmus 
Price, Gulielmus 
Gambold, Gulielmus 
Davies, Rodericus 
Gambold, Gulielmus 
Price, David 
Rees , David 
Roberts , Nicholas 
Thomas , John 
Rees , Francis 
Rees , Francis 
Roberts , Nicholas 



1662 

1679 

1679 

1692 

1692 

1709 

1714 

715 

1720 

1721 

1728 

1728 

1761 

1762 

1762 

1788 

1795 

1800 



(natural death) 
Curate 
Curate 

(cessionj^QCiov 



(natural death) 



Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Rector 
Curate 



Rector 
Curate 
Rector 



Rector 



Rector 



217 



Phillips , John 
Bateman , Thomas 
Phillips , John 
Rees , Francis 
Davies , Howell 
Bateman , Thomas 
Williams James , James 
Hughes , John 
Richard Griffiths , James 



1800 
1802 
1802 
1804 
1814 
1825 
1825 
1831 
1834 



(natural death) 



(natural death) 



Rector 
Rector 



Rector 
Curate 
Curate 



Curate 
Curate 



Rector 



Rector 



1851 Llanychaer Parish Church William Davies, Curate 
1929 Fishguard withLlanstinan and Llanychaer 

St Mary & St Justinian (Llanstinan) & Parish Church (Llanychaer) Incumbent and Curates; D 
Davies (D J Evans) 

Non Conformist 

Glandwr Baptist chapel Buih 1894 Still open 1998 
Llanychaer names for Jottings 



Gambold William 1672- 1728 cleric and grammarian His son, bishop Gambold in a letter 
printed in the preface to the first edition of John Walter's 's English- Welsh, Dictionary , states that 
he was bom 10 Aug 1672 , 'of reputable parents' who destined him for the church and gave him 
good schooling He was according to some records a a burgess of Cardigan in virtue of his 
ownership of the Nag's Head tavern Cardigan But according to Foster Alumni Oxon he was 
eighteen, 'pauper puer,' son of William Gambold of Cardigan , when he matriculated at S Mary Hall 
, Oxford , 23 May 1693 He migrated to Exeter College in 1694 , but there is no record of 
graduation On 1 Dec 1709 he became rector of Puncheston with Llanychaer, Pembs , but it would 
seem that he had previously been curate there, for in Nov 1707 he was keeping school at 
Llanychaer William Gambold 's wife was Elizabeth , it is said that she was of the neighbouring 
parish of Letterston but her surname is not known He had five children John the eldest boml71 1, 
William bom 1712 or 1713 Hector born 1714 the third son, George and Martha His son tells us 
that he was a most devoted parish priest At Oxford he had been a friend of Edward Lhuyd who 
acknowledges help given to him by Gambold in preparing his's additions in Gibson 's edition of 



218 



Camden 's Britannia As early as 1707 Gambold was planning a Welsh, dictionary, and this 
became his main occupation later on, when an accident disabled him from parochial work It was 
finished in 1722 , but Gambold failed to get money to publish it In the Morris Letters ii, 140-1, 221, 
224, we hear of the bishop trying to sell the manuscript witout success to the lexicographer Thomas 
Richards, of Coychurch Eminent Welshmen -R Williams 1852 West Wales Records , ii, 226, Hi, 
250 Cymm Trans , 1904-5 



Lloyd Thomas 1603 Dec 22 Kilkiffeth "David ap leuan of Morvill, labourer, was 
indicted for burglarizing the mansion of Thomas Lloyd of Kilkiffeth, in the parish of Llanychaer, 
esq,, " "Pembrokeshire in By,gone Days" 

de la Roche Adam 1326 held of the lord of Kernes three fees at Maenclochog, Monington 
and Llanychaer respectively" This is the only notice of Adam which I have found It is probable that 
he was the eldest son of David, and that he was succeeded by his brother. 



Llanychaeth Parish Hearth Tax 1670 



Thomas David 


Llanychaeth 


H 


Vaughan John 


Llanychaeth 


H 


Gwynne Henry 


Llanychaeth 


H2 


Rees Thomas 


Llanychaeth 


H 


John Margarett 


Llanychaeth 


H 


Thomas Thomas ap 


Llanychaeth 


H3 


Francis Eynon 


Llanychaeth 


H2 


Nicholas Thomas 


Llanychaeth 


H 


John Hugh 


Llanychaeth 


H 


Price Thomas 


Llanychaeth 


H4 


Meades Hugh 


Llanychaeth 


P 


Owen Robert 


Llanychaeth 


P 


John Robert 


Llanychaeth 


P 



219 



John Jennett 


Llanychaeth 


P 


Thomas Johan 


Llanychaeth 


P 


Bevan John 


Llanychaeth 


P 


Robert John 


Llanychaeth 


P 


John Pvan 


T lanvchaeth 


p 


Rees Evan 


Llanychaeth 


P 


Hugh Thomas 


Llanychaeth 


P 



Sites of Interest 

Mynydd Kilkiffeth TumuU 

On the summit of Mynydd Kilkiffeth, at an altitude of 1,070 ft, are two sepulchral mounds , 
survivers of a larger group. Both are built of maountain gathered stones, the one to the east of 
somewhat smaller stones than its companion. Both have been opened from the summit, and both 
practically ruined in the operation. The eastern mound has a base circumference of 300ft and a 
height of 6ft; a few of the base stones are still in situ on the south side. The other mound 65 yds to 
the northwest has a base circumference of 250ft and a height of 4 ft. Visited 1" June 1915. 

Castell Caerwen of Castell Kilkiffeth. 

An enclosure in Kilkiffeth Wood 500 yds north of Caerwen House. Owing to the density of the 
undergrowth on and arround it, a thorough examination of this wortk is almost impossible. The 
defence consists of a bank and ditch drawn across the neck of a promontory, the enclosure thus 
formed being defended by steep slopes to the Gwaun and Pontfaen streams. The bank, which is 
much destroyed, appears to have consisted of earth faced with stones. The ditch is almost filled up 
with material from the bank. The enclosed area is about 1 Vi acres. There is little or no rampart on 
the verge of the slopes. The field on which the enclosure stands is known as Pare Castell - Visited 
4* June 1915. 

Note - Fenton {iour 568-9) suggests that this was the stronghold of Daftydd Ddu who gave battle 
to the Normans at Morville. 

Garn 

This is a house about 400yds north east of the parish church, which retains one of the round 
chimneys formerly common in the county. The name Gam is probably derived from an adjacent 
outcrop of rock. — Visited 2""* June 1915. 

Pare y fynwent 



220 



A field half a mile north east of the parish church, traditionally said to be the site of an old burial 
ground - a tradition "partly corroborated by the existance of an incised cross built into the walls of 
an adjacent cottage {Pern Arch Survey) - This cottage could not be located -Visited 2°'' June 1915. 

Maen Uwyd. 

A field on the farm of Penrhiwgam on which is no appearance of a standing stone Visited 2"'' June 
1915 

Crug Mawr 

A field with a natural outcrop of rock, whence the name may have been derived - Visited 8"* June 
1915. 

Llanychaer, Possible Quarrying Features 

A roughly oval area of disturbed/uneven ground, c.60m NE-SW by 46m, on W facing slopes. 
Possibly an area of relict quarrying, similar features being recorded c.200m to the N 
RCAHMW J.Wiles 1 1.09.03 

Pillar Cross In Churchyard, Llanychaer 

A roughly quadrangular pillar-stone with incised decoration on all faces, formerly built into farm at 
Cilrhed5ai-isaf , presently set within railed enclosure in St David's churchyard .Nash Williams 1950 
'Early Christian Mons.', No.337, plate 18. J. Wiles 02.09.03 

Garn; Y Garn, Llanychaer 

Y Gam, Llanychaer, is a gentry house dating probably from the early 17th century. It is one of the 
best surviving examples of the massive round chimney set on a side wall, a particular feature of 
Pembrokeshire. Peter Smith suggests a ground-floor hall house, a single range with lower eaves 
than at present, originally thatched. 

It has a three room plan with a cross passage to the south of the main hall with a massive east side 
fireplace and the lateral outshuts, characteristic of this house type, on both the east and west sides of 
the hall. The pointed south door of the hall and the blocked plain door in the same wall gave onto an 
unheated upper end room, possibly a parlour or service room. A timber partition divided the cross 
passage from the lower end lofted section, now the kitchen. 

The hall is single space with 3 large oak collar trusses, the principals curved and resting on tops of 
walls, except the south pair which rest on renewed cross beams over the outshuts. The north truss 
was concealed by a plaster partition (with bramble laths), but has been exposed by setting back the 
partition just behind. On the east wall there is an exceptionally deep square fireplace with a massive 
timber lintel and stone jambs. 

A range to the north is possibly an early byre, much rebuilt, and converted to accommodation. 
Cadw listed buildings database 



221 



Llanllawer Holy Well, Llanychaer 

Medieaval Spring enclosed in well chamber of rough masonry. 6 l/2ft deep. Reputed healing 
powers. 

Court Farmhouse, Llanychaer 

Two storey 5-bay country house: rendered rubble stone walls, slate hipped roofs with paired 
brackets to eaves and two large rendered ridge chimneys. Hornless 12-pane sash windows. Arched 
doorway to the fourth bay in a timber Ionic porch with two columns and modillion 
comice.PE/Domestic/SM93NE from Cadw. 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 8d a day with food 
and Is a day on their own finding. There is no resident land proprietor and one farmer paying rent 
of over £100 per annum but no day school provision for education of the poor Many of the 
population can read but not write. 

School Building, St David's Church, Llanychaer. 

The school building is a two-storey structure with an external staircase to the first floor. Originally 
it was a charity school founded by the well known vicar and scholar called William Gambold 

(1672-1728) who ran the school at Llanychaer between 1707-1709. 

Additional: the building is sited at the entrance to the churchyard. The building is now roofless and 
most timber detail has been lost but the plan is well preserved. The ground floor is a single chamber 
well lit on the north side. The upper floor is another single chamber entered from the [] gable and 
with a fireplace in the [ ] gable. The surviving detail (joist beams, fiat voussoired arches over 
openings) suggests that the building is an early CI 9th rebuilding of the original schoolroom. R.F. 
Suggett/RCAHMW/2008. 

Llanychaer Churchyard School-Room 

Full account 

A small and sturdy but roofiess stone -built storeyed building stands in the north-east corner of 
Llanychaer churchyard. It is reputed to have housed the charity school established by Rev. William 
Gambold at the beginning of the CI 8th. 
Description 

The building has single chambers on both ground and first fioors. The entrance to the ground-floor 
room is now within the churchyard. The ground-floor doorway is offset (rather than centrally 
placed) to give a large chamber. The gable-end entrance to the first-floor chamber is reached from 
stone steps on the roadside. The chambers were well lit, both having two splayed windows in the 
south elevation. The ground floor is unheated but the first-floor chamber has a fireplace in the west 
gable with a small window alongside. The masonry detail is good with well-worked quoins and neat 
voussoirs above doors, windows, and fireplace. The timber detail has mostly disappeared. There are 



222 



sockets for closely-set joist-beams for a ceiling over the ground- floor chamber. The windows and 
doors have been lost apart from a CI 9th casement in the upper gable. A fragment of low-pitched 
principal-rafter survives at the west gable with a fallen roof of Caernarvonshire slate. 
Discussion and significance 

The building as it stands may be compared with a small number of surviving CI 8th and early CI 9th 
endowed parish school-rooms, essentially charity schools for the poor, mostly established before 
1800. Many of these non-classical schools, especially those linked with the charity school 
movement, did not require purpose-built school-rooms but made do with existing buildings 
(sometimes the church). Although parish school-rooms were rare they generally had several 
common features: they were often built on the edge of the churchyard or adjacent to it; several were 
storeyed, or at least lofted, sometimes with accommodation for a master in the upper storey. A good 
surviving example is the churchyard school at Llanarmon, Llyn, of c. 1800. It has a single ground 
floor chamber with off-set doorway and stone steps to a loft. At Gelligaer, Glamorgan, the school- 
room near the church (1761) had the master's room above the school-room (measuring 22 by 16 
feet). 

Llanychaer parish school-room is an example of this rare but well-defined building type: the non- 
classical parish school of CI 8th origin. It is not the original school-room but a mid-C19th 
rebuilding along traditional lines. The reconstruction would have overlapped with the church school 
movement, but it never seems to have functioned as a National School although it may latterly have 
become a Sunday School. Rather surprisingly it is an almost complete documentary blank. It is not 
mentioned in the Digest of Schools and Charities for Education (1842), as summarized in Malcolm 
Seabome's Schools in Wales 1500-1900 (1992), nor is it listed in the diocesan list of Pembrokeshire 
Schools c. 1880 (NLW, SD/Misc/759, though the churchyard vestry and Sunday School at 
Llanstadwell and the old National School in Penally churchyard are noted. 
Summary of chronology 

[1] c. 1709. School established. A school-room established by Rev. Gambold at Llanychaer may be 
assumed to be the predecessor of the present building. It was possibly single-storeyed with a cottage 
for a master in the vicinity. The parish school and an adjacent cottage seem to have been built on 
ground regarded as not consecrated (cf NLW, WCC/SD/10,980/28). 

[2] c. 1840-50. School rebuilt. The neat stonework, joist-beams etc (the absence of any brick) 
suggest a building of the mid-C19th date. 

[3] The surviving detail suggests that the building was refitted in the later CI 9th. 

[4] C20th century dereliction. In 1926 the parish school was reported to be dilapidated (NLW, 

WCC/SD 10,980/28). 

Visited at the suggestion of Anne Eastham FSA 23 June 2008.Richard Suggett 



223 



224 



Llanychlwydog 



1811 Llanchlwydog Fenton Tours 



The situation of the church is most beautifuUy retired and picturesque, involving in its cemetery a 
grove of oaks clothing a steep hill at its back, and gaving meadows in front, through which the 
Gwajai meanders, whose banks of either side are richly wooded. The church is said to have 
been founded by Clydawc, a regulus of the country who was murdered in the neighbourhood as 
he was pursuing the chase, whose grave, by tradition,is marked by two upright stones still 
visible in the churchyard, with Llanllawer 



Clergy CCEd 

Owen, Evan 1626 

Lloyd, Jenkinus 1663 

Lloyd, Jenkin.. 1663 

Picton, Owenum 1663 

Picton, Oweni 1663 

Williams, Owen 1664 

Lewis, Petrus 1674 

Lloyd, Jenkini 1675 

Lloyd, Edward 1675 

Lloyd, Davidem 1675 

Lloyd, David 1675 

Lloyd, David 1692 

Lewis, Petrus 1694 

Morris, Hugo 1714 

Lewis, Petrus 1714 

Morris, Hugo 1717 



Rector 
Rector 
Rector 

Vac (Death)Rector 
Curate 
Rector 

Vac (Death)Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Rector 
Curate 



225 



Lewis, Petrus 1717 

Lewis, Petrus 1718 

Gosse, Henricus 1718 

Goffe, Henricus 1719 

Morris, David 1720 

Goffe, Henricus 1720 
Laughame, Gulielmus 1721 

Gosse, Henricus 1721 

Holland, Nicholas 1736 

Laughame, William 1758 

Morgan , Simon 1765 

Morgan, Simon 1770 

Bateman , Thomas 1784 

Laughame , William 1784 

Bateman , Thomas 1784 

Evans , David 1788 

Evans , David 1795 

Bateman , Thomas 1802 

Bateman , Thomas 1 802 

Bateman , Thomas 1804 

Bateman , Thomas 1 825 
Williams Thomas, Watkin 

Fenton , Samuel 1 826 



Rector 
Vac (natural death)Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Rector 
Rector 
Vac (natural death)Rector 

Curate 
Vac (Death)Rector 
Curate 
Curate 
Rector 
Vac (cession)Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Curate 
Vac (cession)Rector 
Rector 
Rector 
Vac (natural death)Rector 
1825 Rector 
Curate 



226 



state of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 8d a day with food 
and Is a day on their own finding. The moral character is regarded as good as regards sobriety, 
industry and quietness. There is no resident land proprietor and one farmer paying over £100 per 
annum in rent but with no day school provision for education of the poor of but almost all go to 
Sunday school. Many of the population can read but not write. 



Llanichloydog Hearth Tax 1670 



Lloyd David Thomas Cleanbe5aiog Llanichloydog H2 



Dedwith Griffith 


Llanichloydog 


H 


Lewis Owen 


Llanichloydog 


H2 


Robert William 


Llanichloydog 


H2 


Robert David 


Llanichloydog 


H 


Goodhead Thomas 


Llanichloydog 


H 


Thomas Owen 


Llanichloydog 


H2 


Jenkin John 


Llanichloydog 


H2 


RejTiald Thomas 


Llanichloydog 


H 


Owen John 


Llanichloydog 


H 


William John 


Llanichloydog 


H2 


David Thomas 


Llanichloydog 


H2 


Griffith John William 


Llanichloydog 


H 


Thomas Phillip 


Llanichloydog 


H 


Price Thomas ap 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Lloyd Rouland 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Owen Nicholas 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Owen James 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Harry Griffith 


Llanichloydog 


P 



227 



Robert Richard 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Morgan Watkin 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Robert Owen 


Llanichloydog 


P 


George David 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Bateman Jenkin 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Griffith Morice 


Llanichloydog 


P 


David Nicholas 


Llanichloydog 


P 


John William 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Tnhn Robert 


T Janichlovdop 


p 


Bevan John ap 


Llanichloydog 


P 


Robert John 


Llanichloydog 


P 



Pembrokeshire Church Plalate J T Evans 

Llanichloydog (S. David, later). — There is at the present time no plate belonging to this 
parish. 1894-5 The Comprehensive Gazetteer of England and Wales, 



228 



Maenclochog 

(ringing Stone) [Over a well there was once a cap stone which rang if struck, hence "ringing 
stone"] 

Maenclochog is a village and community in Pembrolceshire, south-west Wales. It is also an 
electoral ward comprising an area that brings together the villages of Llanycefii, Maenclochog and 
Rosebush. It is a large village near Presely's in a very Welsh area. Parish include villages of 
Rosebush and Vorlan It has a Church (St Mary's) with Tower (unusual in a Welsh area),3 Chapels 
and it is a centre the local area once having a Blacksmith, .Miller, Carpenter, Lime burner. 
Wheelwright, Draper, and 10 pubs. 

The centre of the village is taken up with a spacious village green and a raised churchyard. The 
settlement has a rather grotesque collection of building styles, but it is a fascinating place. 



1811 Fenton Tours Manclochog 

The ride of a mile brings me to Manclochog, a large village with the parish church in it, within 
these four years rebuilt and ornamented with a small steeple at the charge of Barrington Pryce, Esq. 
Who then lived at Temple Druid, a mansion erected by him as a hunting seat in that neighbourhood. 

Manclochog is one of the mean manors originally carved out of the barony of Cremaes, and now is 
the joint property of Lord Milford and Mr Le Hunt. It was once the property of De la Roch or de 
Rupe, and granted to one of that family on the first creation of those subordinate lordships. It 
obtained the name of Mancloghog, the Welsh for ringing stone, from two large stones that lay near 
the road side, about a bowshot from the church to the soiuth west, possessing that property, now 
broken and removed, but perfect and held in great veneration in Edward Llhwd's time, who 
accompanies his short note with rude, though I dare say correct drawing of them. This village was 
formerly defended by a castle, of whose siege and demolition in general terms we read in the Welsh 
Chronicle; but from the very trifling remains, it appears to have been small, a mere outpost or 
exploratory fort, either raised by the Lord of Cemaes on the limits of his newly acquired territory , 
or the first grantee of the mean lord-ship on the site of an old British earth work. It is remarked that 
there is a greater number of fairs here than in any other place of the country. 

1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

Maenclochog 

Be that as it may, we now make our entry into the village of Maenclochog, a bleak-looking place 
enough, where the storm-rent trees beside the roadway attest the violence of the winter gales that 
sweep across these bare, lofty uplands. Towards the farther end of the village, at a widening of the 
ways, stands the parish church, a structure of no great antiquity, dedicated to St. Mary. The 
clergyman, who has ministered here for upwards of thirty years, now courteously introduces us to 
the well-tended interior, the most noteworthy feature of which is a plain old font, with a singular 



229 



cup-shaped recess upon its eastern face, the purpose of which we are quite at a loss to conjecture. 
St. Mary's Church has no tower, but at the western end rises a low turret containing a musical peal 
of bells. It is a remarkable fact, indeed, that throughout this mountain district church towers are con- 
spicuous by their absence; whereas, in the English country farther south, the tall slender bell-tower 
usually forms one of the most noticeable features of the parish church. A marble cross used, we are 
informed, to adorn the chancel gable ; but this has long since been removed to the limbo of things 
forgotten. 

In olden times, it was customary at Maenclochog to draw the water for baptism from St. Mary's 
Well, a natural spring that rises just without the village. Near to this well are some tumbled stones, 
that once supported a large horizontal slab. Tradition tells that this stone, when struck, gave forth a 
loud ringing sound, which did not cease until the water from the holy well had been brought into the 
church. Hence the name of Maenclochog, which, being interpreted, signifies the village of the 
'ringing rock.' It is much to be regretted that this curious object was destroyed many years ago, 
because, forsooth, the sound thereof was supposed to frighten passing horses ! 

At the foot of the village stands a large, rambling inn, backed by the singularly artificial-looking 
rocks known as ' the Castle,' whence the house takes its title. In a country where lodgings of any 
sort are so few and far between, the wayfarer may do worse than pitch his camp for a night in these 
unassuming quarters. 

The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles 

Craig Y castell " the castle rock" site of a small castle, all traces of which have vanished. It was 
captured by Llywelyn the Great in 1215 and by Llywelyn the Last in 1257. The church was rebuilt 
during the later part of the last century, but the font is Norman. Two inscribed stones removed from 
nearby Llandeilo to the church are of particular interest in that they may commemorate two brothers 
Coimagnus and Andagellus the sons of Cavetus. The former has the inscription in Latin only, and 
the latter in Latin and Ogham, and they date from the 6C 



History of Maenclochog 

The Barony of Maenclochog held a area of modern Pembrokeshire, Included the southern end of the 
Preseli Hills know as the great common of Myndyy Preseli also the area know as Mynydd Bach, 
Rhosfach, Mynachlog-ddu, Llangolman, Rosebush, Mynydd-ddu, Pant Maenog, Carnafr, and the 
villages of Llantilo, Llwydarth, Llandarth, M5aiachlog-ddu, within the Medieval Cantref of Cemaes. 

The barony also included and covered most of the Llangolman Character area lying across several 
parishes and encompassing the upper part of the valley of the Eastern Cleddau and its tributaries, 
the Llangolman area is well defined to the north where it bounds Rhosfach and Mynachlog-ddu 
areas and to the east against Glandy Cross. To the south the boundary is less clear, although the area 
to the south consists of larger farms and larger fields than those of Llangolman. A definite boundary 
does not exist, but rather a zone of fransition extending for perhaps one or two kilomefres. The 
Llangolman character area belonged to the Barony and Lordship or Manor of Maenclochog. 

920 - 1093 The Medieval Castle which was a Motte & Bailey Castle built with a large outer wall of 
the fortress type it was situated to defend the open mountainous disfrict at the foot of 



230 



Pembrokeshire's Preseli Hills, This Barony of Land comprised of a considerable extent of land, the 
greater portion of which is unenclosed and mostly uncultivated, The Village of Menclochog was the 
main Village in the Area of which was of considerable size and occupies the summit of a bleak and 
barren eminence of the open mountainous district 

The Baronial Castle of Maenclochog was a Castle held directly of the Welsh King as of the his 
Welsh Kingdom of Deheubarth. 

700 EC - 43 AD, Expert reports by the Cambria Archaeology state that the Medieval Castle was 
build upon an earlier site of a Iron Age settlement. . 

1 100 the The Maenclochog area belonged to the Baronial Castle and the Manor of Maenclochog, 
and the Land of the Ancient Welsh Barony of Maenclochog was brought under Anglo-Norman 
control by Baron Fitzmartins who retained the Castle of Maenclochog on the limits of his newly 
acquired territory of his Barony of Camaes 

1201 The area of Maenclochog which comprises the settlement at Maenclochog itself - was held 
under Anglo-Norman tenure. A tenure of land originally subject to Military Service, later commuted 

to a money payments. 

Maenclochog had its own Court Baron and was like other Cemaes Manors held on an annual lease 
from the Barony of Camaes, this one being assessed in an Extent at one Knights Fee However, like 
most of the south eastern part of the Barony, within Mynydd Preseli, this area continued to be held 
under the Welsh systems of Tenure 

1201 It had been obtained by the Baron of Roche, who were the over Lords of Llangwm by the mid 
13th-century, along with the Knight's fees at Monington and Llanychaer, and their tenure continued 
into the 14th century 

1201 There was documentary evidence of a Castle being here and it was the main village in the area 
in the 13 th Century. 

1257 The Castle of Maenclochog was 'destroyed' 

1275 The Castle of Maenclochog is mentioned in the Chronicles as having been partly destroyed by 
the Welsh in a Welsh Raid 

1300 The Barony of Maenclochog was held by Baron David de la Roche, Lords of Llangwm in the 
14th-century, when it was assessed at one Knight's Fee 

1320 Llandeilo Llwydarth along with the chapel at Llangolman to the east were annexed to the 
Vicarage of Maenclochog, which in turn was granted to St Dogmael's Abbey by Baron David de la 

Roche 

1326 The Castle of Maenclochog was in the control of the Anglo-Norman Baron Fitzmartins who 

retained it as part of his Chief Barony of Caemas, They were succeeded by Baron Audleys 

1376 A reference in an Inquisition Dated 1376 imply that the Castle of Maenclochog was still in use 

1440 The Norman masonry curtain wall of the castle was demolished before 1440 

1498 By the late 15th-century, considerable lands within the Llangolman character area had been 

amassed from the Manor of Maenclochog by a local yeoman family, the Llywelyns. 

1498 they granted 'all their lands in Llangolman and at Bwlch-y-clawdd (Temple Druid) in 

Maenclochog', which were held by Welsh tenure, to Lewis ap David ap Gruffudd Fychan of 

Llangolman, yeoman, 'on account of great necessity and poverty 

1536 The Barony of Cemaes was conterminous with the later Hundred of Cemais, which was 
created in 1536, but many Feudal Rights and obligations persisted, some until as late as 1922 The 

Barony of Maenclochog was now referred to as a Manor of Maenclochog 

1594 Most of the Llangolman Area also belonged to the Lordship or Manor of Maenclochog, held 
from the Barony of Cemaes by the Baron Roche Lords of Llangwm in the 13th -14th Century when 
it was assessed at One Knight's Fee 



231 



1594 In a later Extent, the Barony and Manor of Maenclochog was, like others in in the Cantref of 
Cemaes, held on an annual lease from the Barony of Cemaes, that is one being assessed at 3s 8d 
1600 There was no mention of the Maenclochog Castle in a survey of the area in the 16th Century, 

1814; Maenclochog, Llandeilo and Llangolman enclosure Award, Pembrokeshire Enclosure 
Awards, records 1786-1912 

1841 Maenclochog tithe map and apportionment, 

1894-5 The Comprehensive Gazetteer of England and Wales, 

Maenclochog, Pembrokeshire, a village and a parish in Pembrokeshire. The village stands on 
an affluent of the river Cleddau, under Precelly Mountain, and has a station on the North 
Pembroke and Fishguard railway. It took its name from a cromlech which was destroyed by the 
peasantry, in hope of finding treasures under it; and has a post and money order office under 
Haverfordwest; telegraph office at railway station. A butter market is held on Wednesdays, and 
fairs are held monthly, excepting Jan., Feb., and June. 

2007 Experts found remains of the hearth of a Medieval Manor House and fragments of 
Medieval pottery in the inner walls of the Castle Grounds of Maenclochog, Experts are equally 
exciting with the discovery of what was thought to be an Iron Age settlement which would date 
somewhere between700 BC and 43 AD. discovered inside the inner walls of the Castle of 
Maenclochog 

The Castle site 

2007 Dyfed Archaeological Trust undertook a two-week excavation working with the community 

of Maenclochog with the objective of developing a better understanding of the history of the 
village, and, in particular, to investigate the castle site believed to lie beneath the village car park. 
Two trenches were opened. The wall of a Manorial Pound, the remains of the castle wall, and a 
defensive bank and ditch were found. A radiocarbon sample fi-om below the defensive bank 
returned a date between AD 880 and AD 1020, possibly indicating that there was a defended 
settlement at Maenclochog before the stone castle was built following the Anglo-Norman conquest 
of Pembrokeshire in AD 1093. 

Inside the castle area, part of a round house was revealed. Surprisingly, pottery dating from the 12 
and 13th centuries, a radiocarbon date of between AD 980 and AD 1 160, and plant remains from a 
central hearth suggest that the roundhouse was probably occupied right up until the Anglo-Norman 
conquest of Pembrokeshire. 

Cambria Archaeology online Dig Diary 'Community Excavation at Maenclochog Castle Site' 
(2007) 

Castell Maenclochog Or Maenclochog Castle, Sometimes Y Gaer RCAHMW 

The reputed site of Maenclochog Castle comprises a small flat-topped rock outcrop that rises on the 
southern edge of the Pound, a rather irregular curvilinear walled enclosure of about 0. 15ha. The 

outcrop in its present form is sometimes thought to have been shaped into a castle mount or motte. 
It is oval or subrectangular in plan, about 19m across at the base and 3.2-4.0m high, with a level 
summit 13.3-14m across. The Pound is a ruinous drystone enclosure roughly 47-5 Im across. It is 



232 



probably eighteenth century and was the site of livestock markets. It has been identified both as a 
castle enclosure or bailey, associated with the mound and as a later Prehistoric settlement enclosure. 

Excavations in September 2007 examined a section of the Pound perimeter and a small area of the 
interior. It was found that the Pound wall rested above the foundations of a massive 2.2m wide 
stone wall. Beyond this was a large defensive ditch with the remains of a clay rampart between the 
two. Medieval pottery was recovered. In the interior parts of two roundhouses were encountered. It 
is probable that the Pound enclosure started as a settlement enclosure. The roundhouses are 
characteristic of settlement in the region from the later Prehistoric and through the Roman period. 
This was adapted as a castle, probably in the twelfth-thirteenth century. The mount would have been 
crowned by a great tower of timber or stone and there would have been a court or mansion in the 
bailey. This may have been enclosed by an earthwork and timber rampart before the great wall was 
buih. John Wiles, RCAHMW, 17 October 2007 

1839 Mary's St otherwise Maenclochog (Maen-Clochog) Lewis Topographical dictionary of 

Wales 

MARY'S, ST., otherwise MAENCLOCHOG (MAEN-CLOCHOG), a parish, in the union of 
Narberth, comprising the townships of Maenclochog and Vorlan, the former in the hundred of 
Kemmes, and the latter in that of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales; containing 503 
inhabitants, of which number 456 are in the township of St. Mary's, or Maenclochog, 12 miles (N. 
E.) from Haverfordwest. This place derived its name "Maenclochog" from a large stone, several 
tons in weight, so nicely poised upon three small upright stones, as to vibrate on the slightest touch, 
and, upon its being struck, to sound like a bell: this curious relic was destroyed by some of the 
inhabitants, who, induced by the vain expectation of finding some hidden treasure, blew it up with 
gunpowder. The parish, which is surrounded by the parishes of Nevem, Morvil, Henry's-Moat, and 
Llanycevn, is situated in a mountainous district, and comprises an area of about 1000 acres, whereof 
part is arable, part pasture, &c., and about two acres woodland; the chief agricultural produce being 
barley and oats. A large portion of the Percelly mountain, the highest in this part of Wales, is within 
its limits: the ancient Welsh name of this mountain is Preswylva, signifying "a place of residence," 
and is derived from its having been the resort of the natives, on account of its security, in the 
intestine wars by which this portion of the principality was agitated during the earlier periods of its 
history. It was well clothed with forest timber, affording shelter to such as took refuge in its 
recesses, but now presents a bare and sterile aspect, exhibiting some small vestiges of old 
encampments, probably constructed by the natives. The village, which occupies the summit of a 
bleak and barren eminence, is of considerable size, and the inhabitants, with the exception of such 
as are engaged in working a quarry of slate of good quality, are employed in agriculture. A fair is 
held on the 18th of September, for cattle, sheep, &c., which is in general well attended. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary 
grant; present net income, £70; patron, T. Bowen, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent- 
charge of £150, of which £100 are payable to Mr. Bowen, and £50 to the vicar, who has also a glebe 
of two acres, valued at £2. 10. per annum. The chapels of Llandilo and Llangolman were formerly 
chapels of ease attached to the vicarage, but they have been endowed, and subsequently augmented 
with Queen Anne's Bounty, the two distiicts being erected into distinct parishes: they are now 
perpetual curacies, held as one incumbency. Maenclochog church, dedicated to St. Mary, is situated 
in the centre of the village. There are two places of worship for Independents, with a Sunday school 
held in each of them. 



233 



Vorlan, 

a township, in the parish of St. Mary's, or Maenclochog, union of Narberth, hundred of Dungleddy, 
county of Pembroke, South Wales, 9 miles (N. by W.) from Narberth; containing 47 inhabitants. 
This township is of very small extent, and the vicar of the parish was formerly the only inhabitant of 
it that was assessed to the relief of the poor. Vorlan 1839 Lewis Topographical Dictionary of Wales 
In 1 870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Y Forlan like 
this: 

"Vorlan, a hamlet in Maenclochog parish, Pembroke; 8V2 miles NNW of Narberth. Pop., 29. 
Houses, 6". 

Rosebush 

is a small village about 1 mile north west of the village of Maenclochog. Slate was extensively 
quarried nearby, its export facilitated by the railway in the 19th century. 

Rosebush and Rosebush Slate Quarry. 

The only undertaking in the region to operate on a really large scale (albeit briefly) and certainly the 
only one to have its own railway. 

The early history is obscure, it does seem that TH. Hutton also took rights to this land when he 
commenced at Bellstone in 1837. It is not known if he worked here or even if any quarrying had 
been done at this time, but it is unlikely that such obvious outcrops could have been ignored. In 
1 842 the land was bought by William Young but again we do not know what work if any was done 
and in 1862 he sold on to William Williams, a Narberth Draper. Williams must have died soon 
afterwards as in 1 863 his widow, Mary, let it to John Davies and William Keylock. 

In October the following year this item appeared in the Mining journal: 

-"There are several rather valuable veins of slate in the northern district of Pembrokeshire and some 
20 or 30 years ago the extensive quarries on the breast of the Precelly mountains near Maenclochog 
were worked and an enormous capital sunk there. These quarries either from want of capital, bad 
management or some other cause have ceased working for a number of years until a short time ago 
they were started by a London company and a good many hands are now employed. The same 
company have taken or are in treaty for commencing to work other quarries in the same county 
including Llangolman, Llandilo, Tyrch &c. The extraordinary demand for slates has, no doubt, been 
the chief inducement in taking these quarries and it is to be hoped that they will turn out profitable 
to the enterprising speculators. " 

This report like so many in the Mining Journal at the time would have been submitted by the 
promoters and the style of this one is redolent of John Davies himself and refers to the Rosebush 
Slate Co. which he and Keylock set up, obtaining capital from amongst others, a Mr Hodges. 
Serious work must have been intended as some trouble was taken to obtain a reduction in royalty 
from l/8th ad valorem to l/16th. ABenjamin Rees was manager. Shortly afterwards there was a 
further brief item in the Mining Journal naming the Rosebush company, saying that "An enormous 
amount of capital has been sunk a short time ago". Most of this enormous amount of capital was 
the £8000 which Davies and Keylock reputedly received for the lease! 
In spite of a firm market, transport costs and royalties meant they were on a loser. They did 
negotiate with a Josiah Thomas to take over their lease but this fell through and the company 
wound 
up in 1868. 

In 1 869 Edward Cropper, a retired Manchester businessman living in Kent heard of the quarry 



234 



through his step-son Joseph Macaulay who had business interests in the county. In spite of 
advanced 

age and ill health he bought the freehold from Mrs Williams for £3750 and bought the plant, such as 
it was from the receivers of Rosebush Slate for £800. His purchase of the treehold not only freed 
him from rent and royalties, but also gave him security of tenure which enabled him to invest freely 
in infrastructure. With ample means and no shareholders hungry for instant profits he was able to 
take a long view on such investment, which notably included the Narbeth Road and Maenclochog 
Railway. 

He put Macaulay in charge, assisted by William Pritchard, by now the most experienced manager 
in 

the county, whose job at Cronllwyn had just fallen through. Wisely ignoring pre-existing work, an 
opening was made part-way up the hillside on new ground to the south, working on 4 terraces. All 
tipping of waste was to the north, good block being taken to the south by framways on each level. A 
self-acting incline brought material from levels 1 and 2 down to level 3 and another from 3 to 4. 

Roofing slate being made on levels 3 and 4. 

It was on these upper levels that Macaulay's ingenuity over-rode Pritchard's experience when a 

windmill was erected apparently to drive dressing machines. The windmill was damaged in a storm 

before drive-gear could be devised and the dressing machines were never powered. 

A further incline lowered finished product to the ground level stock yard and block to a mill which 

had 4 saws and 3 planers, driven by a Francis water turbine via underfioor shafting. A contemporary 

report said that: "This machinery did its work famously and required but few hands". 

When working progressed downward below level 4, rubbish was removed via a tunnel on level 5, a 

tunnel on level 6 drained, carried block to the mill and rubbish to the tip. It also provided an exit for 

roofing slates made in the pit. Latterly, slates were made in the mill using a treadle operated slate 

dresser thus forming, albeit in miniature, the only example in south Wales of an Integrated Mill, 

processing both slab and roofing slate. 

Water supply for the mill was obtained by damming the original working, fed by an inverted siphon 
from Mynydd Du to the north. The tailrace supplied the quanymen's cottages as well as Macaulay's 
own house. 

In 1878 no less a person than C.E. Spooner (of Ffestiniog Railway fame), was called in to advise 
on 

further development. It is a tribute to the soundness of the methods that the only advice he could 
give was to acquire more tipping ground adjacent to the level 6 tunnel. 

The quarry was one of the best planned in Wales and after the opening of the railway, one of the 
very few able to load directly into standard gauge wagons. Its workforce of well over 100 and its 
near 5000 ton ou^ut dominated the Pembrokeshire scene. The principal product was slab said to 
have been in sizes up to 7 x 4 x 4. Offcuts were used to make items such as inkstands, letter 
weights and chessboards, which were sent to Langer, Powell & Magnus at Buckingham Palace 
Road , London for enamelling. 

The 26 cottages which still form Rosebush Terrace were models of their kind. Though having only 
one room above the other and a lean-to kitchen, with their slate roofs and fiagged floors, they were 
much superior to the sort of earth floored hovel that most of the men must have been accustomed to, 
and let at £2 p.a. were much sought after. 

Unfortunately even before the railway opened in 1 877, the price of slate which had advanced almost 

every year since Cropper's purchase, collapsed. Besides which, with the market moving into 
surplus, buyers became more choosy, opting for the more fashionable north Wales products. Up to 
the time of his death in 1879 it was estimated that Cropper had spent £22,000 at Rosebush and that 
his gross revenues had not greatly exceeded a third of that figure. 



235 



By 1880 the trade press euphemistically suggested that this quarry could do with more trade, as 
indeed also could the railway. Even at its peak, the quarry output would have scarcely filled 10 
wagons per week. Under-utilised and burdened by the GWR's £500 p. a. charges at Narberth Road 
(later Clynderwen), the railway closed in 1882. With both price and demand in a steepening 
downward spiral. Rosebush's brief glory was effectively over. 

Edward Cropper's widow Margaret had married landowner Col. John Owen, son of Sir Hugh 
Owen. They tried to offset the quarry's decline by energetically promoting the health giving 
properties of the Maenclochog air. They publicised the facilities of Precelly Hotel and put lakes and 
fountains, (fed by the mill supply) in their own garden to amuse visitors. The visitors may have 
been amused by the fountains, but the Colonel does not appear to have been amused by the visitors. 
Shortly after his death in 1890 Margaret wrote quoting him as having said: "Not one word can be 
said in favour of them. They cheat the nation, they defraud the Railway Companies of their fares, 
they bilk the turnpikes. No com, no hay are wanted, no ostler to be paid, no posting, no coaching 
required. A pint of beer perhaps the only harvest of the town through which they pass". 
These dreadful parasites were cyclists! 

Some of them, it was alleged even propped their bicycles against the hotel wall to eat their 
sandwiches. 

The re-opening of the railway in 1884 failed to restore the quarry s fortunes. Macaulay moved 

away. Cropper's elder son James was a professional soldier and his younger son Edward took little 
interest in matters at Rosebush. By 1887 William Pritchard's son Alfred had leased the quarry and 
moved into the 9 roomed manager's house, with the adjacent village shop being run by his two 
sisters. 

By this time not all the cottages could be let and one was used as an office. Before the end of the 

80s the railway had closed again and the quarry was idle. In 1889 an attempt was made to sell them 

both. There were no takers for the railway and the best that could be done with the quarry was a let 

at a nominal £1 p.a. as a source of tip material. In I89I with the market recovering, Pritchard 

investigated the prospects for a revival. It was estimated that there was a potential for 1300 tons p.a. 

of roofing slates, 500 tons of slab and 3500 tons of rough block. To produce this would require 

another tunnel to fully work the 6 levels and a second turbine in the mill would call for doubling up 

on the supply pipe. With the prospect of this costing £5000 and faced with cartage costs to 

Fishguard of 15/- per ton, nothing was done. By 1895 when the railway reopened as the North 

Pembroke and Fishguard Railway, Pritchard was busy re-opening Gilfach. 

Most of the quarry property was now owned by Joseph Rowlands a Birmingham solicitor, 

although Rosebush Terrace was bought by the Rev. Albert and Mr Walter Hughes. 

In the early 1900s the Misses Pritchard were still running the shop, but apart fi-om renting a stable, 

Pritchard himself had severed all connection. Some desultory work was done until c.1905 by 

Griffith Williams who rented both Rosebush and Bellstone at £6. 5. 0 p.a. 

There was an amusing episode in 1904 when several women living in Rosebush Terrace, broke 

fences to extend their gardens onto quarry land. It appears fi-om extant correspondence that 

Williams found these ladies intimidating neighbours and they may well have precipitated his 

departure. 

In 1908 when this quarry and Bellstone came up for sale. Col. Owen's daughter Edith bought them 
for £720 with the intention of finding a tenant to work them. She was unsuccessfiil. 

Remains 

The site abuts Bellstone, the most obvious relic being the plastered walls of the fine mill 
building. In one corner the mill is the pit for the water turbine. The ruined loco shed on the other 
side of the railway track bed matches the style of the mill. Maps show a subsidiary building to the 



236 



south of the mill and a range of buildings behind the engine shed, but almost all trace of these has 
been lost. Also prominent are the abutments of the bridge which carried the tipping line from 5 

tunnel over the railway. 

On levels 3 and 4 most of the 10 or 12 dressing sheds survive, several paired back- to-back. Where 
such a layout, rarely seen outside north east Wales, was adopted they were normally of different 
sizes, the larger being intended for slab dressing, the smaller for roofing slate. These are of identical 
dimensions suggesting that roofing slate was worked in one or the other according to wind 
direction. 

On the south side of the quarry are the three much degraded inclines. 

Both tunnels are open at the quarry ends; however the one on level 6 which emerged on the level is 
blocked at its outer end. The level 5 tunnel has a nice arch at its outer end but being partly through 
waste is supported by crossbars and props of light railway rails which have collapsed at one point. 
There is a partly flooded tunnel entering the working face at level 4 which may have been a pre- 
existing metal mine. Above level 1 there is some trial working. 

All trace of the windmill on the hill above has been obliterated by forestry. At level 2, cut by the 
workings, is a leat which may have been an early water supply. 

The access track to the original (pre-Cropper) working is prominent and the pit still holds water. 
Some pipework is visible, both here and up valley to the north. Some distances away on the flat 
ground to the west, a powder house survives. 

The houses of Rosebush Terrace, along the rail line to the quarry, are still occupied, several with the 

original slates on the roofs. At the end is the manager's house, now a cafe, 
and abutting it is the 

Misses Pritchard's shop. Local legend has it that their customers were 
required to drop their coins through a hole in the counter into a basin of 
water, so that they were cleaned before the ladies 

handled them, Since 1972 the dwellings have been on mains water, a 
matter of complaint at the time as apart from having to pay, the occupiers 
complained that the public supply was inferior to the quarry water. 

The corrugated iron Precelly Hotel, now renamed - Tafam Sine - is still 

very much in business and 
the station partly reconstructed. 

Mr Gareth Williams, besides restoring the water gardens has at last, with his caravan park, (where 
we stayed many summers,) succeeded in promoting the area as a tourist destination. Mr William's 
grandfather Griffith Williams was the quarry's maintenance man. When he took up his 
appointment he walked from Porthgain having sailed there from Porthmadog which he had reached 
by walking from Aberdaron. 

In 1940, Pembrokeshire like the rest of the country was getting ready for imminent invasion. Panic 
measures were taken throughout the area; all signposts were taken away and hid-in a safe place and 
people placed strips of adhesive on windows to stop flying glass in the event of an explosion. 
Steel ropes, supported by barrels, were placed across the reservoir at Rosebush, to stop landings by 
enemy gliders and the reservoir itself was guarded by the Home Guard. The area was also used for 
shooting practice, whilst an anti-tank ambush was constructed in a field above the New Inn. The 
figures 44, made of white stones, had been placed on a hillside by one of the regiments stationed at 
Rosebush and they were demolished by the police as they formed a landmark for enemy planes. 




237 



On a clear moonlit night, enemy planes used to follow the Welsh coastline on their way to bomb 
Liverpool and Merseyside. Searchlights were a familiar sight, and one these units was sited near 
Maenclochog, as well as an Observer Corps unit. There was always the threat of gas warfare and 
children had to carry their gasmasks with them to school. 

Several planes crashed into the Preseli Mountains during the war including a Liberator and a Flying 
Fortress. 

The highest peak, Foel Cwm Cerwyn, is only 1760ft above sea level but altitude instruments on 
those planes were not up to today's standards. 

On the night of August 29/30th, 1940 German bombers dropped bombs on Morvil Mountain, 
including one time bomb which went off at 8 the following morning. 

Later on in the war the railway line between New Inn and Rosebush was used for practice bombing 
by the R.A.F. This was done to find out the extent of damage done to railways in France by British 
bombers. 

Due to its geographical location Pembrokeshire played an important part in the Battle of the 
Atlantic and thousands of American troops were stationed at Rosebush and nearby villages 

Forgery charge 

In 1881 at Newport, former Lincolnshire curate John Frederick Morgan, after visiting the rector 
Rev. Thomas Walters at Rosebush, was committed for trial for stealing a cheque book and passing 
forged cheques for £50 and £27.I0s. He was allowed bail, and subsequently pleaded guilty at trial. 

Explosion 

On the evening of June 2013 an explosive device was detonated inside a letter box in the village, 
destroying the box and scattering cast iron fragments 

The Parish Church Dedicated to St Mary - Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

This church is a modern building and of no archaeological interest. The font however , is worthy of 
attention. The rudely formed basin 16in by 16 in externally and 1 1 in by 11 in internally j as on one 
of its faces a rectangular caverty similar to that of a matrix for a brass; and in the centre of the 
depression so formed is a round hole, 4in in diameter and 2in deep. It may have had to do with a 
cover of the font. The angles of the bowl are chamferef off to a shaft 39in in circumference let into a 
square base; the total height id 33 in. it is of the Norman t5^e and is doubtless of that period. - 
Visited 8th October 1914. 



1991 Western Teleghraph 13 Mar 1991 Then and Now 

The restored church of St Mary's was reopened for divine worship on Tuesday June 7th 1881 in the 
presence of the Bishop of St David's . the sum of £525 had been spent on the restoration using the 
old walls and adding a vestry to give the church its present almost cruciform shape.. The design was 
by Messrs Middleton of Cheltenham and the work was carried out by Edwin Davies of 
Maenclochog and David Owen of Langolman. The Church had failed into disrepair in the middle of 
the 19c and the work of restoration was largely due to the efforts of Rev Thomas Walters and the 
Hon. Mrs Margaret Owen widow of Edward Cropper the builder of the Maenclochog Railway who 
had married Col. Owen in 1 879 and came to live in Rosebush Villa. They did much to benefit the 
distric including donations to the school and promoting the extension of the railway to Fishguard.. 
Further restoration of the church took place in the early 1900's when the tower was raised (between 
1901 & 5) 

The Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments (1914) records The church is a modem building 
and of no archaelogical interest but the font is worthy of attention. The report then goes on to 
describe the old Norman font as " a rudely formed basin worthy of attention. The disused font now 
lies in the churchyard. 

1994 The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features 

2009 St Marys Church, Maenclochog RCAHMW 

St Mary's church, Maenclochog, is the centrepiece of a substantial village green, unusual in the 
region. It is an Anglican parish church, with medieval origins, but the church was thoroughly 
restored in 1880-1. According to a newspaper account, it was roofed in Rosebush slate over a nave 
roof of teak and chancel roof of oak, a vestry was added and the windows were replaced in Bath 
stone. The font and part of the pulpit were kept fi-om the previous church. 

A photograph of c. 1906 shows the tower barely higher than the ridge of the nave, with a crude 
triangular opening on the south. But it had been raised to present height by the 1920s. 

The church contains two important 5th - 6th century inscribed stones, brought from Llandeilo 
Lwydiarth churchyard nearby. They appear to relate to two brothers Andagellus and Coimagnus, a 
third stone, probably from the same site, was moved fi-om Bwlchyclawdd (Temple Druid) to 
Cenarth before 1743 is to a son of Andagellus. A most unusual group of stones to one family. 

Reference: Cadw listed buildings database. May 2009 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 

Maenclochog vicarage formed part of the possessions of the abbey of St. Dowels, to which house it 
was granted together with two chapels (Llamdeilo and Llan-golman) antlered to the church, and one 
acre of land, an orchard and a plot of land in Maenclochog, by David de Rupe, the son and heir of 
Gilbert de Rupe. This grant was made without license fi-om the King, but on 30 Oct. 1320, the 



239 



abbot obtained pardon from the King for this omission. — Patent Rolls. 

After the dissolution of the monasteries Maenelochog came into the hands of the Crown, and in 
1536-7 was leased, together with the rectories of Llandeilo and Llangolman, to John Leche of 
Llawhaden. Pems. — State Papers. 

In 1291 this church was assessed at £6 1 Is. 4d. for tenths to the King, the sum payable being 13s. 

4d. — Taxatio. 

Mayncloughauke. — Ecclesia ibidem'ad abbiam Sancti Dogmaelis appropriate Et fructus et 
oUaciones ibidem valent communibus annis viijli. Et est ibidem una vi-caria cum mansione et terris 
eidem vicarie pertinente ex coUacione abbatis ibidem. Et pars dicte vicarie de tercia parte firictus 
ibidem valet communibus annis iiij. ' Inde sol' quolibet tercio anno in visitacione ordinaria xvjd. Et 
in sinod alib us et procuracionibus quoli bet anno vs 13 d. Et remanet clare £11 12s 1 Id. — Valor 
Eccl. 

Under the heading ' Livings Discharged ': — ^Maen-clochogg V- (St Mary) united to Llangolman and 
Llan-deilo. Ordinar. quolibet tertio anno, Is. 4d. 8301. Habet tert. part, finct. Pri. Sti. Dogmael. Patr. 
and Propr. Hugh Bowen, clerk, 1765. Clear yearly value, £25. King's Books, £3 18s. 9d. — Bacon's 

Liber Regis. 

On 22 Oct., 1880, a faculty was granted for the alteration and restoration of Maenelochog Church. 
Clergy 



Moris, Rinold 


1661 


Vicar 


Griffith, Johannes 


1666 


Curate 


Jenkin, Evanus 


1670 


Vicar 


Jenkin, Evanus 


1688 


not given 


Jenkins, Evanus 


1692 


Vicar 


Williams, Howellus 


1696 


Vicar 


Phillips, Thomas 


1698 


Vicar 


Philipps, Thomas 


1714 


Curate 


Philipps, Thomas 


1720 


Curate 


Lewis, John 


1743 


Curate 


Phillips, John 


1743 


Curate 


Howells, John 


1749 


Curate 


Rice , Morgan 


1765 


Vicar 



Crowther , William 1765 Vac (natural death) Vicar 

Philips, John 1767 Curate 



240 



Foley , John 



1788 



Curate 



Foley , John 



1790 



Vicar 



Jenkins , John 



1799 



Curate 



Thomas , David 



1832 



Curate 



Propert Williams, James 1 832 



Vicar 



1851 Maenclochog Parish Church George Harries, Vicar of Maenclochog 

1929 Maenclochog with Llandilo and Llanycefo 1929 St Mary & St Teilo, Llandilo (in ruins) & 
Parish Church (Llanycefo) focumbent and Curates; S Howell 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 

Maenclochoc (S. Mary), — The only pieces of plate now belonging to this parish are of pewter. A 
Cup originally made for secular purposes, 3 in. in height, with scroll handle measuring at the mouth 
3 in., and 3 in. at the base. No marks are discoverable. 

A Plate, 9 in. in diam.; marks: [?] ; [?]; Britannia; rose, " william s de". 
Nonconformist Chapels: 

Capel Horeb Baptist,Rosebush, Maenclochog Built 1835, rebuilt 1885. Still open 1998 

Old Chapel (Hen Gapel), in Maenclochog village [Independents, 1790] Built 1791, modified, 
altered or rebuih 1859, 1870 and 1905 Still open 1998 — Maenclochog Ind Erected in 1791 David 
Owen, Minister 1851 , 

Tabernacle, in Maenclochog village [Independents, 1 847] Shown as still open on the Union of 
Welsh Independents site Dec 2006 

Ys Coldy Congregational (Tabernacle Sunday School) Built after 1891 Still open as chapel 1996 

Silo, nr Ambleston Tabernacle, village Ind Erected in 1 847 David William, Deacon, Blacknuck, 
Parish of Henry's Moat 

Education 

1833 A schoolroom has been erected in the churchyard, and is now occupied by one of Mrs. Bevan's 
circulating charity schools, for the gratuitous instruction of poor children. . . " [From A 
Topographical Dictionary of Wales (S. Lewis, 1833).] 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is resident clergy but the church is down. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 
6d to 7d a day with food and Is a day on their own finding.The moral character is regarded as good. 
There is no resident land proprietor and no day school provision for education of the poor . Many of 



241 



the population can read and write. 

Parish of Maenclochog Mr Evans's School Mr Evans has kept school for nearly SOyears and has 
educated most of those from 15 to 40 years old in this and the surrounding parishes. He spoke 
English tolerably well, but his faculties are sadly impaired by age. He has no school furniture in the 
chapel in which he keeps his school. The scholars kneel at the benches to write. There was only one 
learning to write at the time of my visit. His scholars are composed of farmer's, mechanics and 
labourers children. It being New Years Day (old style), no scholars were present 12™ 
January 1847 Wm. Morris Assistant 

Mr Protheroes School— Spoke English correctly, having had much intercourse with the world as 
an officer of excise for many years. I saw in the schoolroom 9 benches, but no maps or prints of any 
description. His scholars were the children of farmers and labourers. January 12* 1847 Wm Morris 
Assistant. 

Maenclochog school 

is a Welsh speaking primary school built in 1878 that has roughly 100 pupils ranging from 3 to 11. 
The school welcomes English speaking pupils and sends them usually once a week to a language 
learning centre in Crymych. The current head of the school is Mrs S Clarke who has had her post 
since 2009. The school uniform is navy blue and black. 

Railway 

Maenclochog. The village was served by The Maenclochog Railway formally known as the 
Narberth Road and Maenclochog Railway which ran from Cl5aiderw5ai on the Great Western 
Railway via Maenclochog to Rosebush. 

In 1 876 a railway line from Cljoiderwen to Rosebush was opened by the Narberth Road and 
Maenclochog Railway company which facilitated the export of slate from the quarries. The line 

closed in 1882 and the name changed to North Pembrokeshire and Fishguard Railway in 1884 but 
was not reopened until 1895 with an extension from Rosebush to Letterston. 
The Great Western Railway took over in 1898. The line was closed to passengers in 1937 and to 
freight in 1949 

The tunnel just outside Maenclochog achieved fame during WW2 when it was used as a testing site 
for bombs by Barnes Wallis, creator of the 'bouncing bomb'. 

Maenclochog Railway 

Light railway, Narberth Road & Maenclochog Railway, open 1876-1882: extended to Letterston & 
reopened as North Pembrokeshire & Fishguard Railway 1895, subsumed into GWR 1898, closed 
1949. RCAHMWJ. Wiles 10.09.03 

Maenclochog Railway Station 

Maenclochog Railway Station was situated on the North Pembrokeshire Branch line, the station is 
not visible on modem mapping. S.L. Evans, RCAHMW 2008 

Llanycefn Railway Station 

Llanycefn Railway Station was situated on the Maenclochog Railway line, it is not visible on 
modem mapping S.L. Evans, RCAHMW 2008 



242 



Rosebush Railway Station 

Rosebush Railway Station was situated on the North Pembrolceshire Branch Line. It is not visible 
on modem mapping. S.L. Evans RCAHMW 2008 

Maenclochog names from Jottings 

Bowen Evan 1670 Maenclochog H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Cropper Edward 1869 builder of the Maenclochog Railway retired Manchester 
businessman purchase freehold and plant Rosebush Slate Co Acc to Western Telegraph 13 Mar 
1991 

David Edward 1670 Maenclochog H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 
Davies Edwin 13 Mar 1991 of Maenclochog Western Telegraph 

Davis William Benjamin 6 Apr 1837 bom Maenclochog Pembroke Wales died 25 Jan 1889 
Mammoth Juab Utah Married to Llewellyn Elizabeth on 16 Apr 1876 at Goshen Utah Mormon 
Records for Pembrokeshire 

de la Roche Sir John died in 1376 his inquisition is extant" and we can learn the possessions of 
the Langum family He held of the Earl the manor of Ladayn ? in free burgage, and land at 
Yerbeston by military service of the lord of Kemes, the castle and 200 acres of land at Maenclochog 
of the lord of WalwjTi's Castle, the manor of Dale and lands at Snelleston Snailston and Ra5mies 
Castle Ramas Castle, called by ignorant compilers of ordnance maps, Roman's Castle of the 
barony of Roch land at Freystrop, parcel of the lordship of Stackpole of the lord of Haverford, 
the manors and advowsons of Langum and Talbenny, with other lands of the lord of Carew, land at 
Marteltwy, also parcel of Stackpole of Isabella, widow of Sir John Wogan of Picton , land at 
Guilford, near Langum also lands at Herbrandston 

deRupe David 30 Oct 1320 Roch witness Maenclochog vicarage 1298 British Museum 
Sloane charterXXXII 14 Patent Rolls 

de Rupe Gilbert 1298 Roch, Maenclochog vicarage witness Angle British Museum 
Sloane charterXXXII 14 charterRoU 18 Edward 1ml Cal p 373 1290 November 6 Clipston 30 
Oct 1320 Patent Rolls 

deVale Hubert 1131 who held lands at Maenclochog- and was a witness to de Tours' Martin 
charter to St Dogmael's' 

Dutton James 5 August 1819 Llan-y-cefii Labourer Offence Breaking and entering 

prosecutor's house and stealing wearing apparel on fair Day Maenclochog Prosecutor Morris 
David Maenclochog Verdict Guilty Punishment Death Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730- 
1830 



243 



Edward Thomas 1670 Maenclochog H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Evans Benjamin 29 October 1810 Henry's Moat Labourer Offence Theft of a sheep, 
Maenclochog Prosecutor Griffith Rowland Verdict No true bill, Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830, 

Eynon William 1670 Maenclochog H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Gibby John 1670 Maenclochog H2 Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Griffith John 1670 clerk Maenclochog H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Harry Rees 1670 tinker Maenclochog H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Howell Nicholas 1670 Maenclochog P Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Howell Stephen abt 1790 bom Maenclochog Pembrokeshire died 1832 Lambston 
Pembroke Married to Williams, Margaret on 26 Oct 1814 at Lambston, Pembroke, Wales 
Mormon Records for Pembrokeshire 

Jenkin Rachel 22 March 1818 Alias Rachel Jenkins Maenclochog Singlewoman 
Offence Breakingand entering prosecutor's house and stealing food - cheese, butter, ham, oatmeal - 
and money, Haverfordwest Prosecutor John,Levi Henry's Moat Punishment Transported for 
14 years Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Jenkins John 15 July 1815 Maenclochog Labourer Offence Theft from the dwelling 

house of a watch, Prisoner aged 12, Henry's Moat Prosecutor David William, Henry's Moat, 
labourer Verdict Guilty to the value of 2/- - partial Punishment 2 months imprisonment and to be 
whipped Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

John Daniel 4 March 1817 Henry's Moat Labourer Offence Theft of sheep. Prisoner 
aged 42, Apprehended at Fishguard, Henry's Moat Prosecutor David Thomas , Maenclochog 
Verdict Guilty, Punishment Death recorded Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

John David 1670 Maenclochog H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

John Margarett 1670 Maenclochog P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Leche John 1536 of LlawhadenPems leased Maenclochog State Papers 

Lewis Owen 1670 Maenclochog P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Lewis William 1670 Maenclochog H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Martell Stephen 21 May 1819 Maenclochog Labourer Offence Theft of a sheep. 
Prisoner aged 19, Maenclochog Prosecutor Hugh John Verdict Guilty, 



244 



Morice John 1670 Miller, Maenclochog H Kernes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Narbett John 22 May 1819 Llawhaden Yeoman Offence Recieving stolen goods - 
sheep - from Stephen Martell, Maenclochog Prosecutor John Williams Verdict No true bill, 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Owen EUinor 1670 widow Maenclochog P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Owen Margaret Mrs widow of Edward Cropper Rosebush Villa Maenclochog Western 
Telegraph 13 Mar 1991 

Rees John 1670 Maenclochog H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Richard Llewhelin 1670 Maenclochog H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Richard Sarah 1670 Maenclochog P Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Taylor John 5 August 1819 Llan-y-cefn Labourer Offence Breaking and entering 
prosecutor's house and stealing wearing apparel on fair day, Maenclochog Prosecutor Morris 
David Verdict Guilty, Punishment Death Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Thomas Mary 1 1 May 1 820 Maenclochog Singlewoman Offence Riot with others 
unknown, Riot Act Read, , Prisoner aged 33, Maenclochog Prosecutor Eaton,Thomas 
Haverfordwest, esq. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Vaughan Thomas 1670 Maenclochog Vorlan H3 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Wallis Barnes 1943-4 bouncing bombs railway tunnel Maenclochog 

William Jane 1670 Maenclochog H Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

William Lewis 1670 Maenclochog Bwlchyclawdd H2 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

William Mary 1670 Maenclochog H2 Kemes Hundred Hearth Tax 

Williams John 22 May 1819 Milford Haven Labourer Offence Recieving stolen goods 
- sheep - from Stephen Martell, belonging to prosecutor and one John Williams Milford Haven 
Prosecutor Hugh John, Maenclochog, Yeoman Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830, 

Young Jubilee bom Maenclochog, Jubilee Young was bom at the Step Inn he was a famous 
preacher. 

Sites of Interest. 

After the Fishguard invasion, French prisoners of war were said to have been held here in the " 

Bastile" 

nearby is Penrhos a thatched cottage converted into a museum 



245 



Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1915 & 1920 
Pare y Tywod Maenhir 

On the second field west of Galchen fach farmstead is an erect maenhir, 8 I/2 ft high with a sUghtly 
rounded top. At its base , and partly hidden in the soil, is a flat stone 2ft square, of uncertain 
purpose. - Visited 24th September 1914. 

Cornel Bach Stones 

On the field north of Cornel bach cottages are two erect stones. The shorter of the two is 72 in high. 
Distance 135ft to the north east is the second and more pointed stone 81 in high. No traditions 
appear to attach to these boulders. They are too far apart to be the remains of a cromlech ~ Visited 
20th October 1920. 

Stone at Maenllwyd. 

Immediately south of Maenllwyd farm house is an erect stone 6ft above the soil, which has 
doubtless given name to the farm - Visited 24th September 1914. 

Prysg Cromlech 

A widely spread local tradition places a cromlech immediately north east of the farm house of 
Prysg; this was destroyed some years ago. One of the stones left standing 76in above the soil has 
every appearance of having belonged to the cromlech. In the adjoining hedge is a partially hidden 
stone of similar charcter, which not improbably formed part of the vanished pile - Visited 5th 
October 1914. 

Eithbed Remains 

Arch Camb for 191 1 contains a record of the havoc wrought upon the prehistoric structures at 
Eithbed, a farm % mile fi-om the village of Maenclochog. 

Our Inspecting Officer on the occasion of his visit to the site was accompanied by Mr william 
Lewis who has over 50 years personal knowledge of the site , and who confirmed the statement as 
to the destruction of the monuments. Apparently there were three distinct cromlechs. One to the 
south had three supporting pillars averaging 7ft long and a capstone 19dt in length. These in their 
destroyed state can still be traced, and around tham are a few stones evidently marking the outline 
of a cairn. 

About 60 ft to the northwards is a slightly slanting supporter of another cromlech, having a length 
of 8ft 6in by 6ft lOin and 12 in thick. Underneath can be seen a portion of a pillar. The third 
cromlech has been entirely removed. The outline of a circle is now far more indistinct than when 
the previous examination was made of it. It appears to have had a diameter of 15 Oft., and was 
without doubt the outer ring of a tumlus. The evidence of the ruined remains on this site , together 
with the facts recorded above , tend to show that this was the site of a prehistorical burial ground at 
the foot of Prescelly Top. Visited 4th August 1915. 

CasteU 

This site is a small green field on which a striking natural outcrop of rock, almost circular in form, 
and having a flattened top from 10 to 12 ft above the level. It shows no signs of human 
workmanship. No evidences appear that a building ever stood upon it. The two fields directly south 
are known as Pare y gaer ucha and issa, and the field where the outcrop occurs is know as Manor 
Pound - Visited 5th Octoberl914 



246 



Temple Druid 

The present house was rebuih for a hunting box early in the 19th century when the name was 
changed to Temple Druid; the former name of Bwlch y clawdd is still used by old inhabitants. 
NOTE ;- Lewis Morris, the antiquary, stated that in 1743 " a stone 6ft long on the roadside by Mr 
William Lewis's House, called Bwlch y Clawdd, in ye parish of Maenclochog" was found a stone 
bearing the inscription CURCAGNI FILI ANDAGELLI ( Arch Camb 1896 pi 34). The stone has 
been removed to the churchyard at Canarth. 

Bronze Pipkin 

When the Cambrian Archaeological Association visited Haverfordwest in 1864 the members were 
shown " a bronze pipkin fronm a site of Maenclochog Castle" then in the possessions of George le 
Hunte Esq. 

Of Wexford - No trace of this item could be found. 
RCAHMW 



Inscribed Stones Outside Ruined Church Of St Teilo 

(NOW In Maenclochog Church).Early Medieval RCAHMW 

Temple Druid, Maenclochog 

Early 19th century John Nash; 2 storey, slated, central round headed doorcase, arched fanlight, 
Roman doric columns, centre beams forward slightly. 

Temple Druid, Garden, Maenclochog 

1. Property designed by John Nash c 1795. Listing description. Possibly contemporary Garden built 
into steep bank surrounding utility buildings, not all of ascertainable function. Present tasteful front 
garden deceptively ancient-looking, though of recent construction (within 12 years) and by present 
owners.CSB 24 xi 99 

2. This garden is depicted on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25-inch map of Pembrokeshire 
XVIII, sheet 9 (1907). Its main elements on that map include river, carriage drive, parkland and 
woodland. C.S.Briggs 17.10.05 

Hen Gapel, Welsh Independent Chapel, Maenclochog 

Hen Gapel Independent Chapel was built in 1791, modified in 1859 and 1870. This chapel was 
rebuilt in 1905, in the Arts and Craft style of the gable entry type, but closed in 1999 and has since 
been converted for residential use. RCAHMW, November 2010 

Tabernacl Welsh Independent Chapel, Maenclochog;Tabernacle 

Tabernacl Independent Chapel was built in 1847 and restored in 1884. The present chapel, dated 
1884, was restored by architect JohnHumphries of Treforest and builders Thomas, Watkins and 
Jenkins of Swansea. It is built in the Lombardic/Italian/Romanesque style of the gable entry type. 



247 



RCAHMW, November 2010 



Horeb Welsh Baptist Church, Rosebush, Maenclochog 

Horeb Baptist Chapel was built in 1835 and later rebuilt in 1885. The present chapel, dated 1885, is 
built in the Sub-Classical style with a gable-entry plan, to the design of architect George Morgan of 
Carmarthen. RCAHMW, October 20 1 0 

St Marys Well, Maenclochog 

Spring originally protected by boulders, now a spout set in modem well chamber 
Cornel Bach Stones, Maenclochog 

Two monoliths, set 40m apart: at SN08142796 (Dat Pml332), 1.7m high, by 1.4m by 0.7m; at 
SN08 1 72799 (DatPml 333), 1.9m high, by 1.3m by 0.8m. 
(source Os495card; SN02NE21) 
J. Wiles 21.03.02 



St Teilo's Church, Llandilo, Maenclochog 

The ruined nave and chancel (possibly 12th century) of the church of St Teilo, abandoned by 
C.1850, are set within a circular churchyard at Llandilo. Two inscribed pillar stones of early 
medieval date , have been removed from the site and installed in Maenclochog church. J. Wiles 
21.03.02 



Tabernacle Independent Sunday School, Maenclochog 

Buih in the Simple Round-Headed style, gable entry type. Built after 1891 (OS 1/2500 1st Edn.) 
Present status [1996] : In use as chapel 

Eithbed West, Enclosure 

An oval enclosure, about 48m by 42m, terraced into ground falling to the SSE, showing traces of 
stone- walling about its circuit; remains of rectangular structures occur within, notably in the form of 
a rectangular platform, some 15m north-south by 6.0m, and about the fringes of the enclosure, 
which appears to have been articulated with the current field boundary arrangement: OS County 
series (Pembroke. XVIII.5 1889) shows a spring in the southern part of the enclosure. J. Wiles 
04.01.05 

Eithbed West, Chambered Tomb 

A possible chambered tomb, ruinous & represented only by suggested fallen capstones, with further 
possible examples about 40m to the south-west: OS County series (Pembroke. XV1I1.5 1889) 
depicts a circle of seven stones, 5.0-6. Om across, immediately to the west. J. Wiles 04.01.05 



248 



Budloy Stone, 

Monolith 2.6m high by 0.7m by 0.5m. This monument tends to be linked with the Dyffiyn Stones 
(Npm304440), across the valley to the W. 

A second possible standing stone nearby is recorded at SN06622840. J. Wiles 20.03.02 

Vorlan Farm, Windmill 

Circular structure adjacent to farm. 

Precelly Hotel, Rosebush 

Hotel Post Medieval 
Rosebush, Garden, Rosebush 

House and grounds in loop of N.Pembs railway close to Rosebush station-house. Demolished early 
in twentieth century? 

This garden is depicted on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25-inch map of Pembrokeshire 
XVII, sheet 4 (1907). Its main elements on that map include a possible formal garden, conservatory 
and Chinese bridge. C.S.Briggs 17.10.05 

Rosebush House, Summerhouse, Rosebush 

Depicted on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25-inch map of Pembrokeshire XVII, sheet 8 
(1907). C.H. Nicholas, RCAHMW, 24th August 2006. 



let-Newydd, Rosebush 

Ruined cottage, built of rubble in clay: single storey - perhaps croglofft. Fireplace with sawn-slate 
lintel and dressings. Good stone enclosure banks, c. 18th- 19th century. 

Rhiwiau Round Barrow 

This well preserved Bronze Age round barrow measures 28.2m (E-W) by 24m with a height of 
1 .5m on the W, 1 .2m on the E and Im on the N and S. It is turf-covered but has a low, domed 
profile suggesting it has been spread by ploughing though at present it is under pasture, 
visited DKL 28.2.96 RCAHMW 



Brechfa: Concentric Cropmark Enclosure Complex to South-East 

A complex arrangement of later Prehistoric type settlement features south-east of Brechfa, is known 



249 



from the cropmarks of its ditches. The main feature is a strongly defined settlement enclosure 
apparently set within a much larger outer enclosure, but there are also indications of what may be an 
earlier open settlement. The concentric enclosure is one of three ostensibly similar cropmark 
enclosures found on the massif around Brechfa. 

The main enclosure is roughly rectangular, about 75m east- west by 45m, set on ground falling to 
the east close to the edge of the massif. It appears to be defined by sometimes overlapping double 
ditches with a slightly inturned west- facing entrance. A curving outer circuit has been observed on 
the west and south, some 80- 100m distant. This has a possible entrance facing rather south of west 
and there are indications of a ditched approach from this to the entrance of the inner enclosure. 

The outer circuit crosses an area of fainter enclosure ditches south of the inner enclosure, kinking as 
it does so. These fainter features appear to represent several small fields, gardens or paddocks, and 
at least one roundhouse perhaps 5.0m across. 

There are indications of a second strongly defined enclosure some 30m downslope of the inner 
enclosure. 

As a concentric enclosure this monument is similar to the two other sites on the Brechfa massif . 
However, it seems clear that the site has a more complex history in which its concentric 
arrangement was only one episode. 

Source: Driver 'Pembrokeshire: Historic Landscapes from the Air' RCAHMW (2007), 166-7 
AUt Fawr Promontory Fort, Clyncemmaes 

Soilmarks of a plough-levelled, or low earthwork, inland promontory fort were identified during 

Royal Commission aerial reconnaissance on 5th July 2012. The remains comprise a D-shaped fort 
set against an eastward promontory scarp which overlooks the steep-sided valley of the Afon Rhyd- 
afallen, south of Maenclochog village. Soilmarks show that the fort has a bivallate western defences 
which curve in towards the south, to form a univallate sfraight-sided southern end to the fort. The 
northern defences of the fort are obscured beneath a modern hedge bank, which might well fossilise 
the line of the preserved defences. Darker patches of deeper humic soil can be observed after 
ploughing along the western defences of the fort, particularly within the enclosure against the back 
of the defences, an area where one might expect a focus for settlement or industrial activity. Not 
visited on the ground. T. Driver, RCAHMW, 2013. 



250 



251 



Meline 



1839 Topographical Dictionry of Wales 

MELINEY, or MELINAU, a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, county of 
Pembroke, South Wales, 8 miles (S. W. by S.) from Cardigan; containing 492 inhabitants. This 
parish is situated in the northern part of the county, close to the road leading from Cardigan to 
Fishguard, and is intersected by the great road between the former place and Haverfordwest. It 
comprises 4056 acres. Rather more than half is inclosed and cultivated, and the remainder consists 
of barren heath and stony common, forming part of the Percelly mountain; the soil in that portion 
which is inclosed is tolerably fertile. The scenery, though not greatly diversified, is enriched with 
some branches of the river Nevem, which flow through the parish; and the adjoining country is not 
destitute of interest. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £10, and in the 
patronage of the Rev. D. Protheroe: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £160; and 
there is a glebe of six acres, worth £10. 12. per annum. The Independents have a place of worship 
here, and conduct a Sunday school. There are some ancient mansions in the parish, within the limits 
of which also are the remains of a circular encampment, called Pen-yBenglog, defended by a single 
rampart. 

1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Meline: 

MELINE, a parish in the district of Cardigan and county of Pembroke; on the river Nevern, under 
Precelly mountain, 614 miles SWby S of Cardigan r. station. Post town, Cardigan. Acres, 4,523. 
Real property., £1,858. Pop., 414. Houses, 108. The property is much subdivided. An ancient camp 
is at Pennybenglog. The living is a rectory in the diocese of St. David's. Value, £140. Patron, the 
Rev. D. Protheroe. The church was rebuilt in 1865; is in the decorated English style, of local stone 
with Bath stone dressings; and consists of nave and apsidal chancel, with W bell-gable. 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Dogmael - Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

The church, erected in 1865, consists of a small single chamber terminating in an apse. It retains a 
portion of the north wall of an earlier structure, in which is a pointed doorway, now closed, having 
two ruely carved human heads on either side, and a fragment of a third above. The octagonal font 
and stem are from the earlier church; they are probably of pre Reformation date. - At The 
rebuilding there was removed to Pen y beglog a well carved pew back bearing the following 
legend : SED: MATHILD; UX ; GEO; PER; PENEBENGLOG; GE 1626. ( The pew of Matilda 
wife of George Per(rott) of Penybenglog, gentleman 1626) -Visited 17* June 1920. 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994. 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features 



252 



Pembrokeshire Parsons 

Meline Rectory was appendant to the barony of Kernes, the lord of Kernes and the free tenants, the 
freeholders, of the parish having the right of alternate presentation to the hving. — Owen's Perns. 

Mylene. — Ecelesia ibidem ex presentacione domtni de Awdeley unde Christoferus Taylor est rector 
valet dare cum gleba £10. Inde decima 20s. — Valor Eccl. 

Under the headings 'Livings Discharged' -: — ^Meleney alias Mylen alias Melillau alias Meline R. 
(St. Dogmael). Thomas Lloyd, Esq., 1704, as Lord of Kemys; the Free-holders of the parish, 1735; 
Thomas Lloys Esq., and Anne, his wife, 1759; the Freeholders, 1783. Clear yearly value, £34. 
King's Books, £10. — Baron's Liber Regis. 



Clergy 

Myles , Will 


1605 


Rector 


Lewis, Daniell 


1682 


Rector 


Lewis, Daniel 


1682 


Rector 


Lewis, Daniel 


1692 


Rector 


Williams, Jacobus 


1704 


Rector 


Morris, David 


1714 


Curate 


Williams, Jacobus 


1714 


Rector 


Williams, Jacobus 


1720 


Rector 


Lewis, Watkin 


1735 


Rector 


Williams, James 


1735 


Vac (Death) 


Bowen , James 


1759 


Rector 


Bowen , James 


1783 


Vac (cession) 


Bowen , Thomas 


1783 


Rector 



253 



Rice , John 
Lloyd , Hugh 



1785 Curate 

1795 Curate 

Williams , Morgan 1804 Curate 
Bowen, James 1809 Vac (natural death) Rector 

1809 Rector 

1809 Rector 

1819 Stipendiary Curate 

1 822 Stipendiary Curate 

1834 Stipendiary Curate 



Harris , David 
Harries , David 
Davies , David 
Davies , David 
Davies , William 



1851 : Meline Parish Church "The Sunday School has been discontinued in consequence of my not 
being able to attend in person since last summer. I serve another parish besides. "David Davies, 
Rector 



Parish entry for Eglwyswrw and Meline The Welsh Church Year Book, 
1929 St Cristiolus & St Dogmael (Meline) Incumbent and Curates; O Davies 



Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 

Meline. (S. Dogfael). — ^Here there is in present use an electro-plated service. 
Nonconformist Chapels: 

Pontcynon, in Pontcynon [Independents, 1839]. Built 1839, rebuilt 1882-3 1851 Evan Lewis, 
Minister, Brynberian, Eglwyswrw Still open 1998 

Meline Hearth Tax 1670 

Mathias David - Meline- H2 

Owen Edward & forge - Meline- H&H 

Deverox John - Meline- H2 

Morgan WiUiam - Meline- H2 
254 



Bowen James - 


Pontgynon Meline- - 


H4 


Phillipps Thomas clerk - 


Meline-rector- 


H3 


James Margarett - 


Meline- 


H 


Bowen William - 


Meline- 


H 


Phillip widow - 


Meline- 


H 


Phillip Richard - 


Meline- 


H 


James David - 


Meline- 


H 


Howell William - 


Meline- 


H2 


Morgan Mathias - 


Meline- 


H 


David James - 


Meline- 


H 


David Thomas smith - 


Meline- 


H&H 


Thomas Thomas ap - 


Meline- 


H 


Thomas James - 


Meline- 


H 


John Ellinor - 


Meline- 


H 


Bowen William - 


Meline- 


H2 


Martin Hugh - 


Meline- 


H 


Price Thomas - 


Meline- 


H2 


Pryddero Mary - 


Meline- 


H 


Bowen John - 


Meline- 


H 


Phillip John- 


Meline- 


H 


Lewis Jenkin miller - 


Meline- 


H 


Griffith William - 


Penybenglog Meline- 


-H6 


Rees Llewhelin - 


Meline- 


P 


TTarrv Thnma** - 


Mplinp- 


p 


Rudder Thomas - 


Meline- 


P 


Lewis George - 


Meline- 


P 



255 



Evan Margarett - 
David Katherine - 
Bowen George - 
Owen George - 
Lewis Jonathan - 
Lewis William - 
Phillip Anne - 
Philp Katherine - 
Richard Evan - 
Rees John William - 
Fabian Morice - 
Phillip John- 
Anthony EUinor - 
Edward George ap - 
Luke Owen - 
John David - 
David Thomas taylor - 
Will John- 
William Thomas - 
Jenkin John - 
William Edward - 
William John - 
Lloyd Anne - 
William John - 
Rees Morgan - 
Martin Hugh - 



Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 

Meline- P 



256 



Beynon Richard 



Meline- 



P 



Evan Thomas ap 



Meline- 



P 



David Evan - 



Meline- 



P 



Rees Luke- 



Meline- 



P 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is a resident clergyman. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day 
with food and Is a day on their own finding. The moral character is regarded as good. There are 
three resident land proprietors and ten farmers paying over £100 per annum but no day school 
provision for education of the poor of but almost all go to Sunday school. Many of the population 
cannot read and write. 

Parish of Meline Pontgynnon Day School On the 29* of January I visited the above school . It 
was held in a room which formerly had been a cottage , but had lately been converted into an 
Independent chapel. It contained no manner of school furniture. The children when they wrote, 
were obliged to kneel and write on the benches. At one end of the room was a large heap of turf. I 
heard 14 read the 1" chapter of St Marks Gospel to the master. The children made several false 
pronunciations, which the master left unnoticed. There was problems with general knowledge 
questions but most simple arithmetic questions were answered correctly. David Lewis Assistant 

Sites of Interest 

RCAM 
Bedd yr Afanc 

An oval grass grown mound 70ft by 27ft and 2ft high, placed on the northern slope of Prescelly, 
half a mile south east of Brynberian. The mound lies due east and west, and just visible in the turf 
upon it are some 25to 30 stones, forming an oval slightly less in size than the mound itself. There is 
little doubt that it is sepulchral in origin and purpose. The surface is much disturbed -Visited 24* 
Septemberl914. 

Castell Llwyd 

A tongue shaped enclosure on the spur of a hill above the right bank of the river Nevern, which at 
this point forms the parish boundary between Meline and Nevern. On the south and west the steep 
slopes to the river constitutes the defences, and on the north two lines of markedly convex banks 
and ditches, which have been much disturbed. The inner ramoart has a length of 150ft height of 6ft, 
and a fall of 15ft to the bottom of a ditch; the outer line of much the same length is not of equal 
strength. The entrance was probably at the east end of the banks. The enclosed area has a length of 



257 



250 ft from north to south. The surface of the camp is irregular, and two or three low leaps of stones 
may mark the sites of hut circles. The point of the enclosure shows signs of scarping. The adjoining 
field to the south east is called Castell Bach, where are the remains of a small subsidiary earthwork 
of the same character as that just described - Visited 7^ August 1914. 

Pen y benglog Camp 

A promontory fort of triangular shape, distance about half a mile south east from Castell Llwyd. 
The spur of land known as Allt y Castell is defended by very steep slopes, that to the south being 
practically unscaleable. The defence to the north consists of a couble line of ramparts, each with a 
ditch now much silted up. The banks in places are almost 10ft high; both have been largely 
destroyed at the west, and much lower elsewhere. The enclosed area had a length of some 150ft and 
a width of 100 ft -Visited 22°'' June 1920. 

Castell Mawr 

This earthwork is one of the largest in the county, the enclosed area being four acres. It stands on 
the sumitt of a hill 450ft above sea level, about half a mile south of the parish church, 500 yds east 
of Castell Llwyd, and a similar distance north of Pen y bnenglog. The defence consists of a circular 
rampart and ditch. The bank rises to a heigth of 8ft and falls 15ft to an almost obliterated ditch; it is 
built of dry stone walling largely hidden under ferm growth. There are east and west entrances 
opposite each other. They have a width of about 30ft, and, so far as the growth permits of 
observation, do not appear to have been mich altered. The interior, lOOfeet in diameter ,is divided 
diagonally by a bank which probably in part of the original plan. At neither end does it join the main 
rampart, a space of 20ft being left between them. The inner bank has a height of about 8ft and is of 
simmilar construction to the outer. The enclosure is known as Pare Castell, and the field 
immediately north west as Pare Gerreg Llwyd, the field of the grey stone. An iron spearhead , with 
a sharp spike fitting into a socket in the shaft, was ploughes up in the field south of the camp (Pern 
Arch Survey). Enquiries as to the whereabouts of this object have met with no success - Visited 7"* 
August 1914. 

St Dogmael's Well. 

Immediately outside the churchyard fence is a well which is known as Ffynnon Dogmael. The water 
for the church font was formerly taken from it, but no traditions of healing are attributed to the 
spring, and the well space precludes total immersion - Visited 17* June 1920. 

Ancient Trackway. 

In the sheet of the Survey of the county the editor, referring to the early trackway on Prescelly, 
observes: " Nowhere in the county of Pembroke can this old roadway be followed to better 
advantage— it is known by various names - Via Julia, Via Flandrica, and the Pilgrim's way - and 
consists herabouts of a raised bank about 10ft wide, with indications of a ditch on either side., it will 
be observed that the map maker has marked at intervals 'hole' 'picket and pile of stones'. The 
conclusion we arrived at respecting these was that the holes were of comparative recent 



258 



construction and made for the purope of cutting turf to drive off along the old track, but that they 
had been kept open and enlarged by the mountain sheep getting g in to scratch themselves and 
shelter from sun and wind. With regard to the piles of stones and 'pickets' it seems as if the earthen 
bank which formed the track had at some period been repaired with stone in considerable quantities, 
and that then the bank had again given way and exposed the heaps of stones which had been used to 
mend it" 

Garn Wen 

A cottage 300yds east of Pare y rhos House, and half a mile east of Br5aiberian Chapel. There is 
now no cairn, nor the tradition of one but the presence of much white quartz on the surface of the 
small enclosure probably marks the site of an early burial - Visited 24* September 1914. 

Pare y garn 

The third field east of Glan Duad Fach House. Ploughing has from time to time revealed much 
stone about its centre where it is locally said formerly stood a small mound, but of this there is now 
no sign on the surface. Visited 17^ June 1920. 

Rhos dywyreh Inseribed stone 

The residence near which the antiquary Lewis Morris mentions the presence in 1746 of an inscribed 
stone. His note runs "in a loose stone 4ft long in the parish of Melin, near Rhos Dowyrch, the seat 
of John Howells gent. Near a hill called Pen y Benglog, where there are old entrenchments, Mr 
David Lewis [of Pant y benne] found the following inscription 1746 (see Arch Camb 1896 pi 32) 

Carn Bresed, Carn Goediog, Carn Bica - 

Natural outcrops on Prescelly - Visited 22 September 1914. 
Urn 

In the course of quarrying at Dyffiyn in February 1925, an urn of somewhat unusual character was 
discovered. It was found inverted, and broken, but has been admirably restored at the National 
Museum of Wales, and is now in the Museum of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society. The urn 
is black in colour; 5 in high; diameter of mouth 4in of base 1 % in The workmanship is good. It 
appears to be of the cordon type, and probably dates from the later Bronze age. 

Finds 

Spear Head - 

In a field to the south of castle Mawr was ploughed up "an iron spear head, with sharp spike to fit 
into the socket in the shaft. Perhaps the weapon of a High Sheriffs javelin Man" (Pern Arch Survey) 

Spindle whorl. 

In 1914 a very perfect spindle whorl was dug up near Carn Alw on Prescelly; its flattened side was 
marked by two circular double lines, joined by cross lines. It came into the possession of a late vicar 



259 



of Eglwyswrw, and was seen on the 18"* June 1914, by our Assistant Inspecting Officer. Its present 
location is not known. 



RCAHMW 

Castell Mawr, Meline 

Castell Mawr is generally considered to be a later Prehistoric settlement enclosure, possibly of two 
phases, although it has been suggested that it is an earlier ritual or ceremonial henge enclosure 
reused in the Iron Age. The site was subject to partial geophysical survey in 1988. 

The monument occupies the gently rounded summit of a hill. It consists of a 1.3ha oval enclosure 
defined by: a slight inner bank; a broad and shallow ditch; a prominent outer bank, preserved as a 
hedgerow and apparently ditched. There entrances on the north-west and east. The interior is 
subdivided by a curving west-facing rampart and ditch cutting off the 0.7ha eastern part of the 
enclosure. No entrance between the two divisions has been identified. 

The character of the main enclosure, with a strong outer bank overshadowing the weaker inner 
bank, has prompted the suggestion that it represents a Neolithic henge. In support of this fiints have 
been found within the enclosure. However, the prominence of the outer bank may be a product of its 
reuse as a hedgebank and fiints continued to be used into the historic period. 
A tanged iron spearhead was found in the field to the south. 

Sources: Mytum and Webster 'Geophysical Surveys at Defended Enclosures (2003) - 
unpublished report 

Driver 'Pembrokeshire: Historic Landscapes from the Air' (2007), fig 69 
John Wiles 20.02.08 

Survey, geophysical prospection and excavation at the site in 2012 by Prof. Mike Parker-Pearson 
was linked to the possible Neolithic origins of the hillfort/henge and ongoing work at Craig 
Rhosyfelin quarry .T. Driver, RCAHMW 

Castell-Llwyd, Meline 

A 60m sweep of double bank & ditch, possibly fronted by a counterscarp bank, cuts off a 
promontory about 90m deep, there is a probable entrance at the east of the northern circuit: the 
interior has been disturbed by quarrying and possibly agriculture. J. Wiles 08.12.04 RCAHMW 



260 



Monington 



1811 Fenton Tours Monington 

I know not why so called in English. In Welsh Eglwys Wjrthwr, the Church of eight Men; for (to use 
George Owen's words) "about so many are there of freeholders in the parish" It is a manor, and one 
of the twenty knights' fee holden of Camaes. It first belonged to to the martins, then the Roches, 
then to the Lord of Twwyn, a descendant of the original native proprietors, who were dispossessed 
of it to make room for some Norman usurper. 

1839 Monington Lewis Topographical Dictionary of Wales 

MONINGTON, a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, 
South Wales, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Cardigan; containing 127 inhabitants. This place was by the 
Welsh called Eglwys Wj'thwr, signifying literally "the church of eight men," there being at the time 
of its foundation precisely that number of freeholders in the parish. It comprises but a moderate 
area, which is all inclosed and in a good state of cultivation; the surrounding scenery is not 
distinguished by any peculiar features, but the views from the higher grounds embrace some objects 
of interest. The living is a vicarage not in charge, united to the living of St. Dogmael's: the tithes 
have been commuted for £80, of which £45 are payable to the impropriator, and £35 to the vicar. 
The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is situated at the southwestern declivity of a lofty eminence. 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Nicholas Royal Commission of Ancient Monuments 

The present building, consisting of chancel, small nave and single bell-cote, contains nothing of 
antiquarian interest - Visited 29"^ July 1914 

The church warden's presentation of the year 1684 makes reference to the structure and fittings of 
the building which preceded the present one : " The church is in good repair, with cleanliness as 
becomes the house of God, saving 5^ the steeple is out of repair. A font with a good cover to it; a 
pulpit; but there is not a Bible of the last franslation; we have a Welsh Testament, a Book of 
Common Prayer and a book of homily, both in Welsh. No vicarage , nor glebe lands". 

1994 The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features 



261 



Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

Monington, St. Nicholas. 

This benefice was originally a curacy belonging to the vicarage of Llantood, which vicarage was 
appropriated to the abbey of St. Dogmaels. — Owen's Pern. 

The Uving is now a vicarage, and appears to have been united with St. Dogmaels and Llantood as 
far back as 1624. See under Llantood and also under St. Dogmaels. 
There appears to be no mention of this benefice in the Valor Eccl. 

Pembrokeshire Church plate J T Evans 

Momington or Eglwts Wvthwr (S. NICHOLAS, Norman; S. Gwythwr). — two-handled Chalice 
of plated metal. — A pewter Plate 9 in. in diameter by James Yates of Birmingham. 

Moninton Parish Hearth Tax 1670 



Rowland William 


Moninton 


H.2 


Lloyd Elizabeth 


Moninton 


H2 


George Henry 


Moninton 


H 


Phillip Lewis 


Moninton 


H 


Sambrooke John 


Moninton 


H2 


Proth[ero]Griffith 


Moninton 


P 


Richard Owen 


Moninton 


P 


James Edward 


Moninton 


P 


James Margarett 


Moninton 


P 


Hugh Evan 


Moninton 


P 


John Nickolas 


Moninton 


P 


Owen Phillip 


Moninton 


P 


Owen . John 


Moninton 


P 


Phillip James 


Moninton 


P 


David Morgan 


Moninton 


P 


Rees Owen 


Moninton 


P 



1851 St. Nicholas The Religious census of 1851 Monington Parish Church —return missing 



262 



1929 Parish entry for St Dogmael's with Llantwyd and Monington from The Welsh Church Year 
Book, 1929 St Thomas & St lUtyd (Llantwd) & St Nicholas (Monington) Incumbent and Curates; J 
G Hughes (L J Edwards) St 
Nicholas' Church, Monington 

St Nicholas' Church was built in 1860 to the designs of R.J. Withers of London. S.L. Evans 
RCAHMW 2009 
Nonconformist Chapels: 
None found 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d a day with food 
and Is a day on their own finding. The moral character is regarded as good. There is no resident 
land proprietor with day school provision for education of the poor of but almost all go to Sunday 
school. Many of the population cannot read ot write. 

Sites of interest - Royal Commission of Ancient Monuments 

An almost circular work situated at the meeting point of the three parishes of Monington, 
Moylgrove and st Docgmaels. It occupies a strong natural position above the Trewyddel brook. The 
enclosed rampart is practiacUy undisturbed, rising on the south to a height of 10ft, and fasUing 18 fit 
to the bottom of a ditch which is much obscured by vegetation. The interior has a length of 300ft 
from North to south and a width of 160 ft. The ebntrance is to the north east, where the rampart falls 
gently to the level. Its width is 20ft. In the south of the enclosure, close to the rampart, is a 
depression, which may be a hut circle or shelter. The field is known as Castell. Caerau, in the st 
Dogmael's parish is about half a mile distant to the north. — Visited 11* June 1914. 

Pare y Cromlech 

A field near Oen rhiw house half a mile north east of Monington parish church. The name is in 
common local use, although no traces remain of the cromlech which must have given rise to the 
designation, the second field to the south is called Pare yr arian, for which no explanation is 
forthcoming -Visited 24"^ July 1914. 



263 



Maen Saeson 

This is the name of a farm in the north of the pariash. In 1 899 the editor of the Pern Arch Survey 
could not find or hear of the maenhir to which the name appHes; it was probably destroyed when the 
farm house was built about the middle of the last century Visited July 1914 

Pare Castell 

A field about 500 yds south east of the parish church, bounded on the south by Nan Ceibwr, the 
parish boundary. The cottage is known as Castell Trefgjoi adjoins the field on the east. There are no 
traces of earthworks. — Visited 29^ July 1914 

Pantsaeson, Site Of Alleged Battle, Monington 

The Dyfed Archaeological Trust records suggest that a battle took place at this location in the early 
medieval period . No further information. B. A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 3 1 October 2006. 



264 



Morfil- Morvil 



1847 State of Education in Wales 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day with 
food and Is a day on their own finding. There is no resident land proprietor or day school 
provision for education of the poor. Many of the population cannot read or write. 

Now little Church and a farm but once, before the Normans, the head village of the cantref of 
Kemes. 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 

The rectory of Morvil was appendant to the manor of Maenclochog; the patrons in 1594 being 
Longville and James Lewis. — Owen's Pern. 

In 1291 this church, described as Ecclesia de Morvin, was assessed at £4 6s. 8d. for tenths to the 
king. — Taxatio. 

Morbylle. — Ecclesia ibidem ex presentacione domini de Ferrers unde Johannes NicoU est rector 
valet com-munibus aimis 40s. Inde decima 4s. - Valor Eccl 

Under the heading 'Livings Discharged': — ^Morvill R. (St. John Baptist). Dom. de Ferrers olim Patr.; 
Sir John Philips, Bart., 1715, 1730, 1745; Lord Milford, 1781. Clear yearly value, £8 10s Od. King's 
Books, £2. — Bacon 's Liber Regis. 

On 18 Nov., 1903, a faculty was obtained for the removal of a cottage. 

In a list of pilgrimage chapels, most of which, it is stated, were in ruins, occurs the name of 'Capell 
Bumagh in Morvill.' — Owens Pern. Vol. I. 

1397-8 January. 
Morvil 

licence on 4 January at Coventry in the year above said, nonresidence. 

The bishop granted to Thomas Brenles, rector of parish church of Moruile, of the diocese of St. 
Davids, in the service of Thomas Roche, patron of the church, licence of "non-residence" for one 



265 



year, and of letting his said church at farm to fit persons for the same time. 



The Parish Church Dedicated to St John the Baptist. 

The Church is modem, though possibly built upon the original foundations. Its only fitting with 
pretence to antiquity is the font bowl, which is 6 Vi in high and resembles a fragment of a 
circular column with the top hollowed out into a small orifice. Sin in diameter and 7 V2 in depth. 
There is no drain. It stands on a modem square base of brick. The date is uncertain, but it may 
safely be pronounced to be post Reformation, and it is probably a local production of the 18* 
century. Visited 20* October 1914. 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J.T. Evans 

Morvil (S. John the Baptist). — This parish retains its Elizabethan Chalice and Paten cover. There 
are two bands round the bowl, the upper of which, close to the Lip, interlaces four times and 
encloses the usual woodbine foliation. Within the lower band is the following inscription " 
POCVLVM ECLESIE DE MORVILL". Between each word is a graceful spay of foliage 
omamentation. The knop on the stem is decorated with intermittent lines. The usual band of 
omamental moulding beneath the bowl and on the base is absent. The Paten cover is quite void of 
all embellishment but On its handle or foot is engraved the date " 1574". There are no hall marks on 
the Chalice but on its cover appears the small black letter 'r' for 1574, the leopard's head crowned, 
the lion passant, and the maker's mark A H in a plain oblong stamp. A Chalice and Paten cover by 
the same maker are found in Lympley Stoke, Wiltshire, dated 1577. 



Cross Incised Stone 

In the church yard is an erect stone having on the east face a small plain cross within a circle 6 Vi in 
in diameter. The circle is rudely formed and the cross arms are plain lines drawn from the 
centre to the circumference. The lower perpendicular arm id continued down the stem for a 
distance of 3 ins beyond the circle. The terminals are not expanded or omamented. The stone 
itself has a height above ground of 34 in, with a width of 15 ins and a depth of 1 1 in. - It has 
been used as a gatepost. 



Maen Morvil 

In the churchyard is an erect stone ,which is known locally by the name maen Morvil. It presents 
the appearance ofhaving been intendedfor a smallwheel cross, but left unfinished. The stone 
stands 50in above the ground. From a width of I9in at the top it gradually widens to 28in, and 
again contracts to 15in at mid geight from which it wiens out to its base. It has an average 
thicknessof 12 in - Visited 20* October 1914. 



266 



Clerffv 






1? ir»(^ ' 1 'h ^^r\t^ ri line 
JvlCC, 1 iicupiiilua 


1 671 


l^UldLC 


ri/UWalUIS, r'lIallCl&CU& 


1 609 

lyjyz, 


JvCC/LUl 


ivlCC, JH/ClWalU-Uo 


1 707 

i / u / 


l^UldLC 


l^nilir\r\G 'Tnr\'mEic 


1 714 


XvCi./ lUl 


jvice, ud viu. 


1 714 






1 71 S 


XVCC LiJl 


Mr! Ill T\Y\ O rl fWlTi Q C 


1 790 






1722 




A lllllipo, JClClllld. 


1 794 


V^UldLC 




1 7^1 




jjeynoii, j dines 




P (^r*'i'/^f 

JveLLOl 


JH/Vdllo, J_>/dViU 


1 / to 


V as^ylJK^uinJ JvCLLUl 


ijcynoii , jdmcs 


1 781 

1 / o 1 


\ / O / 7/J vHf "fl 1 1/* /~1 I j^r ^ M 1 

\ aL[nulUrul ueulnj 


/\yicWay , v^-Jidrica 


1 781 
1 / o 1 


P ili /"» /"X V" 

JveLLUl 


roiey , jonii 


1 788 
i / oo 


L^urdie 


Jj/VdllS , JOllIl 


1 700 


iveL Lor 


1— Ti rroT^n \A/i1 1 1 Qtn 

ni^^uii , vv iiiidiii 


1 70^ 


V^UldLC 


riiggon , Wllllanl 


1 801 




Jj/VdllO 5 JUllll 


1 804 
i out 


p ^^/^■f/^f 
xvec LUl 


rllggOIl , WUlldni 


1 804 


i^urdie 


r ugn , jonn 


1814 

i O It- 


i^urdie 


ri/vans , Jonii 


181^ 

ioi J 


vac [resignuiionj 


inoiiids , ri/iiucii 


1 81 '^ 
i O i J 


ivecior 


r ugn , jonn 


181/^ 
i o iO 


i^urdie 


Jenkins , Thomas 


1824 


Curate 


Davies , David 


1824 


Curate 


Griffiths , James Richard 


1832 


Curate 


Richard Griffiths , James 


1832 


Curate 


Hughes , John 


1834 


Curate 



Rector 



1851 Morvil Parish Church "The Parish has been much neglected and the Church is not yet in 
proper repair" Lleweljoi Lloyd Thomas, Rector, Newport Rectory, Haverfordwest 



1929 Parish entry for Morvil with Pontfaen and Llanychllwydog from The Welsh Church Year 



267 



Book, 

St John Baptist & Parish Church (Pontfaen) & St Benno(Llanychllwydog) Incumbent and Curates; 
M H Jones 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994. 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features 

(The church was rebuilt by a fairly well-known church-restorer E.H. Lingen Barker of Hereford in 
1885.) 

2010 Early Christian Sculptured Stone in Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro). Ruined Victorian Church on 
much older site - circular enclosure - definitely one - query two - early christian sculptured 
stones in graveyard. Mentioned by George Owen 1604. 

St John The Baptist's Church, Morvil 

Church, Consisting Of A Nave & Chancel. Associated With: Inscribed Stones RCAHMW J.Wiles 
11.0903 

2008 Derelict church at Morfil/Morvil 

Despite being rebuilt in the late C19 this little church is no longer in use, the windows boarded up 
and the graveyard overgrown. The gate carries the date 1922 and the last burial seems to have 
been in 1968. It is perched on a bank above the valley right beside Morvil farm in a remote 
location. 

According to Fishguard Church Magazine Morvil Church The church has been redundant and 
privately owned since 1985, when the congregation for monthly services amounted to six. 

Nonconformist Chapels: None found 

Some names associated with Morvil 
1397-8 January. 

Morvil 

licence on 4 January at Coventry in the year above said, nonresidence. 

The bishop granted to Thomas Brenles, rector of parish church of Moruile, of the diocese of St. 
Davids, in the service of Thomas Roche, patron of the church, licence of "non-residence" for one 



268 



year, and of letting his said church at farm to fit persons for the same time. 



1689 Lloyd Thomas died 1689 Morvil and Grove Pembroke 

son Thomas Lloyd of Grove Francis(Abra)Phillip 

MorvU Hearth Tax 1670 



Edward William 


Morvil 


H2 


Llewhelin Jenkin 


Morvil 


H 


Gw)^er Owen 


Morvil 


H5 


Young David 


Morvil 


H 


John Thomas 


Morvil 


H2 


Morice Richard 


Morvil 


H 


John Gwenllian 


Morvil 


P 


Edward Rees 


Morvil 


P 


Daniell Walter 


Morvil 


P 



Sites of Interest 

Mynydd Morvil Barrow Cemetery 

What appears to be a barrow cemetery on Mynydd Morvil, noted through aerial survey. 
2000. 1 1 .20/RCAHMW/DKLI 

CasteU RCAM 

The Ord Survey maps indicate the site of an earthwork marked "CasteU" on Mynydd Morviljust 
above the pass known as Bwlch wjoiiad. No certain trace of this construction can now be made 
out,the mountain being heavily clothed with undergrowth. Above twenty years ago the Pern 
Arch Survey reported of the antiquity "So little of the earthwork now remains that its 



269 



dimensions could not be traces. There appears to be the remains of a small cairn within the 
lines of the enclosure". The word "castell" is still used by the natives for this wild tract,and 
local tradition speaks of a battle having been fought here. The site is probably the scene of a 
sharp skirnish between Martin de Turribus and the Welsh which took olace at or near Morvil a 
few days after the landing of Martin at Abergwaun or Fishguard, when the natives were 
repulsed and pursued by the Normans at Abergwaun across the Prescelly hills - Visited 20"* 
October 1914 - Fenton Tour p522 

Castell, Mynydd Morvil 

At the site of an earthwork marked 'Castell (Site of)' by the Ordnance Survey on Mynydd Morvil at 
SN 03355 31505, there are no remains. However a 60m-diameter semi circular enclosure bank, 
with traces of a ditch is visible some 100m to the south. Remains of medieval settlement 
elements to the east have been linked to it, but this may be an Iron Age defended enclosure, 
possibly the one said to have held the remains of a small cairn in about 1900. Local tradition 
speaks of a battle having been fought here 

Sources: OS 495 card: SN03SW10; RCAHMW Pembrokeshire Inventory, 1925, no.715. 
J. Wiles, RCAHMW, 15.03.2002 & B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 31 October 2006. 

Morvil Churchyard Pillar Stones 

In Morvil churchyard two pillar stones bearing incised crosses, 0.9m & 1.4m high respectively. The 
higher stone is known as Maen Morvil. RCAHMW J. Wiles 1 1.0.03 

Mynydd Morvil Field System 

Extensive field system, principally recorded by aerial photography, chiefly characterised by close- 
set ridge and furrow, which extends across most of Mynydd Morvil. At the grid reference of the 
record, are earlier curvilinear banks underlying the more regular Enclosure-act boundaries. The 
field systems may include prehistoric or Romano-British elements. RCAHMW T Driver 

Mynydd MorvU, Site Of Battle 

"The Ordnance Survey maps indicate the site of an earthwork marked 'Castell' [nprn 304369] on 
Mynydd Morvil, just above the pass known as Bwlch wyniad . . . local tradition speaks of a 
battle having been fought here. The site is probably the scene of the sharp skirmish between 
Martin de Turribus and the Welsh which took place at or near Morvil a few days after the 
landing of Martin at Abergwaun or Fishguard, when the natives were repulsed and pursued by 
the Normans across the Prescelly hills. - Visited, 20th October, 1914." 



270 



Source: RCAHMW, Pembrokeshire Inventory, 1925, ii, no.715. 
B.AMalaws, RCAHMW, 01 November 2006. 

Mynydd Morvil Settlement 

Upstanding remains of earthwork settlement, comprising circular hut footing, with the partly 

plough-denuded remains of polygonal fields alongside. The whole is crossed by historic ridge 
and furrow, but there are also cultivation ridges in the smaller field enclosure which may be 
contemporary. 

Part of a wider landscape of well preserved defensive and agricultural earthworks which 
survive on Mynydd Morvil and which are not (2006) scheduled. T. Driver 

Fagwyr Goch: "RedwaUs" RCAM 

This is a site on a farm of the same name at the foot of the spur of Prescelly known as Pen Palis. 
George Owen ,whomust have known it well,refers to it under its name as follows"At Rewalls a 
markett on Mundays.,a faire in vigilia festo et crastino Sti Edmondi Regis , wch. is IQJunij" 



271 



Moylegrove 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is a resident clergyman. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day 
with food and Is a day on their own finding. The moral character is regarded as good. There is a 
resident land proprietor and one farmer paying over £100 per annum rent but no day school 
provision for education of the poor . Many of the population cannot read or write. 

Parish of Moylgrove Village Day school On the 26* of January I visited the above school. It was 
held in a loft over a stable belonging to the Independent chapel at Molygrove. The children were not 
examined. The room was a wretchedly low place, and the furniture in very bad repair. He took me 
to see the stable underneath which was in a most filthy condition. The master had been a 
gentlemans servant, but having met with an accident, had taken to schoolkeeping. He told me that a 
farmer in that neighbourhood gave him his board and lodging for educating his children David 
Lewis Assistant 

1603 George Owen (original spelling) 

Moelgrove in englishe but as I guesse more properlie called Malltes grove for I find yt in laten 
called grana Maltildis; and allthoughe now there be noe signe of wood yett do I finde that all 
the demesne landes wch belonged to the manor being CC(200) englishe acres was in auncient 
tjmies all wood & aforest in some sort priviledged.In welshe yt is called Trewithell the Irishe 
mans towne. The Rectorie is an Impropriarion percell of St Dogmells & is the kinges ma'ts 
Inheritence valued at £vi xiiis iiiid.The Cure is discharged by a vicar being of the king guift & 
is valued at xis but because for many yeres past the Cure of bayvill a litle parishe adiojoiing 
hath ben cast upon that vicar,also the fruites being smale &both Cures troblesome the same is 
comitted by sequestracion by the ordynarie tosome maister adioyning for that it is not worthe 
the travelling toLondon for a presentation. This inconvenience oflmpropriations not onlie in 
this parishe but in many other parishes of this sheere to the starving of many soules where the 
farmers take the fruites and the people leftto seeke the lorde as they may or list. They helde in 
old tyme St David for their holie patronn. 

1839 Moylgrove Topographical Dictionary ofWales Lewis 

MOYLGROVE, a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, 

South Wales, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Cardigan; containing 453 inhabitants. This parish, which 
by the Welsh is called "Tre-Wyddel," is situated on the coast, in the north-eastern part of the 
county, and comprises a moderate extent of arable and pasture land, all inclosed and cultivated. 
The scenery is not characterised by any peculiar features, and the s over the adjacent country 
are destitute of interest. In general the shore is abrupt and rugged, with a good depth of water. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the discharged vicarage of Baj^ill, and endowed 
with £600 royal bounty. The church, dedicated to St. Andrew, stands about a quarter of a mile 
from the village, on the left bank of a stream which falls into the sea at no great distance: it is 
not remarkable for any architectural details. There is a place of worship for Independents, in 
which a Sunday school is also held. Near the sea, on Treriffith farm, is a well termed in Welsh 



272 



"Fjomon Alem," and in English "Alem's Well;" the water is a strong chalybeate, and is 
considered efficacious in several diseases. 

Remains of an iron age camp and a Bronze age burial mound. 

Set deep in the valley which runs out to the coast at Ceibwr, the village is full of character. The 
architecture is a mixture of ancient and modem. So many of the cottages are holiday homes that the 
village almost dies in the winter. Ceibwr is a pretty bay, but there is no sandy beach and very little 
parking. 

Matilda, daughter of a Welsh Chieftain owned 230 acres of land, here she married Robert Fitz 
Martin of Nevem, and the village is said to be named after her. 

Nearby Ceibwr Bay ships used to discharge cargoes of Lime and culm and contraband. 
The Pembrokeshire Coast National Parli by Dillwyn Miles. 

This village of a few cottages and two chapels lies deep in a valley. Its name first appears as "grava 
Matildis", the grove of Matilda, who was the wife of Robert Fitzmartin, the Norman invader of 
Cemais. 

The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994. 

Church on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lack old features 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 

Moylgrove vicarage was in 1594 held with Bayvil, and was then in the patronage of the Crown, 
having formed part of the possessions of the dissolved abbey of St. Dogmaels. — Owen's Pern, 



273 



In 1291 this church, described as Ecclesia de Guava Matilda, was assessed at £4 for tenths to the 
King. — Taxatio. 



Moilegrove. — Vicaria ibidem ex collacione dicti abbatis [de St. Dogmaele unde Thomas Lloid est 
vicarius valet communibus annis dare 40s. Inde decima 4s. — For extract from Bacon's Liber 
Regis, see under Bayvil. 



On 7 April, 1899, a faculty was obtained for the removal of the buildings on Mountbach on glebe 
lands belonging to this living, situate in the parish of Mount, Cards. 



Moylgrove, 

The Religious census of 1 85 1 Moylgrove Parish Church, consolidated with the Parish Church of 
Baj^il David Evan Morgan, Vicar 

The Welsh Church Year Book, 1929 St Andrew Incumbent and Curates; J L Davies 
Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 

Moylgrove — An Elizabethan Chalice identical in shape and ornamentation with that at Amroth. 
The only mark is the maker's Q . Height, 6 in, depth of bowl, 3 in.; weight, 10 oz. The seomd 
band on the bowl encloses the following inscription " POCVLVM • ECLESIE + 
DE+BAYVYL AND MOYLGROF". In 1879 the parish of Bayvil was separated from 
Moylgrove and joined to that of Nevem. In course of repairing, this cup has been artificially 
weighted by means of a plug of wood and a copper plate which have been inserted into the foot 
and stem. The cover is missing. 

A Chalice, Credence Paten and Flagon of elecfro-plate, each piece having the sacred monogram 
engraved within a rayed circle and inscribed " From Miss Phillipps To Moylgrove 1883". 

The parish also possesses an old pewter Plate and a pair of small pewter Candlesticks. The plate is 
stamped with the name french with a fleur-de-ljrs beneath. A London pewterer, John French, 
flourished about the year 1687, but a harp and not a fleur-de-lys is given as his mark. 



274 



Clergy Moylgrove Parish Church, with Bayvil 



Powell, John 


1549 


Vicar 


Llewelyn, Roderick 


1582 


Vicar 


Miles, Henry 


1 /T^ 1 

1661 


Vicar 


Rees, Griffinus 




Curate 


Parry, David 


1714 


Curate 


Evans, David 


1/16 


Curate 


Jivans, uaviQ 


i /zu 


uuraie 


Lewis, Richardus 


1 z 

1725 


Curate 


Lewis, Richardus 


1 o 

1728 


Curate 


Gwynn, Morgan 


1 Tin 
1 /39 


Vicar 


uriiiim, UaviQ 


^ n A o 

1748 


Curate 


Thomas, Robert 


1/51 


Curate 


Gwynne , Morgan 


1 lOJ 


\2iQ'(natural dei 


Walters , Lewis 


1 no^ 

1783 


Vicar 


Walters , Richard 


179U 


Curate 


Walters , Lewis 




Vicar 


Walters , James 


1 OA/C 

1806 


Curate 


Williams , Morgan 


18U9 


Curate 


Walters , Lewis 


18U9 


'Vac(natural dei 


Harries , David 


1 OAn 

1809 


Curate 


Davies , Daniel 


1 ono 

iouy 


Vicar 


Williams , Morgan 


1814 


Curate 


Williams , Morgan 


1816 


Curate 


Harries , David 


1817 


Curate 


Williams , Morgan 


1817 


Curate 


Harries , David 


1817 


Curate 


Williams , Morgan 


1817 


Curate 


Grey Hughes , William 1819 


Curate 


Evan Morgan , David 


1822 


Curate 


Davies , David 


1822 


Curate 


Morgan , David Evan 


1822 


Curate 


Evan Morgan , David 


1830 


Curate 



275 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

Tabernacl Welsh Baptist chapel, Moylegrove village Built 1894 Still open 1998 



Bethel , in Moylegrove village [Independents, cause began c 1690, date of original chapel not 
known, rebuilt c 1850-75]. Built before 1800 possibly 1691, restored during the Victorian era 
still open Dec 2006 



Moilgrove Parish Hearth Tax 1670. 



Richard William 


Moilgrove 


H 


Lloyd Jenkin 


Moilgrove 


H 


Gwjome Owen 


Moilgrove 


H 


Griffith William, miller 


Moilgrove 


H 


Evans Thomas 


Moilgrove 


H 


Bowen Elizabeth 


Moilgrove 


TT 
M 


David Katherine 


Moilgrove 


H 


Lewis Sage. 


Moilgrove 


H 


Griffith Morice 


Moilgrove 


H 


Griffith John 


Moilgrove 


H 


Evan John 


Moilgrove 


H 


James John. 


Moilgrove 


H 


Thomas . Lewis 


Moilgrove 


H 


Phillipps Lewis 


Moilgrove 


H 


Griffith William 


Moilgrove 


H 


Davenant James 


Moilgrove 


H 


William Evan 


Moilgrove 


H 



276 



Francis James 


Moilgrove 


H 


Tucker Anne 


Moilgrove 


H2 


Lloyd .Evan Bowen 


Moilgrove 


H 


Beynon John 


Moilgrove 


H 


Miless Henry clerk 


Moilgrove 


P 


Robert Jane 


Moilgrove 


P 


Lloyd Morgan 


Moilgrove 


P 


Young Rees. 


Moilgrove 


P 


Lloyd Katherine 


Moilgrove 


P 


Richard J ane 


Moilgrove 


P 


David Thomas 


Moilgrove 


P 


Thomas Evan 


Moilgrove 


P 


Richard William 


Moilgrove 


P 


Morgan Owen 


Moilgrove 


P 


Thomas Thomas 


IVToil prove 


p 


Francis David 


Moilgrove 


P 


Rees Jennett 


Moilgrove 


P 



Sites of Interest 
Caerau, Moylgrove 

Caerau is a multivallate - many walled - later Prehistoric type settlement enclosure occupying the 
brow of a prominent south-west facing hill spur overlooking the Moylgrove valley. Several 
slab-lined graves were discovered here in the nineteenth century and the site was subject to 
partial geophysical survey in 1989. 

The enclosure is defined by three roughly concentric rings of greatly degraded ramparts, now 



277 



mostly reduced to scarps, with 10-30m intervals. The inner encloses an area of 0.7ha and the 
outermost 2.3ha. There are some indications of a south-west facing entrance. The geophysical 
survey identified the ramparts as 5. 0-5. 5m wide bands with only slight indications of ditches. It 
seems likely that these were massive drystone walls. 

The grave reported in 1864 lay between the second and third rampart on the east side. The 
earlier finds appear to have been made to the north, south and east of this spot. One grave 
contained a hammer and cutlass. Burials such as these are characteristic of the late Roman to 
early Medieval period. They might represent a re-use of an earlier settlement site or else have 
been contemporary with its use. Sources: Vincent in Archaeologia Cambrensis 3rd series 10 
(1864), 299-306 

Mj^tum & Webster 'Geophysical Surveys at Defended Enclosures ..." (2003) - unpublished 
report 

John Wiles 20.02.08 



Moylegrove Mining 

Un-named mine. SN 1 15.449. Shaft in field on southwest side of Cwm Trewyddel, above sewage 
treatment works. No historical detail available. No surface features remain; filled 1940-45. 

Un-named mine. SN 123.448. Three trial adits on south bank of Nant Ceibwr, 400 yards upstream 
from old smithy. No historical detail available. Two of the adits have collapsed; one is open, 
driven as a crosscut through mineralised fault fissure and a short distance along fissure east and 
west. 



278 



Mynachlogddu 



In Preselly's surrounded by bleake moorland.a pastoral community once belonging to St Dogmaels. 
A little hamlet in the heart of the Presely Hills, surrounded by bleak moorlands, forestry plantations 
and stony barren hiils. Above the hamlet are the rocky cracts of Carn Meini (the supposed source of 
the Stonehenge bluestones, and a little way to the west is the simple memorial to Waldo Williams, 
one of Permbrokeshire's best known Welsh poets. 

1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

we approach Monachlogddu, the landscape assumes a thoroughly Welsh appearance. A clear trout- 
stream, that comes rippling and dancing down the glen from the dark brown ridge of the moorlands, 
is here put to turn the wheel of a little flannel-mill. In response to our request, the goodman 
describes in broken English the simple processes of manufacture, and explains the movements of 
his archaic machinery. Then, after a glance at the lowly parish church, dedicated to St. Dogmael, we 
bid adieu to the village of the Black Monastery, and take to the road. 



1839 Mynachlogdu (Monachlog-Du Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 



MYNACHLOGDU (MONACHLOG-DU, a parish, in the union of Narberth, hundred of Kemmes, 
county of Pembroke, South Wales, 10 miles (N. by E. from Narberth; containing 487 inhabitants. 
This parish is situated on the eastern side of the county, bordering upon Carmarthenshire, and is 
bounded on the north by the parishes of LlanvairNantgwyn, Whitechurch, and Meliney; on the east 
by those of Llanvyrnach and Llanglydwen; on the south by Llandissilio; and on the west by 
Llangolman. It contains by computation an area of 4050 acres, of which 1850 are arable, 400 
pasture, and 1 800 mountainous and boggy, with little or no woodland. A great portion is occupied 
by part of the Percelly mountain; the remainder is inclosed, the soil being light, and producing crops 
of barley and oats, but no wheat. There are two slate-quarries, two mills, and a small woollen 
manufactory. The Eastern Cleddy river has its source here, and is joined at the extremity of the 
parish by two brooks named Glandy and Wem. The living is a curacy, endowed with £1000 royal 
bounty; present net income, £180; patron. Lord Milford: the tithes have been commuted for a rent- 
charge of £52. 10., payable to the curate. The church, dedicated to St. Dogmael, and situated at the 
extremity of the parish, was once connected with a monastery, and is capable of containing 2000 
persons, but without seats: it is not remarkable for any architectural details, and has been left in a 
very neglected state. There is a place of worship for Baptists; and two Sunday schools are held, one 
of them by the Baptists in their meeting-house, and the other by the Independents in a farmhouse. 



1291 The Monastic Order in South Wales 1066 -1348 F G Cowley 

St Dogmael's priory was founded by Robert fitz Martin 1113- 1115 it became an abbey 1 120 
279 



belonging to St Dogmael's 

Mynachlog-ddu church belonged to St Dogmael's priory and had a value of £2 13 4d in 1291 



The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park by Dillwyn Miles 

The name means "the Black Monastery", so called because its manor was granted by Robert 
Fitzmartin, lord of Cemais, to the Abbey of St Dogmael's and the inhabitants of a part of St 
Dogmael's had a right of summer grazing for their cattle here. There is no evidence that there was a 
monastic settlement in the vicinity if this bleak moorland hamlet. 

Thomas Rees otherwise Twm Camabwth, leader of the first Rebecca Riot lies buried at Bethel 
Chapel graveyard. 

1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Walesdescribed Mynachlog Ddu. 

MONACHLOGDDU, a parish in Narberth district, Pembroke; under Precelly mountain, at the head 
of East Cleddan river, 6V2 miles N of Narberth-Road r. station, and 9/4 N of Narberth. Post town, 
Haverfordwest. Acres, 6,166. Real property, £1,364. Pop., 471. Houses, 107. The property is much 
subdivided. Much of the land is waste. The living is a p. curacy in the diocese of St. David's. Value, 
£129. Patron, Lord Milford. 



The Parish Church dedicated to St Dogmael. Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 




280 



This church was appropriated to the Benedictine priory of St Dogmael; hence its name of 
Mynachlog Ddu, the church of the Monastery of Black Monks. In the taxacio of 1291 it is described 
as Capella de Nigra Grangea. It consists of nave 35ft by 14ft and north aisle 38ft by 12 % ft; there 
is no structural division between nave and chancel.the roof, windows and much of the walls are 
modem on consequent upon a thorough restoration in the year 1889. The aisle is divided from the 
nave by an arcade of three bays, with plain masonry piers; the arches are plain pointed. In the north 
wall of the aisle is a low doorway 2 Vi ft wide, 4 Va ft to the spring of the arch and 5 Va ft to the 
crown. The doorway at the west end of the nave has a similarly pointed arch. On either side of the 
communion Table at a height of 2ft from the ground is a corbel or bracket probably of 14* century 
date to which the nave in its original state belonged , the north aisle being a century later. At the east 
end is a plain aumbry. The font measures 22 Vi in bt 19 Vi in externally and 17 in by 15 in 
internally; it is plain, and chamfers off to a modem base -Visited 7"* June 1915. 

The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 1994 

St Dogmael's 

This disused church has a main body probably of the 13c with a 15c south aisle with a three bay 
arcade on octagonal piers 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 

Theis benefice originally a curacy belonging to the abbey of St. Dogmaels, and on the dissolution of 
that house came into the hands of the King, by whom it was leased on 12 May, 1537, to Morgan 
Johnes of Llaugadock, Carms. — State Papers. 

In 1594 the advowson was bought by .... Eliot. — Owen's Pern. 

Described as Capella de Nigra Grangea, this church was in 1291 assessed at £2 I3s. 4d. for tenths to 
the King. — taxatio. 

There is no separate valuation of this benefice in the Valor Eccl, the only reference to it being the 
following entry in the list of property held by the abbey of St. Dogmaels: — ^Manoghloke Duy per 
annum eum proficuis libete capelle ibidem £viij xvs vid. 

Under the heading ' Not in Charge ': — ^Monochlogddu Cur. (St. Dogmael. Abb. St. Dogmael Propr.; 
Lord Milford. — Bacon's Liber aegis. 

On 3 Dec. 1888, a faculty was obtained for the removal of 2 cottages belonging to this living. 

George Owen in his list of pilgrimage chapels, most of which were in mins, mentions the names of 
two, called respectively Capell Cawey and Capell St. Silin, in this parish. — Owen's Pern 1603., 

RCAM Old Churches 1914 

George Owen in his list of churches - most of them in mins - in connection with which the 
remembrance of pilgrimage survived in his day, mentions the name of two in this parish called 



281 



respectively Capel Cawey and capel St Silin or Giles. The Pern. Arc. Survey visitors "could find no 
trace of the old grange where there was a chapel of St Giles. The only suggestion of antiquity was 
an old foundation at the back of a small cottage,now used as a store room close to the gate of the 
churchyard. This foundation may, however , have been merely that of an old hedge". Our Inspector 
was equally unsuccessful. 

1851 Monachlogddu Parish Church David Thomas, Curate, 

1929 St Dogmael & St Colman (Llangolman Incumbent and Curates; W Evans 
Clergy 



Philipps, Thomas 


1720 


Curate 


Prothero, James 


1747 


Curate 


Philipps , Edward 


1765 


Curate 


Phillips , Edward 


1776 


Vac resignation Curate 


Griffiths , John 


1788 


Curate 


Morse , Stephen 


1793 


Curate 


Jenkins , John 


1799 


Curate 


Jenkins , John 


1802 


Curate 


Morse , Stephen 


1804 


Curate 


Foley , John 


1822 


Curate 


Evans , Stephen 


1823 


Curate 


Evans , Stephen 


1824 


Curate 


Morse , Stephen 


1824 


Vac natural death Curate 


Brigstocke , Thomas 


1824 


Curate 


Griffiths , Rees 


1825 


Curate 



282 



Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 



Mynachlogddu — A two-handled pewter Chalice, 8 in.in height; diam. of bowl, 3 in.; depth, 4 in. 
Underneath is engraved "97 James Dixon & Sons 906". 

A Plate, 9f in. in diameter, bears the same maker's mark. 

There is also another pewter Plate, on the rim of which is inscribed "Benj Derham Churchwarden 
1720". It bears the following marks, — " John Shorey "; London ; in a shaped punch, a bird on a 
rose. Col. John Shorey was Upper Warden of the Pewterers' Company in 1720. Beneath is also 
engraved the name " Beckford". It is evident that this plate has been unlawfully alienated from the 
Gloucestershire parish of that name. 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

Bethel [Baptists, 1794]. 

Bethel Sunday School, Mynachlog-Ddu 

The Sunday School at Mynachlog Ddu was built as a chapel in 1794 and rebuilt in 1821. The later 
chapel was built in the Vernacular style with a gable entry plan. 1 85 1 Walter Davies, Baptist 
Minister. 

In 1 875 it was replaced by a new chapel built alongside and the old chapel converted for use as a 
Sunday School. RCAHMW, May 201 1 

Bethel Welsh Baptist Church, Mynachlog-Ddu 

Bethel Baptist Chapel was first built in 1794, restored in 1821 and rebuilt in 1875. The earlier 
chapel of 1794 was retained and converted to a Sunday School (NPRN12146) This chapel, dated 
1875, is built in the Romanesque style with a gable entry plan, two storeys and tall round-headed 
windows.Still open 1998 RCAHMW, November 2010 

Capel Bach (Capel Cawey ?, M5aiachlog-ddu demohshed by 1914 (no denomination shown) 



Monachlogddy Hearth Tax 

Howell John Monachlogddy H 

Morice Rejoiald Monachlogddy H2 



283 



Bowen Lewis 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Morgan Phillip 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


Lewis Lewhwlin 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


David Griffith 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


William Llewhelin 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


Morgan Howel 


Monachlogddy 


H 


John Lewhelin 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Hugh Richard 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Thomas Griffith 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Lewis Evan 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


Thomas Owen 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


Thomas William 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Gibbin Richard 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Lewis Katherine 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Powell Rouland 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Jenkin Ruddrok 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Morice Richard 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


Morice Richard 


Monachlogddy 


Egloserrow H 


Phillip Phillip David 


Monachlogddy 


H 


James Lewis 


Monachlogddy 


H 


Thomas Maude 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


Bevan David 


Monachlogddy 


H2 


Hugh Richard 


Monachlogddy 


H 


David Thnma^i 


IVTon a f*h 1 n ctH H V 


p 


Beavan William 


Monachlogddy 


P 


William Thomas 


Monachlogddy 


P 



284 



John Hugh 


Monachlogddy 


P 


John Lawry 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Pugh John, 


Monachlogddy 


P 


David Gwynllian widow 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Hugh Rees 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Griffith Thomas 


Monachlogddy 


P 


David James 


Monachlogddy 


P 


John Mary widow 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Evan Anne 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Llewhwlin Landilo 


Monachlogddy 


P 


John Jennet widow 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Jenkin David 


Monachlogddy 


P 


David Rees 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Lewis David 


Monachlogddy 


P 


John Morice 


Monachlogddy 


P 


David James weaver 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Tnhn Rpp^ roHl pt 


IV'Tnn a ph 1 n otI H V 


p 


Hugh Rees labourer 


Monachlogddy 


P 


Lewis Margarett 


Monachlogddy 


P 



Education 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day with 

food and Is a day on their own finding. The moral character is regarded as good. There is no 
resident land proprietor or day school provision for education of the poor . Many of the population 
cannot read or write. 

Schools 



285 



There was a school in Bethel vestry before the village school was erected in 1903. This 
school was closed in 1995 

Industry 
Slate Quarry's 

19c slate quarrying opened up. Cwarre'r Mynydd is said to have been one of the first, Tyrch Quarry 
in Mynachlog-ddu which survived until after the Great War 

Tyrch Quarry RCAHMW 

A main opencast, c.55m by 40m, set into a S-facing hillside, within an area of spoil dumps, c. 1 80m 
NE-SW by 140m. Two linear quarries are also apparent, that to the South possibly being an earlier 
feature. At least 4 stone-built rectangular structures, c.4.5m by 3.0m appear in the area of spoil, with 
a larger struture, c.lOm long, set by the linear quarry to the S. 
RCAHMW J. Wiles 09.09.03 



Cwm-Isaf;Cwm Isaf Woollen Factory, Pont Mynachlog-Ddu RCAHMW, 

At Cwm-isaf is a former water-powered woollen factory. The two-storey stone building has an 
overshot waterwheel on its eastern gable, 3.658m (12ft) diameter and 1.118m (3ft 8in) wide over 
shrouds, marked "D. DAVIES PENRALLT". Although now devoid of any internal machinery, 
except for a short length of line shafting and some belt pulleys, the factory was apparently in use as 
recently as the 1950s. The water supply leat was some 170m long, taking water from the Afon 
Wem. Adjacent to the building on the east side was a sawmill, presumably powered by the 
waterwheel, now demolished except for the north wall. B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 19 April 201 1. 

Felin Dyrch, Mynachlog-Ddu RCAHMW, 

Felin Dyrch is a former corn mill, served by a leat some 540m long from the Afon Cleddau Ddu. 
The single-storey stone building has a small, all-iron overshot waterwheel, 0.946m (3ft l%in) wide 
on the north gable. The intemal pit wheel meshed with a bevelled stone nut which drove a single 
pair of millstones from below. The mill is shown as working on the 1889 and 1907 Ordnance 
Survey 25 in maps but it is not known when it went out of use. 
B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 19 April 2011. 

Mining Mynachlogddu 

Un-named Mine SN 171.340. Trial adit 250 yards south of Fron las uchaf farmhouse, probably for 
silver-lead. No historical detail. Adit appears to have collapsed; source of water for farm. 

Un-named Mine SN 165.339. to 165.342. Four trial adits on east side of valley quarter mile west of 
Fron las isaf. No historical detail. All collapsed, although that at southern end appears to be used for 
water abstraction. 



286 



Sites of Interest 

Cam Meini site of Blue stones 
memorial to Waldo Williams (Welsh Poet} 
Croes Mihangel Tumulus 

All that remains of this tumulus is the base, which has itself been so much disturbed as to make it 
difficult to trace the outline of the mound in the growth under which it is hidden. The tumulus 
doubtless derives its appellation of the "Croes" from a wayward cross which may have stood on or 
near the spot, and the suggestion is strengthened by the fact that the parish boundary passes over the 
site -Visited, IT^ September 1914 



Crug yr Hwch 

Faint fraces remain of this mound, which stood on the summit of the mountain land still known as 
Crug yr hwch, just above the 1000ft contour line. The Parish boundary passes over the site - Visited 
9* June 1915 

Crugiau Dwy 

This is the name given to two cairns which are placed on an outlying southern spur of the Prescelly 
range , the highest point of which is known as Mynydd Crugain Dwy. The more southerly cairn is 
actually within the parish of Llanfymach, The border fence passes between the Mounds . Within 
recent years both of these monuments have been robbed of much of their contents for road 
metalling. Their circumference at the base measures about 300ft. They are composed of small sized 
mountain gathered stones, though larger boulders may have been carried away. - Visited 9"* June 
1915. 

Mountain Cromlecli. 

When perfect this cromlech must have been a fine example of its class. Five supports remain, four 
being prosfrate and one leaning slightly over. The capstone is about 12ft in length; is partially 
concealed by a hedge which is carried over it. The remains stand in the centre of a low mound 
having a base circumference of some 270ft; but it is not clear whether the comlech was wholly or 
partially covered or merely stood upon the mound. It is asserted that this object of antiquity, which 
is known locally as Mountain Cromlech from the farm of that name , was deliberately destroyed. 
--Visited 22°" September 1914. 

Carn Arthur Bedd Arthur RCAM 

Both are naturaloutcrops of rock and of interest soley because of the name attatched to the spot. 
Cam Arthur is also known as Coitan Arthur which is said to have been hurled by the king from 



287 



Dyffiyn, in Henry's Moat parish, where is a circle. Bedd Arthur is on the southern edge of the 
ancient trackway along the summit of the Prescelly Hills which cross the north of this parish from 
east to west -visited 22°'' September 1914. 

The stones of the sons of Arthur 

Two erect stones standing 30ft apart, about 150 yds south east of Ty newydd farm house in Cwm 
Cerw5ai. They have a height above the ground of 75 and 80 in. - Visited 24* September 1914. 

Capel Bach 

In Cwm Cerwyn are the grass grown foundations of a building 35 ft long by 20ft broad, traditionally 
said to have been a chapel. The site is orientated. A break in the lines of foundations probably marks 
a north doorway. Built into the wall of the neighbouring cottage called Capel Bach, is a fragment 
30in by 1 1 in of the head of a two lighted trefoil window, which was discovered some years ago at 
the east end of the foundations -Visited 24* September 1914 - This may have been the chapel 
known to George Owen as Capel Cawey the latter word standing for Cerwyn. 

Waun Lwyd Standing Stones. 

Two erect stones 20ft apart, on the eastern boundary of Waun lwyd. They stand south-west and 
north-east and are 7ft and 9ft high respectively. On the same field Gwerglodd y maen are two other 
prostrate stones, in the line with those still standing; no rememberence or tradition exists that they 
have ever been erect. The position of the four stones suggests an an alignment, but there are 
numerous mountain boulders in the vicinity. The next field to the south is known as Pare y maen - 
Visited 9* June 1915. 

Gors Fawr Circle 

The following is extracted from a special survey of this monument made by Lieut Col. Morgan R.E. 
F.S. A., an Ex commissioner:- This collection of standing stones consists of a circle and two 

outstanding meini hirion , which are planted on a dreary common at the foot of the Prescelly Hills, a 
short distance from the main Haverfordwest- Cardigan toad. The diameter of the circle varies from 
72 to 75 ft, and the number off the stones is 16, of which three are prostrate. The stones are ice 
borne boulders, of which a great number are scattered over the common. Two have apparently been 
split, but probably by the force of nature and not by man. 

From the manner in which the prostrate stones have been covered by the growth of peat, it would 
appear that the standing stones must have been originally at least 1 !/2 ft fiirther out of the ground 
than they show at present 

Towards the north east are two outlying standing stones. The largest, the western one 150yds from 
the centre of the circle. Has an azimuth 15E; the second, a little further east and 45ft distant azimuth 
19E. The azimuth of the alignment is 59degrees 30 minutes. The western stone is 6ft 2in high3ft 
long in the direction of the alignment and 2ft thick. Itis a well shaped stone though undressed The 
eastern stone is 6ft 2in out of the ground but the soil around it has been excavated 1ft probably on 



288 



an attempt to remove the stone. It is 3ft wide in the direction of the alignment 18in deep on the 
eastern side tapering to a 6in point on the western side. These two stones are called an alignment, 
but it is very doubtful what they have been. They might have been part of a destroyed avenue, but 
the avenue delineated by Mr Bushell as running from the centre to these stones does not exist 
though there are so many stones lying about that short alignments and pointers can be seen in all 
directions . 

The meini hirion are too far north to have reference to the sun, and nothing can be deduced from the 
orientation of the circle. - Visited 24"* September 1914. 

Gors Fawr Standing Stones, Mynachlog-Ddu RCAHMW, 

Two erect monoliths, one 1.8m high, the other, 13.5m to the NE, 1.6m high. 

A pair of standing stones sharing similar characteristics to other standing stone pairs along the 

southern reaches of Mynydd Preseli. These appear to frame the distant Carn Menyn outcrop when 

viewed from Gors Fawr stone circle (NPRN 300422) but the alignment may be entirely 

coincidental. 

T. Driver, RCAHMW, 23rd June 2009. 
Gors Fawr Stone Circle RCAHMW 

On the bleak fringes of Gors Fawr bog is this near-perfect circle of sixteen stones measuring about 
22 metres in diameter. Eight of the stones are of spotted dolerite, the famous 'bluestone' sourced as 
being from the Cam Meini outcrops to the north. Recent geophysical survey by the SPACES 
project, searching for any buried structures which might lie hidden beneath the circle, revealed 
nothing. The conclusion is that this monument probably looks much the same today as it did to its 
late Neolithic or Bronze Age builders. Nearby is a pair of standing stones which appears to frame 
the distant Cam Menyn outcrop when viewed from the south-west. In his 1963 Shell Guide, Vyvyan 
Rees was unimpressed; 'Gors Fawr, the only recognisable stone circle left in the county, is very 
small beer'. It is, in fact, a remarkable survivor and one of the best of its kind to be seen in Wales. 
From Driver, T. 2006. Pembrokeshire: Historic Landscapes from the Air. RCAHMW, pl21 

PontHywel RCAHMW 

This is a road bridge over the Eastem Cleddau which here marks the border between 
Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. This was a rubble stone structure with two semi-circular 
arches separated by pointed a pointed cutwater. Iron railings had replaced the parapets(?). 
Traditionally the site of a medieval bridge, a plaque commemorated rebuilding in 1747. 
Source: NMR Holdings John Wiles 07.1 1.07 

Foel-Drych Cairn RCAHMW 

Aruined and mutilated cairn, c.l8-21m in diameter, upon and out of which, amodem sheep shelter 
has arisen. RCAHMW AP965008/59-62 J. Wiles 09.09.03 



289 



Crug-Yr-Hwch; Mountain Burial Chamber RCAHMW 

. The much ruined burial chamber at Mynachlog Ddu has a hedge passing through it. The capstone 
is fallen, and other stones are described as half buried, or semi-recumbent. There are traces of a 
circular mound, up to 0.7m high, to the west. J. Wiles 26.02.02 

2. 'A larger and impressive comlech, the capstone has slipped off the legs into a modem ditch...' 
(PAS, Pemb USE no. 7). A local writer in 1885 (quoted by Lewis 1969, 137) refers to this burial 
chamber as 'Llech y Gwyddon'. 

Although mentioned by both Grimes (1936a, no 30) and Daniel (1950, PEM 6), the first published 
plan of the monument is that by Frances Lynch (1972, fig. 9, 81-2). 'The site... is so ruined that 
nothing can be said about it beyond remarking on the size of the fallen supporters. One of these is 
over 3m long and three others are more than 2m... such a size would be appropriate to a Portal 
Dolmen, but it is impossible to attempt any kind of reconstruction'. The remnants of the ?round 
mound, c.0.6m high and 7m wide, are best seen on the east side of the hedge bank. 

Edited extract from Barker, 1992, The Chambered Tombs of South-west Wales, Oxbow Monograph 
14, p. 26 

Waun Lwyd Stones, Dolaumaen RCAHMW 

The two Waun Lwyd standing stones are 8.2m apart, with their flat faces aligned. The south-western 
stone stands 2.2m high, that to the NE 2.4m. There are hints of other stones in the vicinity extending 
the alignment, but these are problematic. J.Wiles 26.02.02 

Rhos Fach, Monument;Carreg Waldo RCAHMW 

Monolith visible on AP, identified as monument on OS 1 :50,000, presumed recent. 
RCAHW AP965009/41 J.Wiles 09.09.03 

A commemorative stone erected to celebrate the life and work of the poet Waldo Williams (1904- 
1971); comprised of a blustone monlith with a pohshed black granite plaque on its northern side. 
Source: Trysor Repot (TPAl 1/04) L. Moore, RCAHMW, 18th September 2012 

Bedd Arthur, Prehistoric Ritual Site RCAHMW 

1. A subrectangular enclosure 18m by 7.0m, formed of earthfast stones (having an average height of 
0.8m) backed by a low bank, surrounding a levUed interior. An explicitly ambiguous monument that 



290 



has only been compared to the 'Churchyard' on Skomer Island, (source Os495card; SN13SW10) 
J. Wiles 27.02.02 

2. The site is located ESE of Carn Bica and just to the north of a path across the mountain. It is 
defined by a setting of upright and fallen stones set within a sub-rectangular enclosure. 
D.K.Leighton 15 June 2007 

3. Survey work by Wainwright and Darvill for the SPACES project has compared the oval stone 
setting at Bedd Arthur to the first oval setting of Bluestone orthostats built at Stonehenge. Oval 
stone settings are a recognised form of monument in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages of Britain, but 
remain rare. T. Driver, RCAHMW, 28 Feb 2008. 

Carn Menyn Cairn RCAHMW 

A much ruined cairn set blow the westerly crags of Cam Menjoi. The cairn is a roughly circular 
heap of stones, about 15m in diameter and 1.5m high. It is much ruined and a 3.0m by 2.5m 
capstone is exposed at the centre along with the stones of a collapsed chamber.This appears to be a 
Neolithic or Bronze Age funerary monument, although a later date cannot be ruled out. It was re- 
planned by T. Driver in 1993 for an undergraduate dissertation with Southampton University and 
the plan is in NMRW archive. An extract from C. T. Barker from 1992 states 'Also known as Coetan 
Arthur... this disturbed cairn is c.l5m in diameter and c.l.5m high... its centre dominated by a 
large ?capstone 2.8m long, 2.5m maximum width, and 0.6m thick. Beneath the ?capstone are three 
fallen slabs of a size suitable for chamber orthostats.' 

Source: Barker, C.T. 1992, The Chambered Tombs of South-west Wales, Oxbow Monograph 14, site 
No. 46. T. Driver, RCAHMW, 29 Feb 2008. 



Carn Menyn 'BLUESTONE' Outcrops Of Spotted Dolerite;Carn Meini RCAHMW 

. Cam Menyn (singular, for the central, main outcrop) or Carn Meini (plural, describing all the 
outcrops). A series of natural outcrops of spotted dolerite ('bluestone') which naturally fragments 
into pillars, blocks and screes. Noted as a geological source of the stonehenge 'bluestones' but 
debate is still active as to whether the stones reached Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire through glacial or 
human agency. There is however evidence for quarrying on this outcrop Louise Barker, 
RCAHMW, 15th May 2006 

The Cam Meini outcrops on Mjmydd Preseli have become famous in archaeological literature as the 
geological source for the 'bluestones' used at Stonehenge in Wiltshire. The 1.5- to 1.8-metre (5- to 
6-feet) tall, narrow pillars formed a circle between the more massive Sarsen 'trilithons', or arches, 
which made up the main outer circle and the innermost stone settings. In 1923 petrological 



291 



examination confirmed the scattered outcrops of Cam Meini on the south-west of Mynydd Preseli 
as being the source of the distinctive blue-grey spotted dolerite with large white spots used in some 
of the earliest phases of the Stonehenge circles on Salisbury Plain. Indeed, a number of prehistoric 
monuments, including a ruinous cairn at Carn Menyn and Gors Fawr stone circle to the south, are 
also composed of this unusual rock. Early investigators concluded that the known superiority of this 
same spotted dolerite as a raw material for Neolithic stone axes could have sparked off the massive 
human effort necessary to move the stones. The suggested route would have seen the blocks sledged 
overland to the upper reaches of the Eastern Cleddau, thence by sea along the Bristol Channel to the 
River Avon, and fmally upstream to Stonehenge itself 

Some geologists and archaeologists have challenged this traditional view, proposing instead that 
glaciation, not human effort, carried the bluestones to Salisbury Plain. They cite finds of spotted 
dolerite in glacial erractics on Flat Holm and Steep Hohn in the Bristol Channel as evidence for this 
geological movement. In 2002 an ambitious new programme of survey was commenced for the 
prehistoric landscapes of Strumble and Preseli by Geoffrey Wainwright and Timothy Darvill. The 
Strumble-Preseli Ancient Communities and Environment Study (SPACES) increased the known 
number of prehistoric monuments on the ridge between Carn Sian and Foel Trigam by 300 percent, 
and its new surveys of famous individual sites, like Gors Fawr, have helped to forge new 
understandings about prehistoric life in these hills and valleys. The SPACES project found an 
intense concentration of activity at Carn Menyn, including prehistoric burial monuments and axe- 
flaking sites. Worked bluestone pillars have been found broken and abandoned in transit down from 
the outcrops. Although these are of Stonehenge dimensions, they remain difficult to date, especially 
as the outcrops provided durable, conveniently-sized blocks in modem times for lintels and 
hearthstones and were quarried for building stone for at least two nearby chapels. T. Driver, 
RCAHMW, 7th Dec 2010. 

Possibly associated with excavations of Neolithic rhyolite outcrops at Craig Rhosyfelin to the north 
T. Driver, RCAHMW 

Carn Meiiii;Carn Menyn RCAHMW 

There are a series of natural outcrops of spotted dolerite ('bluestone') which naturally fragments into 
pillars, blocks and screes. Noted as the geological source of the Stonehenge 'bluestones' but debate 
is still active as to whether the stones reached Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire through glacial or human 
agency. 

Survey work by Wainwright and Darvill in 2003 and 2004 for the Strumble-Preseli Ancient 
Communities and Environments project (SPACES) has identified possible sites of quarrying, or 
hollows from which loose blocks have been extracted, undated evidence for mining in the form of 



292 



deep cuttings resembling adits (in the eastern part of the Cam) and a possible axe flaking floor at 
the south-east foot of the Cam where there are intrasive outcrops of a rhyolite beneath the dolerite 
outcrops. Most interesting has been the identification of three or four large orthostats which appear 
to have been abandoned on the southern slopes below the Carns during transportation. All show 
signs of quarrying along one side, with the other sides retaining the natural, weathered stone 
surface. Some are propped up on other stones; one is split in two. It would appear from this 
evidence that blocks of spotted dolerite were being worked free from the outcrops at some point in 
the past, and dragged south from the outcrops towards the lowlands. Initial field visit by members 
of RCAHMW Survey Branch on 21st April 2004. 

Main reference: Darvill, T and Wainwright, G, 2002, SPACES - exploring Neolithic landscapes in 
the Strumble-Preseli area of southwest Wales, Antiquity 76, 623-4. T Driver, RCAHMW, 24 
August 2004. 



293 



Nevern 



Nevin, or Nevy 

Brjoiach, and early christian married the local chiefs daughter and founded a holy place by the 
stream. He buried his brother in law Maelgwyn the memorial stone is written in Latin and 
Ogam family therefore must have had Irish connections burial memorial to a retired Roman 
Soldier lies near plus a fragment of another Four more early christian monuments lie 
either in the church or churchyard. 

Church has a squat Norman Tower 12c restored 1864 and 1952 

Churchyard Cross of St Brynach 1 Oc AD 

bleeding yews in churchyard will bleed till Wales once again has a Welsh prince of Wales, 
outside churchyard mounting block for Horsemen. 
"Shiela na gig" fertility figurine 

on pilgrim's route to St David's pilgrims cross cut in the rock on the route and a set of steps 
cut into the rock have has a small cross cut in them 

1603 George Owen (Spelling as per) 

Oflcoarne is tPie greatest and [argest parisPie in tf)e 6f)eere & iafetf) name of t[)e rt)Der OTeOarne 
toef) runnet^ metl neer t[)rorD tf)e rat^OOest of tf)e same cf)ose course is formertie Describee) 
in t{)e first QSootee. 3n tt)elsf)e it is calteD Jndtjpuer & in oiO t)t)me toos DeDicateJ) to tf)e 
brt)ttif()e 6aint calkD &ainct ^umagl)t vo\}0&t festtfatle Oat) is X}ti Oulie obseroec) mit[)in 
t[)is anc) OriDerse otf)er parisf)es mitf) noe small solompnitie t[)e seaoentf) of Slprilt, on mcf) 

Oat) t)t is rotf) us sThe long nave and chancel may be all of the 15c as no features are earlier 

than that. There are transrptal chapels on each side, that on the south being rib-vaulted in two 

bays. The pier and two arches are Victorian insertions below a wider, flatter original single 

arch. Two chapel windows have an Ogham stone and another tomb-stone as sills. The west 

tower is 16c. Some restoration was carried out in 1863. South of the church is a very fine Celtic 

Cross of c 1000. ail> tf)e (Tocom first beginnetl) to tune [)er [aX)t. 3 mig()t mell [)ere omt)tt an 
old report fresf)e as riet of tf)is oc)touse birO tfiat in tt)c old moxld t[)e parisf)e priest mould 
not beginne OJlasse in tf)is parisf)e until tf)is bhd (calleO tl)e Citijens embassador) l)ac) 
first appeared & begann lier note upon a stone called St *Burnagl)es stone being a stone 
curiouslie tt)rougl)t tvitlj sonDrie sortes of tnottes standing uprig[)t in tljt Cl)urcl)et)ard of 
tf)is parisl)e,and one riere starieinge Deret) longue & tl)e priest & people eypecting l)er 
accustomed coming (for 3 accompt tl)is bt)xd of tl)e feminrine gender) cam at last & ligl)ted 
upon t[)e said stone f)er accustomed preacf)ing place and being scarce able once to sounde 
tf)e note upon t[)e said stone presentlie fell domne dead. Tl)is religious tale altl)ougl)e t)t 
Concerne in some sort Cf)urcl)e matters t)ou mat) et)tl)er beleaoe or not ttiitf)out perill of 
damnation. 



294 



Xfje D^ectoric of ii)is patrisf^c mas some itjmes an ac)oomson apenc)ant to t[)e Ilort)s[)ipp of 
kernes & geooen or soulO bt) 6ir DTisPtolas c)e 2lra()[et) 5omeir)mes [orc)of t[)e soiD [orO— 
sf)ip to 5lfc>am Jjotten busf)oppe of 6t SaoiOcs per cartam in festo 6ancte OJtar^aretae 
oirginis anno Domini 1377 et primo 9iicl)ati> secunVi tt)[)o O^mpropriote tf)c same to tf)e 
nem (iotleOg of Saint 9Jtarr)e in ©aint S)aDil)es mt() appearetf) bt i\)t Hnges £icens 
optarmeO for tf)e OJlortmarine mitt) tf)ese roorOs fHesematiDo semper ptefato O?icf)o[ao et 
tjeteOibus suis Jus pattonatus ecciaesia pveOitae, so tf)at of lHigf)t tf)e patronage of tf)e 
sail) C[)urcl^e t)et remat)net[) apenl)ant to tl^e sail) £orI)sf)ipp of ^emes. 

Jt is nom tf)e Hnges 3nl)eritaunce upon tl)e (iansctes suppression of tf)e colteOge & nom pat^etf) 
f)is SDTajestie of rent fyypiii yiiis iiii?). X^e Cure is ?)escf)art)gel) bt) a dicarr erected upon t[)e 
on tf)e impropriation rocf) tf)e [ate prince Hueene (Sli^abetf) f)at[) of [ate rieares presentee) 
De facto nan Oe Jute anO f)atf) for [)is parte quatam pattum ftuctuum& is oaiuec) in t[)e 
booi^es of first fruietes at foiii. 



1811 Fenton Tours Nevern 

Descending to Nevem, where above the village on a high hill and yet sheltered to the north by a 
higher ridge, are seen the slight remains, or rather the site of the castle, which though almost 
entirely defaced , exhibits marks of great extent and strength. One one side it was inaccessible, 
the wall following the edge of a rocky natural ravine, rendered still more preciptous and 
difficult of approach by art, and on the others by a deep fosse hewn out of the solid rock. From 
what we can now trace of it, it appeared to have been a square building with a bastion at each 
angle, of no small diameter from the truncated ruins or two of them. 

The situation of the village of Nevem is very beautiful, in the midst of rich meadows, gardens, and 
orchards, on the margin of a fine river, and surrounded by hills richly wooded, with a handsome 
church in a cemetery of great extent filled with yew trees, the ruins of a venerable old mansion, 
and other houses of a lesser note interspersed with trees, forming altogether a very picturesque 
scene. Though the church intelf is much more ancient, yet, for its tower, and most probably the 
greatest part of its present external, we are indebted to the Norman ers; as the architecture is 
similar to that which characterises the castle and church of Newport, known to have been built 
by Sir William Martin. It is dedicated, as are most of the churches of this district, to St 
Bjonach, who flourished in the sixth century, and was a contemporary of St David. 

Nevem is the largest parish in the county; it was formely an advovson appendant to the lord-ship of 
Cemaes, but granted or sold by sir Nicholas de audelay to Adam Hoton, Bishop of st David's by 
a deed dated Rich. II. AD 1377 who appropriated the same to his new college of St Mary at 
St David's. In the church yard is obe of those early crosses, consisting of a tall shaft similar to 
that standing in front of Carew castle but more elegantly wrought, having, as that has, in a 
small compartment amid the carved work it is ornamented with, some strange characters, which 
I have not heard ever deciphered. 

The ruins noticed here are those of a mansion of the first respectability of its day delonging to and 



295 



begun to be buily by Howel ap Jenkin ap Rptpert, of the princely stock of Gwynvardd Dyved, a 
man then of great property and command in the country, but who died died before it was 
finished. This Howel married a daughter of Sir William Perrott Knight, and by her had issue 
one son William, who, by a most profligate course of life , dissipated his vast inheritance. 

Nevem, originally the chief borough, even after the creation of Newport continued to belong to the 
high fee. It had a portreeve and courts for government and eighteen burgages. 



1839 Nevern - Topographical Dictionary of Wales 

NEVERN, a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South 
Wales, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Newport, and 8 (S. W. by W.) from Cardigan, the post-town; 
containing 1625 inhabitants. The name is derived from the river Nevem, so called from the 
Welsh Niver, "a number," on account of its being formed by the union of numerous rivulets that 
intersect the parish, and flow together in one considerable stream into St. George's Channel. 

Martin de Tours, a Norman knight, who, having attended William the Conqueror, was rewarded for 

his service by a grant of territory on the coast of Devonshire, embarked an expedition for the 
invasion of such parts of the principality as he might find most easily assailable, and landing 
his troops at Fishguard, made himself master of the lordship of Kemmes. For the protection of 
his newly acquired territory, which became one of the lordships marcher, he either erected a 
fortress at this place, or strengthened one previously built, which he made his residence, and 
which descended to his son William. The latter, however, having strengthened his interest by 
marrying the daughter of Rhys ab Grufydd, abandoned this seat of his father's, called 
Llanhjrvor Castle, of which there are some remains on a hill above the church, for one that he 
had built on a more magnificent scale at Newport. 

The parish is very large, extending from the foot of the Percelly mountains to the shore of Cardigan 
bay. It lies in a beautifully diversified and fertile district, and comprehends some of the most 
romantic scenery in the county of Pembroke, being intersected by a deep wooded dingle, along 
which flows the Nevem, whose banks are occasionally formed into rocks of fantastic character, 
while in the lower part, near Newport bay, stands the village: the prospects from the higher 
grounds are also pleasing and extensive. The road from Newport to Cardigan passes near 
Nevem, and the greater portion of the parish is inclosed and cultivated: the total area is 
14,522a. 13/?. The coast is generally bold, and in some parts precipitous, with a good depth of 
water close to the shore. There were formerly several ancient mansions, inhabited by some of 
the most opulent families in the county; but nearly all of them have been abandoned by their 
proprietors, and are at present in the occupation of tenants. Llwyngwair is an elegant mansion, 
pleasantly situated on the margin of the river Nevern, and within about a mile of its mouth. 
Among the other seats are Burry, Cwmgloyn, and HenllyMoor - Mynwere ;s; the last was once 
the residence of the ancient lords of Kemmes, and of that distinguished antiquary and scholar. 



296 



George Owen, lord of Kemmes, in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. 

The Uving is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £8, and in the patronage of the Lord 
Chancellor; present net income, £174, with a glebehouse: the impropriation belongs to Mrs. 
Atwood. The advowson, which was appendant to the lordship of Kemmes, was alienated by 
deed, bearing date 1347, to Bishop Hoton, who appropriated it to his new college of St. Mary at 
St. David's, from which, on the suppression of religious houses, it reverted to the crown. The 
church is said to have been originally founded in the sixth century, by St. Brjoiach, or Bjmach, 
to whom it is dedicated, and to have been rebuilt by some of the Norman lords of Kemmes: the 
present is an ancient and venerable structure, in the Norman style of architecture. In the 
churchyard, to the south of the porch, is an ancient British cross, elaborately wrought, and 
bearing two inscriptions: the shaft consists of a single stone, thirteen feet high, two feet four 
inches broad, and one foot seven inches thick; it is increased in height by a circular top, a 
separate piece of stone, marked with a cross, and is carved on all sides with ornaments and 
knots of various shapes. On the north side of the churchyard was another stone, six feet high, 
with the inscription "Vitatiani Emeriti," but this has been for some time removed. In the 
chapelry of Kilgwyn, in the parish, is a chapel of ease, dedicated to St. Mary; and there are 
places of worship in the parish for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists. Nine 
Sunday schools are held, two of them in connexion with the Established Church. Mr. William 
Rogers, of Kensington, bequeathed £800 in the three per cents, to the poor, the dividends 
arising from which, amounting to £24 per annum, are annually distributed according to the will, 
in barley and beef, on the 21st of December. Near Pentre Evan, in the parish, are the remains of 
one of the largest cromlechs in the principality; the table-stone is eighteen feet in length and 
nine feet wide, and is supported on two or three coarse upright stones, varying from seven to 
eight feet high. It is considered not to be surpassed in size by any other Druidical monument in 
Wales, except the cromlech at Dyfryn, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Glamorganshire. Several 
other Druidical remains are yet to be seen in and near Nevem. 



1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales 

NEVERN, or Nefern, a village and a parish in the disfrict of Cardigan and county of Pembroke. The 
village stands on the rivulet Nevern, in a picturesque reach of deep wooded vale, 2 miles E N E 
of Newport, and 8 S W of Cardigan r. station; and was once a borough, governed by a portreeve 
and burgesses. The parish is divided into the quarters of Cregie, Kilgwyn, Morva, and Trewern; 
and its post town is Newport, under Haverfordwest. Acres, 14, 637; of which 1 15 are water 
orforeshore. Real property of Cregie, £1, 430; of Kilgwyn, £1, 346; of Morva, £3, 1 54; of 
Trewern, £1, 751. Pop.of the whole in 1851, 1, 642; in 1861, 1, 436. Houses, 315. The decrease 
of pop. was caused by the migration of agricultural labourers. The property is much subdivided. 
Llanhyfer Castle stood on an eminence above the village; is said to have been the chief palace 
of theprinces of Dyfed; was probably the residence of Martinde Tours, before he married the 



297 



daughter of Rhys ap Grufydd; was a square structure, with a bastion at eachangle; towered 
aloft, on one side, from the rim of arocky ravine, and was defended, on the other sides, by 
adeep fosse excavated in the solid rock; and has left somefraces. A mansion of the time of 
Henry VII. was the seat of Sir James ap Owain, passed to occupants of other families, and is 
now a farm-house. Llwjaigwair and Henllys are present chief residences. Abridge, called Pont- 
Baldwyn, crosses the Nevem rivulet; and is said to have been the first or one of the earliest 
places atwhich Archbishop Baldwin and Giraldus preached thecrusades. Pentre-evan, about 1 V2 
mile from the village, is a remarkably large cromlech; has a top-stone measuring 18 feet by 9; 
is so high that six persons on horse-back can be sheltered under it; and is surrounded by arude 
Druidical circle. 150 feet in circumference. Anothercromlech, with a furrow in the top-stone, is 
at Llech-y-Dribedd. The living is a vicarage, united with the chapelry of Kilgwyn, in the 
diocese of St. David's. Value, £240.* Pafron, the Lord Chancellor. The church is Norman, in 
tolerable condition, with a tower; has anunpaved floor, which has been gradually raised fiiUy 
7feet above the original level by frequent interments; and contains a coffin-lid, with an early 
Greek cross. The churchyard is planted with yew-frees; and contains a very fine cross of the 9th 
century, 2 feet broad, 1/4 footthick, 13 feet high, circular at the top, and carved onall sides with 
knot-work. Charities, £24. 



1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire 1895 Timmins 



Nevern stream rises far away on the slopes of Fryn-y-Fawr, whence, after pursuing a picturesque 
course below Pencelly forest, it finds its way by many a ' crankling nook ' to Nevem, where it 
is spanned by a gracefiil old stone bridge, whose butfresses are shrouded in luxuriant ivy. 

Over this same bridge we presently take our way, passing the lowly village school-house, whence 
the sing-song iteration of young voices salutes our ears through wide-open windows. In another 
minute we find ourselves at the churchyard wicket, where we pause awhile to look about us and 
take our bearings. 

The village of Nevern is situated in the richly-wooded glen of the Duad, or Nevern Brook, and is 
surrounded by some of the most charming scenery in the county. The luxuriant groves of 
Llwyngwair afford shelter from the strong sea winds, while the purple shoulders of Precelly 
sweep upward in graceful folds to the lofty southern horizon. The picturesque peak of Carn 
Englyn forms a prominent feature in the landscape ; and, separated from it by the deep, narrow 
vale of the Clydach, rises Camedd Meibion Owen, a rocky monticle that reminds one sfrongly 
of the Dartmoor Tors. 

Time was, 'tis said, when this village of Nevem took precedence of its rival neighbour Newport. In 
those early days Nevem was a borough town, having its own porfreeve with courts of 
government, and eighteen ' burgages ' to manage its affairs. Above the townlet rose the 
protecting walls of Llanhyvor Castle, a fortalice long regarded, so to speak, as a precious gem 



298 



in the diadem of every South Wallian prince. A steep grassy knoll alone marks the site where 
this important castle stood. 

But it is time to look at Nevern Church. Dedicated to St. Bymach, this ancient structure presents, 
with its gray walls peeping amidst masses of dark foliage, a picturesque and venerable 
appearance. The western tower, though of no great height, is of vast breadth and substance, 
extending to the full width of the church, and having a projecting stair-turret upon its northern 
side. In this tower hangs a peal of six very musical bells. 

Approaching the south porch, we pass beneath a dense avenue of ancient yews, which even at 

noontide cast a gloomy shade around. Though lacking aisles, the church has shallow transepts, 
that on the north being called the Glasdwr Chapel, while the south transept is appropriated to 
the use of Trewern, an old mansion in the vicinity. 

This Trewern Chapel has a solidly groined stone ceiling and elegantly proportioned windows, with 
a projecting turret for the stairway, leading to an upper chamber,. Upon either side the chancel 
is a sort of shallow bay, lighted by a narrow pointed window, a characteristic feature of 
Pembrokeshire churches. The sacred edifice is provided with a pair of silver chalices dated 
respectively 1696 and 1733, the gifts of former parishioners. 

Near the south-east angle of the Trewern Chapel rises the ancient Celtic cross . 

This curious monument goes by the name of St. Byrnach's Stone. It stands upwards of 10 feet in 
height, and is overlaid with the interlacing ornament peculiar to these structures. So boldly and 
deeply are the patterns incised, as to be little the worse for ten centuries of wind and weather, 
the hoary lichens that cling to the rugged surface of the monolith serving but to enhance its 
venerable aspect. 

Anent this ancient stone, there is a quaint tradition which tells how, in olden times, the cuckoo was 
wont to first sound his note in this locality on the day- of the patron saint, April 7. 

' I might well here omit,' says George Owen, ' an old report as yet fresh of this odious bird, that in 
the old world the parish priest of this church would not begin Mass until the bird — called the 
citizen's ambassador — had first appeared, and began her note on a stone called St. Bymach's 
Stone, being curiously wrought with sundry- sort of knots, standing upright in the churchyard 
of this parish ; and one year staying very long, and the priest and the people expecting her 
accustomed coming (for I account this bird of the feminine gender), came at last, lighting on 
the said stone — her accustomed preaching-place — and being scarce able once to sound the 
note, presently fell dead.' 

It is somewhat reassuring to be told by the same authority that ' this vulgar tale, although it concerns 
in some sort church matters, you may either believe or not without peril of damnation.' 

Quitting the pleasant precincts of the church, we pursue a crooked lane that skirts the green mounds 
of the 'castell,' and, turning thence past a solitary- thatched cottage, make our way along a 
hollow tree- shaded pathway. Keeping a sharp lookout upon every side, we presently espy the 
object of our search, the form of a cross, half obliterated by ivy sprays and tufts of rushy grass, 
being seen rudely graven upon the high sandstone bank by the lane side ; while a sort of hollow 
kneeling-place can be distinguished in the rock at the bottom of the cross. 

For we are now upon the line of an ancient pilgrims' way, whose course is marked by well-wom 



299 



tracks in the soft red sandy rock ; and this solitary cross calls up visions of the mediaeval 
wayfarer pausing upon his journey to St. David's Shrine, to invoke before Croes Bjonach the 
benediction of that influential saint. 

Retracing our steps to Nevem, we call a halt at the Trewem Arms, a modest hostelry so near the 
stream that its waters play a pleasant accompaniment during the course of our homely meal. 
Then,with energies recruited, we plunge into a shadowy woodland path that leads to Pont-y- 
Baldwyn, a bridge that spans the rippling stream at a point where, according to tradition. 
Archbishop Baldwyn preached the crusade in company with Giraldus Cambrensis. 

From Pont-y-Baldwyn we follow a farm road that leads us to Henllys, a place memorable in 
Pembrokeshire annals as the birthplace of that industrious chronicler and local antiquary, 
George Owen of Henllys. Of his curious and fascinatmg work entitled ' The Description of 
Penbrokshire,' we have largely availed ourselves throughout these present pages. George Owen 
appears to have come of a stout old country stock. His father is said to have died a centenarian, 
after begetting a family of some twenty children. Both George Owen and his father before him 
held the ancient and honourable office of Lord of Kemaes. 

Nevem . One of the prettiest hamets in Pembrokeshire. There is an interesting motte and bailey 
castle on the river spur above the hamlet but the focus of interest lies in the beautiful grouping 
of church, vicarage, old school, bridge inn (the "Trewem Arms") and cottages around the river; 
and fields, paddocks and wooded slopes are essential parts of the settlement. The church, with 

its squat Norman tower, is full of interest. In the churchyard the massive St. Brynach's Cross 
(dating from the 10th century AD) is much photographed, while visitors also flock to see the 
famous bleeding yew trees which shade the path to the church door. Outside the churchyard 
gate there is a mounting-block for horsemen, and halfway up the hill to the west there is an 
ancient pilgrims cross engraved in the solid rock. 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is a resident clergyman. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day 
with food and Is a day on their own finding. The moral character is regarded as good. There are 
three resident land proprietor and 3 farmers paying over £100 per annum rent. Many of the 
population cannot read or write. 

The parish of Nevem contains 14,522 acres, it is an agricultural district : population very poor; and 
there is no endowed school in the parish; and there is no one to contribute towards the 
maintenance of a schoolmaster John Jones M.A., Vicar of Nevern 

Mrs Bevans Circulating School. On the 25* of January I visited the above school. The children 

were not present. The school was held in Cilgwyn chapel, which is a chapel of ease to Nevern 
church. I examined some of the writing of the pupils, which was pretty fair. The master seemed 
to me to be a quiet painstaking man David Lewis Assistant 

Village School On the 25* of January I visited the above school. It was held in a wretched 

schoolroom near the church; the room and furniture were in the worst possible state of repair. 
There were only 10 boys present at the time of my visit. I heard 8 read the 1" chapter of St 
Johns Gospel; not one of them read with anything approaching to ease; they were excessively 



300 



ignorant; three only out of the 10 could repeat the Lords Prayer in Welsh correctly. Not one of 
them knew any one of the Ten Commandments. The schoolmaster was a complete cripple 
upon crutches, although quite a young man, and knew very little English. Three of them 
answered questions in the multiplication table and worked a few sums in addition correctly, 
but I could get no further answers. David Lewis Assitant 



1859 Parish Church of Nevern (St Brynach) August 3"" Glynne 

A large church in a lovely situation in a richly wooded valley,through which runs the Nevern river. 

It comprises a nave with south aisle and a nortjhern chapel,a long chancel anda western tower. The 
form is rather irregular and the architecture rude, but it is a larger church than most in the 
neighbourhoodc. There are two arches between the nave and the south aisle( which does not 
reach quite to the west) of very plain pointed form , with a rude square pier, and there is also a 
transverse arch across the aisle.the chancel arch is also pointed. The chancel is of fine 
proportions,and has both on the north west and south west a projection opening to the interior 
by flat arches in the thiskness of the wall. On the north of the chancel is a two light Mu=iddle 
Period window , and another similar one closed; also a Third Period one of two lights . Most of 
the other windows are debased and modenised with sashes . The tower is large but coarse, with 
a battle ment and a square turret at the south east; also a rough corbel table under the parapet. 
Most of the openings are slits; the belfry window is square headed. Some of the tower is of 
slates, and there is a fine cross in the churchyard , which is most picturesque and lovely. 



301 



The Parish Church Dedicated to St Brynach— Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

PLAN OF THE CHURCH 
Black represents original work ; stipple the 1864 alteTOUC 




E 



9 ^ 

A-Trewern-Henllys Chapel. Priests' Chamber above 
B— Glasdir Chapel E-The Great Cross 

C-Tower, Vestry F-Imperfect Incised S 

D-Vitalianus Stone G-Consecration Cross 

Scale : Vfe inch to 3 feet 



The Church is cruciform in plan, consisting of chancel 48ft by 18ft with a shallow tomb recesses on 
the north and south sides , nave 72ft by 24ft north transepy (capel Glastir), south transept 
(Henllys Chapel" with priest's chamber above , low western tower and south porch. The 
structure generally is late Perpendicular. The windows have been renewed of largely restored. 
In the chancel arch are an aumbrey and a piscina. The Henllys Chapel, which has a groined 
vault, is separated from the nave by an arcade to two bays with pointed arches. In the west wall 
is a low arched doorway giving access to the turret stairs leading to the chamber above the 



302 



vaulting. This low room 27ft by 12ft is lighted by a circular quartreft)iledwindow in the east 
wall. The north transept contains a piscina. The nave opens to the tower by a pointed arch. The 
tower is corbelled and battlemented; it is of two storeys, with a turret in the south east angle 
containing sixty steps. The upper storey has four windows of two lights having stone louvres. 
The angles on the west side of the tower have stepped buttresses which reach to within a foot of 
the parapet, similar in charscter to those in the adjacent church of Newport. In the west wall is a 
four light window. The font is modern. In the exterior south wall of the nave is a slightly 
defaced corbel with male mask. The burial ground contains a number of fine yew trees. In the 
exterior north wall of the nave is a small consecration cross -Visited P' July 1914. 

The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 1994 

The long nave and chancel may be all of the 15c as no features are earlier than that. There are 
transrptal chapels on each side, that on the south being rib- vaulted in two bays. The pier and 
two arches are Victorian insertions below a wider, flatter original single arch. Two chapel 
windows have an Ogham stone and another tomb-stone as sills. The west tower is 16c. Some 
restoration was carried out in 1863. South of the church is a very fine Celtic Cross of clOOO. 




Pembrokeshire Parsons 

1326 The vicarage of Nevem originally belonged to the Lord of Kernes. In 1326 the 
advowson, then of the annual value of 24 marks, formed part of the knights' fees 
assigned to James de Audele, kinsman and coheir of William, son of William Martm, 
late Lord of Kernes deceased. — Pat. Rolls. 



1377 28 Aug., 1377, Nicholas de Audele [son of the above mentioned James de Audele] 
obtained licence fi-om the King to alienate in mortmain the advowson of the church of 



303 



Nevem in Wales to Adam Houghton, Bishop of St Davids, who, at the same time, was 
granted license to appropriate the Church. — Pat. Rolls. 

1380, Bishop Adam Houghton united Nevem and other churches, and appropriated them to 
the chantry of St. Mary at St Davids, subject to the annual payment of £10 towards the 
fabric of the Cathedra]. It appears that the Bishop did not obtain the necessary licence 
for this grant to the chantry, as on 28 Feb., 1389, the master and chaplain as of the 
chantry, at the intercession of William, Archbishop of Canterbury, and on payment of 40 
marks, obtained pardon for this breach of the law Pat. Rolls. 

1596 On the dissolution of the chantry of St. Mary, the church of Nevem came into the 
hands of the Crown from whom on 2 Dec, 1596, a lease of the rectory was obtained by 
Thomas Birt, Robert Birt, and John Birt, junior, for their lives at the annual rent of £33 
13s. 4d. and a fine of £13 6s. 8d. — State Papers. 

1291 this Church with its Chapel was assessed at £16 for tenths to the King. — Taxatio. 



Neveme. — ^Vicaria ibidem ex callacione coLlegii Beate Marie prope Meneven' unde Ovnus 
Davy clericus est vicarius valet porcio ejusdem vicarii £8. Inde decima 165. — Valor 
eccl 

Under the heading 'Livings Discharged ': — ^Neame alias Neweme alias Nyfer alias Nevem 
V. (St Brynach). St. David's College olim Propr.; The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly 
value, £3°. £5°. King's Books, £8. — Bacon's Liber Regis. 

There are no fewer that eight pilgrimage chapels in Nevem parish mentioned in George 
Owen's list, most of which were then in mins. Their rames were Capell St. Thomas, 
Capell St. Fredde, Capell GwenfrDn, Capell Wenddith} Capell Reall, Capell Sadric, 
Capell Kilgwin, and Capell St. George. 

Capell Kilgwin, now called Cilgwjai, is dedicated to St. Mary, and is now annexed to the vicarage 

of Nevern to which living it appears to have been united as far back as I29I, as in the Vetus 
Valor [Taxation of Pope Nicholas] the valuation of ' Navam cum Capella ' is stated to be £16. 



304 



Clergy CCED 



1625 
1662 



1663 



1717 



Atho , Henr 
Prichard , Thomas 
Thomas, Oliverum 
Thomas, Oliveri 
Tucker, Johannis 
Tucker, Johannem 
Jones, David 
Tucker, Johannes 
Jones, David 
Jones, David 
Davies, Rodericus 
Morgan, Sutton 
Morgan, Sutton 
Jones, David 
Morgan, Sutton 
Morgan, David 
Morgan, Sutton 
Phillips, Jacobus 
Owen , William 
Owen , Charles 
Griffiths , David 
Philipps , James 
Griffiths , David 

Herbert Thackeray Griffies Williams , David 
Griffiths , David 
Davies , William 



1614 Vicar 
Vicar 

Vicar 

1663 Vac (Death) Vicar 
1663 Preacher 

Vicar 
1692 Vicar 
1692 Vicar 
1714 Vicar 
1717 Vicar 

Curate 

1720 Perpetual Vicar 

1720 Vicar 

1720 Vac(natural death) Perpetual Vicar 

1720 Vicar 

1722 Curate 

1730 Ydic(natuml death) Vicar 

1730 Vicar 

1773 Curate 

1773 Stipendiary Curate 

1783 Vicar 

1783 Wac(natural death) Vicar 

1804 Vicar 

1834 Vicar 

1834 Vac(natuml death) Vicar 

1835 Stipendiary Curate 



Extract for Nevern Parish Church The Religious census of 1851. 



Nevem Church, dedicated to St. Brynach, a Welsh Saint, of the 6th century, and a contemporary of 
St. David. The architecture was Norman originally. In 1809 a few of the Gothic were replaced 
by modem (or parlour) windows. In 1819 the entire of the remaining windows were replaced in 
like manner, the roof ceiled, etc. In the south wall is the following notice: "The Body of the 
Church rebuilt A.D. 1819. The Rev. Dd. Griffiths Vicar, J. E. Evans, Esq., E. W. Jones, Esq., W. 
Symonds, Gent., Mr. Vaughan, Church-wardens". 

Nevem Village consists of only six small Cottages, Parsonage and the Church. N.B. Within the 
circuit of one quarter of a mile from the Church are Eleven cottages, one Mill and one Farm. 



305 



The remaining Cottages and Farm house are distant from the Church from about one mile and 
upwards, as far, at least, as six miles. The parish is mountainous and the Population scattered, 
and their living at a great distance from the Church is the reason why there is only morning 
service on Sundays (every Sunday at ten o'clock in the morning), Christmas Day, Good Friday, 
etc. The Congregations in the Church are larger or smaller according to the state of the weather. 
In dry weather especially on Sacrament Sunday the congregation amounts to 300 on an 
average. The number of communicants is upwards of 100 monthly. 

John Jones, M.A. Vicar. 

NB. The Lay Impropriator, who does not reside in the Parish, contributes nothing towards the 
spiritual wants of the Parishioners, save and except a few Bottles of Wine at Easter, which he, 
as well as the Vicar, in conformity to an old custom, gives for the Table of the Lord's Supper. 

The Parish of Nevern is divided into Four Quarters, or Districts, called Morfa Quarter, Crugiau 

Quarter, Trewem Quarter and Kilgwyn Quarter. In each of which Quarters there was formerly a 
church or chapel, belonging to private Families, but recognizing Nevern as being the mother or 
Parish Church. None of these Chapels now remain, save and except Kilgwyn, which has 
never been endowed, and over which the Bishop of the Diocese has not, it is said, any 
jurisdiction, as over the mother or Nevern Church. The Registrar of the Diocese can 
find no account of Kilgwyn Church among the Papers in his Registry, and the 
Churchwardens of Nevern Parish maintain that they have no right to contribute fi^om the 
Church Rates towards keeping Kilgwyn Church in repairs. There is at present no private 
Family, or Mansion, claiming possession of the Church. It would be a great blessing to 
Kilgwyn Quarter if the Church was endowed and a Clergjmian appointed to it. The shell of the 
building is in good repairs, it having been lately repaired by public riptions; but the inside is 
destitute of Pews, Forms, etc. a few Benches only and a wretched Pulpit and a Reading Desk 
are its present furniture. 

John Jones, M.A. 

Vicar of Nevern. 21st April 1 85 1. 



1929 St Br5aiach & St Mary (Cilgwyn) & Parish Church (Ba5rvil) Incumbent and Curates; D 
Davies 



Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans. 

Nevern (St Brynach). — This most interesting and beautiful Church, situated in what is now the 
largest parish in the county, possesses a large Chalice with its Paten cover, both pieces bearing the 
hall marks of 1696 with maker's mark R T attended by two stars and seven pellets probably for R. 



306 



Timbrell. A frosted cup with baluster stem, now in the possessi{»i of the Fishmongers' Company 
supphed the author of " Old English Plate" with this maker's mark 

The bowl of the Nevem chalice is straight-sided with slight lip, and measures 5 in. in diam. and 4 
in. in depth. The stem which stands on a plain moulded base carries a slight knop below the middle. 
Height, 8 in.; weight, 16 oz. 15 dwts. On the bowl is inscribed " Donum Annae Colbett viduae de 
parochia Henthis in usum perpetum Eclesiae parodiialis de Nevem in sacris: 1696 ". The stem has 
been strengthened by means of a wooden plug. The Paten cover measures 7 in. in diameter, weighs 
7 oz. 15 dwts, and is 1 in. in height. The inscription is like that on the chalice but the word " 
perpetum" is here " perpetuum". 

Two Credence Patens identical in shape beariog the hall marks of the Britannia standard for 1719 
with maker's mark WI beneath two stars and above fleur-de-lys. It is the mark of David WUlaume in 
the Pall Mell and is given in O. E. P. at 1796. Height, 3 in.; diam., 9 in. Weight, 38 oz. 7 dwts and 
39 oz. 5 dwts respectively. Both patens are inscribed " The Gift of Mis. Martha Griffith daughter of 
Mr. Edward Griffith of Glaster To the Parish of Nevern in 1733 ". In the centre of each is engraved 
a shield of arms with mantling and crest. Mr. Egerton Allen writes "After the best search I am able 
to make I have tailed to identify the family of Griffith of Glaster 

Chalice No. 3, is a bell-shaped cup bearing the hall mark of 1784 with maker's mark T. C in a plain 
oblong stamp ; height, 8 in.; diam. of bowl, 4 in.; depth, 4 in.; weight, 13 oz. 1$ dwts. The small 
knop which divides the stem is decorated with beaded moulding as also is the foot. On the bowl is 
the following inscription " Donum Easter Bowen, de Llwyngwair, in usum perpetuum Ecclesiae 
parochialis de Nevem, in sacris 1784 ". 

Nonconformist Chapels: 

Morva Room Independents or Congregationalists Rented in 1843 Samuel Thomas, 1851 
Independent Minister 

Gethsemane Welsh CM Erected in 1844"The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists are on the Presbyterian 
sistem, and have no Stated Ministers, but supply their places of worship in rotation. Mr S Lewis 
of Hall supplied on the 30th March 1851" Thomas Jones, Manager, Trefach, nr Newport 

Penuel Baptist Erected in 1 824 John Gwynne, 1851 Deacon, Grasyforwyn, Cardigan 

Glanrhyd CM Erected about 1 807 Evan Morgan, Elder, 1851 Waensegur, St Dogmellsr ebuilt as 
present chapel 1 860. still open 2006 

Brynberian Ind Erected in 1693, last erected in 1843 Evan Lewis, 1851 Minister 
Still open Dec 2006 



307 



Caersalem Baptist Erected in 1841 David George, 1851 Minister, Trewem restored in 1915 and 
1948. Still open 1998 



308 



Inscribed Crosses 

1859 The great cross in Nevem Churchyard —Arch Camb 1860 p 58 J.O. Westwood 




The little village of Nevern in Pembrokeshire , possesses many points of interest both to the lover of 
nature and the antiquary. The charming situation of the village was admired by all who visited 
it during the recent meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, whilst the beautiful 
workmanship and large size of the carved and inscribed cross, standing near the south side of 
the church, attracted the especial attention of the members. 

This cross is equalled only by two other crosses in Wales, namely, that at Carew, in Pembrokeshire, 
and the Maen Achwjoifan near Newmarket, in Flintshire,- all three exhibiting the same general 
form and features. 

My first acquaintance with this cross is now of several years date, and extends back to the 

incumbency of the Rev J Jones (Tegid), my visit to whom recalled scenes of former Oxford 



309 



days, and who subsequently furnished me with the following measurenents of the cross :~ 
Height from the surface of the ground to the top of the shaft 10ft; from the top of the shaft to 
the cross lOin; height of cross 24 Vi in; breadth of the shaft at the base 27 in; in the middle 24in 
at the top 22 in; width of the cross 24 in. The shaft is formed of a squared block of stone, the 
base having a slightly widened portion and the top narrowed obliquely on the west face; the 
north and south sides are not quite so wide as the east and west faces. It will be seen that each 
of the two principal faces, east and west, has a narrow space above the two lower ornamented 
compartments insctibed with letters, easily decipherable but not so easily intelligible. That on 
the east side has the letters 

h anh whilst the 

e 

Whilst that on the west is inscribed 
dnf 

I must admit my inability to explain the meaning of these letters, ehich are represented not in 

Roman capitals nor in the minuscule form, but in that peculiar aphabet which is found in all the 

earliest Christian British inscriptions at Llantwit &c., and which agree with the letters of the 
Gospels of St Chad, MacRegol, Lindisfarne, and in the grandest Irish manuscripts, such as the 
Book of Kells. The inscriptions have also been given in Bishop Gibsons and Goughs sditions of 
Camdens Britannia, without any attempt to explain them. 

The ornamentation of the four sides of this cross is of the kind to which the tern Runic knots and 
circles has been perpetually misapplied. It is, however, not of Scandinavian but of Celtic 
orugin, and is found in all the earliest Christian British and Irish monuments both of stone and 
metal, as well as on manuscripts. That it does occur, undeed , on some stone monuments with 
Runic inscriptions in the Isle of Man and elsewhere is true; but it nowhere occurs in 
Scandinavia nor in Teutonic countries; and therefore , as indeed historic records prove, its 
occurance with Runic inscriptions id due to Scandinavian visitors adopting the ornamentation 
with the religion of the country they resort to. It will be seen from the engravings that the shaft 
of the cross consists on each side of a series of compartments, each containing a different 
arranged interlaced ribbon or other characteristic pattern, thus resembling the ornamented 
shafts of some gigantic initial letters in the early MSS. Of the Gospels above alluded to, which 
may indeed be said almost truly to represent the shafts of these great crosses reduced to the size 
of a miniture, thus proving the identity of the workmanship, as well as of the workmen, by 
whom both classes of monuments were executed. Taking the representations of the Nevern 
cross as they occur it will be seen that, in addition to the endless variety of the interlaced ribbon 
patterns, (each ribbon having an incised line running along its centre) the south side has at its 
base a raised pattern of classical design, resembling the Grecian fret of which a larger specimen 
occures at the top of the west side. Above this fret on the south side is a curious diagonal 
pattern , formed of narrow raised and angulated lines, the general effect produced being that of 



310 



a St Andrews cross with the spaces between the arms filled in with four pairs of incised Ts 
placed obliquely, with the tops of each pair placed in opposition to each other. This is also the 
character of the bottom compartment on the east side,but here only one-fourth of the pattern is 
represented and consequently there is only one pair of Ts similarly placed with raised knobs in 
the open spaces. It will be seen that if the pattern on the south side were to be doubled or 
quadrupled the oblique Ts would form a series of xs giving somewhat of the charscter of the in 
the compartment on the east side, above the inscription. These diagonal patterns have very 
much of a Chinese character about them , as is also especially the case with the compartment 
above the inscription on the west side, and that at the bottom of the north side, where four Ts 
are so arranged as to form a series of steps in the spaces between the letters. The pattern at the 
bottom of the west side is another modification of these diagonal designs, and is of common 
occurrence on the Llantwit and other early decorated stones. 

The head of the cross is of elegant proportions, the four arms of equal size, short, widened at the 
ends, with the spaces below the arms sunk, the depressed parts with a raised boss in the centre 
of each, as is also the case with the centre of the vcross itself, which is oma mented with an 
interlaced ribbon pattern, as is also the narrow space at the base of the cross. 

With reference to the date of the cross it is difficult, in the absence of direct evidence, to arrive at 
anything like a precise idea. 1 have stated that both in its palaeographic and ornamental 
characters it agrees with the Llantwit stones , and MSS of the seventh and eighth centuries , but 
its general form agrees rather with that of the later Irish crosses; and as in such outlying 
districts as Nevem it is likely that little change was made until the Norman period led to the 
introduction of Gothic art, it is not impossible that this cross may be as recent as the tenth, 
eleventh, or early part of the twelfth century. I do not think a more modem date can be assigned 
to it than the latter of these periods , but would rather refer it to the eleventh. 

The Cross was scheduled as an ancient monument in 1950. 



Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 1923 St Brynach's Cross 

The high standing cross known as St Brynach's Cross ( the inscription upon it proves , however , to 
have been erected to the memory of a local saint or chieftain of the Welsh district of Maenor 
Mauen), stands near the south door of the Church. The shaft is 10ft above the level, the coss 
head is 24 I/2 ins,the breadth of the shgaft at its base is 27in, at the top 22 ins, the width is 24 V2 
ins "the shaft of the cross consists on each side of a seties of compartments, each containing a 
different arrangement of ribbon. The head of the cross is of elegant proportions, the four arms 
of equal size, widened at the ends with the spaces belos the arms sunk, the depressed parts, 
with a raised boss in the centre of each. As is also the case with the centre of the cross itself, 



311 



which is ornamented with an interlaced ribbon pattern, as is also the narrow space at the base of 
the cross" (Westwood Lapid Walliae, p 100) It has been frequently described in Arch Camb The 
editor Mr Romilly Allen noting it as "the most perfect example of its class now remaining in 
Wales " 

The Vitaliani Stone RCAM 1923 

This stone is now placed in the porch of the church; it originally stood on the north side of the 
churchyard, It bears an inscription in Latin and Agam. The Latin reads VITALIANI 
EMERETO (to the well earned honour of Vitalianus), the letters running across the face of the 
stone in two parallel lines. The Ogam characters read VITALIANI ( the monument) of 
Vitalianus. 

Sir John Rhys regarded it as "probably one of the oldest of our bilingual monuments" 

(Pembrokeshire Antiquities 1897 p5; ) Owen Pemb I p 328 states that the stone is "supposes to 
be as early as the 5"" century" 

The Maglocvnus Stone RCAM 1923 

This bilingual stone , now in the Henllys Chapel, was found built into the wall of the staircase 

leading to the priest's chamber by the Cambrian Archaeological Association when at Nevem in 
1906. a little later it was carefully fixed in its present position. The stone measures 5ft 2 Vi in 
long and l^Vi inches across its widest part. It is incomplete, a portion of the smaller end having 
been broken off, probably when it was placed in the staircase wall. The inscription in Roman 
Capitals runs MAGLOCVNI FILI CLVTORI. The Ogam reads MAGLICUNAS MAGI 
CLUTAR. The two inscriptions are evidently close renderings of each other, both meaning the 
monument of Maelog, son of Clydei. 

Cross Stone 

On the same occasion in 1906 this stone was found in the staircase wall adjoining the Maglocunus 
slab. It was subsequently removed to the sill of one of the windows in the Henllys Chapel. It 
was then found to bear an interlaced cross in slight relief, the design occupying the entire stone 
which is 62 in long by 12 in broad. There is no inscription. The stone also bears a ribon 
ornament which is worked into a single knot in a manner unusual and altogether different fi-om 
the character of the ornament commonly met with on Celtic crosses 

Imperfect Inscribed Stone 

In the exterior north wall of the church is a faintly lettered fragment of red sandstone bearing a few 
Roman letters which read 

T 
V 



312 



M 
I M 

Professor Westwood in 1860 described what without doubt is the same stone, which then bore a few 
more letters and in 1912 Sir John Rhys said of it "the interest attaching to the stone or stones in 
question is that they are evidence of the existance at one time at Nevern of traces of Roman 
remains, evidence carrying us back to the Roman occupation, and tending to show that the 
place was one of some importance prehaps before the Dessi occupied it and found it a 
convenient basis of communication with Ireland" (Festchrift presented to Prof Kuno Meyer, 
pp230). There are no grounds for connecting the stone directly with the Romans but it may date 
from the last years of the Roman occupation of Britain. 

Missing stones 

In Arch Camb 1860 p53 Prof. Westwood notes that "The interior of the church at Nevem contains 
another early relic of British Christianity, in a large slab now used as part of the pavement on 
the north side of the chancel, inscribed with a greek cross with a central boss, and with equal 
short limbs dilated at the ends inscribed within a circle, the two outer incised lines forming 
ehich are extended downward below the bottomarm, so as to foem a long stem or shaft to the 
cross. The diameter of this cross is 28in and the width of the stem running down the middle of 
the slab is lOin." This stone is not to be traced. It probably disappeared when the church was 
restored in 1861. A dim recollection exists of its replacement beneath the chancel flooring. 

In 1859 the Cambrian Archaeological Association when visiting the church, failed to tind a stone 
"said to have stood inside the church, about 2ft high, and rounded at the top, and bearing 
certain characters, not more like greek than Roman. The fate of this relic is unknown, and 
likely to be so, as active enquiries have been made without any success" It may be the same 
stone as the former. 

Rock Cross RCAM 1923. 

Cut in rough relief on the face of the naked rock, immediately behing Chwarel Cottage on the road 
to Frongoch and 100yds west of the parish church is a equal armed cros of early type. The trees 
which had long shaded and concealed it were felled during the war, so that the relic and its 
kneeling place are again visible. 



Up the hill to the west of the Church a stile at the hair-pin bend leads to a path which passes below 
the Pilgrims' Cross, some 30 yards on. The cross is cut in relief in the living rock and below it 
is a kneeling recess with a small incised cross. It was probably a wayside shrine on the 
pilgrim's way from Holywell to St. Davids and is now almost unique. In 1949 it was scheduled 
under the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 



313 



1603 Nevern Castle George Owen 

Olcdarne Castle noro utterU Defaced t)et Ootf) t^e seat t[)ereof sijttot of tnl)at strengtf) t)t tvas in 
tr)mes past being seateO on a [)eig[)e unaccessable on tf)e one parte & strengtf)ene9 
tt)itf) a meigfitie c)t)tcf)e f^eraen out of tf)e marine 9^oc6e of ti)t otf)er partea. 1f)is mas tf)e 
cfieiffe f)ott)se of t()e [orOesof kernes in tPie trime of tPie lorO D^ees & tfiis is tf)e same £ast[e 
tt){)erein t{)e saiD daliant lot!) ^Hees ap gruffitl^ princeof 2IJa[es ttjos 0^mprt)soneD tvijtn f)e 
mas talen prisoner bt) f)is sonnes; anO t[)is is itje same cast[e catted castle £anbr)uer tPie 
c[)eiffe (iastle of ^emes for mcf) tf)e saiO £orc)e IHees brale [)is faitf)e & promrise mitf) [)is 
Sonne in £am SUitliam OJtarttjn spol^en of bt) ti)t said 0ixaU)us in l)e hornet) tf)rome 
kernes mf)erein J cannot eoer passe ti)t mt)stafiin0 of SJtaister doctor *Pott)e(l in f)is 
annotacions upon tl)at ptocebt) i5ira[t)us mf)ere l)e saietf) tl)at t[)is castle called bt) 
igira[c)us (Sambrensis Jn principal De Memes (Eastto scificet apuD £andt)uet saiett) t[)is 
masin DTemport castle ml)ere in Oeet) mas tl)en tf)e Castle of £lanbiuer t[)en stanc)inge & 
seetfjence 030 bt) tl)e saiD 6r 2IJilliam S[)Tartt)n mas tf)e Castle & lorone fo Olemport been 
built, tticf) castle of castle of llan[)t)uer being seetl)ence utterlie Oefacet) anc) raseJ) t)s 
tnomen but of fern & tlierefore bt) some tl)at tnero not tl)e place enformec) 97tt Cornell tf)at 
tl)e Castle of Dlemporte nom being tl)e cl)eiffe Castle of^emes & standing also upon tl)e 
lHt)t3er of OTatParne was tf)at ml^erein t()e great lorl) IHees mas D^mpnsonel) bt) f)i5 sonnes. 

Nevern Castle Owen 1603 Laws 1895 

In the Northern part of Pembrokeshire there are several earthworks which contain a moimd 

sometimes moated. This peculiarity of form will be foimd at Castell Pen-y-AUt near Llantood, 

Plas-y -merchant near Nevern, Henllys, Eglwyswrw, Crymmych Arms, Castell Crychydd (the 
Heron's Castle near Clydey), Parc-y-marl, and Parc-Robert near New Moat. In these north 
country camps we find an indication of the Norman conquerors of the 1 1th century under 
Martin of the Towers. We have positive evidence from the Bayeux tapestry that the camps or 
mottes built by the Normans of that period were circular earthworks enclosing elevated 
movmds, crowned with wooden castellets. 

By far the most perfect specimen of this Castle kind of stronghold is to be found in Llanhjrver or 
Nevern Castle, this is truly a reconstructed earthwork. Two-thirds of the circumference are 
protected with an unusually strong foss and vallum the latter forming a sort of curtain wall the 
other third is defended by a natural declivity artificially scarped. In the south-west of the camp 
stands an earthen motte or mound 

which takes the place of the later stone donjon in Norman and Early English work ; this castle is 
invaluable as a date-giver, i.e., late eleventh century. 

Its history is also very interesting, " when the prynces of Wales possessed the same country Castrum 
de Lanhever was the chief castle," the Normans seized and modified the structure " after that 
Martyn had first wonne the same it was many times disturbed, but Martyn and his issue stucke 
to yt so close that in the ende they carried yt awaye from the pr5nices of Wales." 

(George Owen). Edward .Laws 

1803 Fenton 1914 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments Castell Nanhyfer, Nevern Castle 

Fenton (Tour p 540) thus describes the situation of this important earthwork: "Above the village [of 



314 



Nevem] on a hill, and yet sheltered to the north by a higher ridge, are seen the slight remains 
or, rather, the site of the Castle, which though almost entirely defaced, exhibits marks of great 
extent and strength." 

The original work consisted of a rampart and ditch to the north and west and a steep natural 
declivity on the south and east. At a later period a mound was thrown up midway along the 
rampart, and the earlier ditch, which at intervals cuts through the natural rock, was apparently 
deepened and widened. The entrance to the original work would seem to be at the south west 
comer of the rampart and probably had a width of about 15ft. The later mound rises to a height 
of 25ft. Its summit bears traces of stone foundations, whether of a contemporary shell keep or 
of a medieval manor house it is impossible to determine without excavations. The original ditch 
in part covered by the mound has been reconstructed round its outer base ; there is no inner 
ditch between the mound and the bailey court . 

In 1859 the Cambrian Archaeological Association visited these earthworks and reported that "a 
considerable extent of walling, intemall and external remains in the fosses,etc." 

The parish church is at the foot of the declivity - Visited July 1914 



Castell Nanhyfer; Nevern Castle 

Castell Nanhyfer, an inland promontory enclosure, some 100m east- west by 90m, resting on steep 
natural slopes and crags on the south-east, is delineated by up to three lines of banks and 
ditches on the north and west, with a circular mound, about 32m in diameter occupying its 
north-western angle. The outward banks are the most massive and the northern facade shows 
remains of a stone revetment. A circular tower, in the region of 6.5m across, has been identified 
upon the motte summit; the eastern tip of the promontory, rising above precipitous crags, is cut 
off by a rock-cut ditch, forming a court, about 30m north-south by 20m, defined by stone walls 
and containg traces of a rectangular structure, possibly a tower. The entrance to the castle 
enclosure is thought to have led between the crags on the north, the massive north-facing 
ramparts, and the stone-walled citadel. Identified as a 12th-early 13th century castle, possibly 
of several distinct constructions, thought to have been abandoned in the earlier 13th century. 
Sources: King & Perks 1951 (AC 101), 123-8;Turvey 1989 (J. Pemb. Hist. Soc. 3), 57- 
66.RCAHMW J. Wiles 06.01.05 

Nevern is dominated by the remains of Castell Nanhyfer. This fine motte-and-bailey castle, 
which began life as an Iron Age promontory fort, was built by the Fitzmartins, the Norman 
lords of Cemais, in 1 191. It was seized by Rhys ap Gruffudd, who was later imprisoned by his 
sons in the tower which he built. He died there in 1 195, bringing to an end Welsh rule in south- 
west Wales. Castell Nanhyfer is therefore a key but strangely neglected site in Welsh history 
(RCAHMW, 96-cs-0678).From: Driver, T. 2007. Pembrokeshire: Historic Landscapes from the 



315 



Air,RCAHMW, 152. 



3. The site has become the focus of new excavations directed by Chris Caple for Durham 
University, with funding from Cadw, which commenced in 2009. An article describing the new 
work was published in British Archaeology, winter 2009. 
T. Driver, RCAHMW, 15th April 201001 1 BBC Report Neven Castle Dig 



BBC Report 2011 October 4th 

RARE pieces of inscribed slate unearthed during a dig at one of the nation's oldest castles may 
provide valuable clues to life in medieval Wales, experts said yesterday. 

Archaeologists involved in a recent excavation on the site of Nevern Castle in the Pembrokeshire 

Coast National Park believe the markings, dating back more than 800 years, indicate some 

ritualistic methods of warding off evil. 
The slates - complete with stars and other designs scratched on them - were found at the site's 12th 

century cut- stone entrance way. 
Lead archaeologist Dr Chris Caple said: "These inscribed slates are really interesting. They were 

found in only one place in the castle and were probably intended to ward off evil." 
The recent excavation revealed 12 slates bearing incised designs. 

Archaeologists said the scratched markings are interesting for several reasons, but mainly because 
of the rarity. 

"Scratched images from the medieval world are rare, and we can confidently date these to the 

period 1170-1190 when the stone phase of Nevern Castle was built," added Dr Caple. 
"These drawings connect us with the lives and beliefs of masons or labourers who built the castle. 

We hardly ever recover evidence about the peasants of the medieval world, and never 

information about their beliefs and ideas, but these scratched designs are from the imagination 

of a serf, a farm labourer or a man at arms." 
Headed by Dr Caple, of the University of Durham, and Pete Crane from the Pembrokeshire Coast 

National Park Authority, the team of experts, students and volunteers descended on the site for 

three weeks in the summer. 
It was the fourth year that the site has been excavated in a partnership project between Dr Caple, the 

National Park Authority, Dyfed Archaeological Trust and Nevern Community Council which 

owns the site. 

Further research on the finds is now being carried out by the Department of Archaeology at the 
University of Durham. 

Work at the site last summer uncovered a large group of buildings thought to date from the 12th 
century. 

It helped provide new details on the history of a Norman fortress - one of the oldest stone castles in 
Wales - that was built in 1 108 along with two towers and three hall-like buildings that were 



316 



unearthed. 

Until that discovery little of Nevem Castle could be seen. The castle was built by the Norman 

marcher Lord Robert fitz Martin around 1 108. The building was destroyed and rebuilt in the 

12th century but after 1197 was abandoned. 
It is hoped the new discoveries will be secured as part of the communities heritage. 
Phil Bennett, the National Park Authority's head of archaeological heritage, added: "One of the 

nicest things about these slate pieces is that we are hoping to be able to keep them in Nevern 

eventually, in the care of the Nevem Community Council." 
Work is under way cleaning, revealing and recording the images scratched on the pieces of slate. 
Dr Caple added: "In the late 12th century, Nevern would have been an impressive looking castle 

and entrance, especially from the south side, and it was clearly visible to all passing along the 

road between St Davids and Cardigan. 
"The work under way on the slates will no doubt provide more fascinating information about the 

beliefs and ideas of the people who built and lived in the castle in the late 12th century." 
The dig also unearthed information about the phased building of parts of the castle and revealed that 

a Round Tower thought to have imprisoned the Lord Rhys in 1 194 was also the quarters of high 

status members of the castle househol 



Names for Jottings Nevem 

ap Jenkyn Thomas ap David Nevern Church Aug 1514 

Bateman Richard 1604 Haverfordwest "a mercer in Haverfordwest, plaintiff " "sued William 
Warren of Trewem in the parish of Nevem, esq,for £6 15s, 3d, for goods delivered before 23 
Dec, 1604" Pembrokeshire in Byegone Days 

Batty John 1514 Vicar Nevern Church. Pembrokeshire Parsons 

Birt John 2 Dec 1596 junior lease of the rectory the church of Nevem State Papers 

Birt Robert 2 Dec 1596 of NevWarren John 1712 

of Pembrokeshire of Trewem Nevem High Sheriffem State Papers. 

Birt Thomas 2 Dec 1596 lease of the rectory the church of Nevem State Papers. 



317 



Bowen David 1754 Rudbaxton, Offence Theft of poultry, game cocks, belonging to Warren 
William, esq., Trewem, Nevem. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

David John 30 April 1775 Meline Glover Offence Theft of oats Nevem Prosecutor Salmon Thomas 
Verdict Guilty to the value of 1/- - partial verdict Punishment To be whipped three times and 
imprisonment for 1 year Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

David John 14 May 1775 Meline Glover Offence Theft of a horse Nevem Prosecutor Williams 
Griffith Nevem labourer Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

David William 12 June 1769 Nevem Yeoman Offence Assault on prosecutor and riding over him 
on his horse Nevem Prosecutor Jenkins Alban Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

de Audele Nicholas 1376 July 4 lordship of Newport Westminster son of James de Audele 
advowson of the church of Nevern 28Aug 1377 Pat Rolls 

Ford Owen 1703/4, Jan. 20 Sir George Barlow of Slebech, bart.,John Barlow of Lawreny, the 
elder, esq., and Owen Ford of Berry, parish of Nevem, esq.,John Barlow of Slebech the 
younger, esq., brother of the said Sir George Barlow.Grant of a messuage and lands Slebech 
Estate And Family Record 

Francis William 7 June 1779 Nevern Overseer of the poor Offence Neglect of duty by refusing to 
pay prosecutor's wife, Young Elizabeth, and their three children, maintenance whilst 
prosecutor was a drummer in the Royal shire Militia. Nevem Prosecutor Young, Richard 
Nevem, soldier Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Griffiths Anna Letitia infant child of the Rev Griffiths Nevern Churchyard. 

Griffiths D 1783-1834 Rev Vicar Nevern Churchyard 

Griffiths George Nevern Churchyard, infant child of the Rev Griffiths 



318 



Hughes Joshua 1807-1889 bishop of St Asaph, was born at Nevern, Pembrokeshire When quite a 
boy he was sent to Ystradmeurig Grammar School, and afterwards proceeded to Lampeter, 
where he attained the very highest of honours, gaining the degree of BD After serving the 
curacy of 

Aberystwyth, he was, , preferred to the living of Abergwili He was for 24 years vicar in Llandovery, 
and in 1870, Mr Gladstone offered him the bishopric of St Asaph, which he accepted He was 
the first Welsh, man since 1727 who served as bishop in his own country The appointment was 
criticised because Hughes was not a university man, Eminent Welshmen 

Huntley Christopher 2 April 1747 Nevern Hatter Offence- Murder of James Webb by stabbing 
him in the chest Nevern Guilty Punishment Death Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Jenkin Alban 1 July 1771 Nevern YeomanOffence Murder of Lloyd Catherine, prosecutor's wife, 
by striking her. Recognizance refers to manslaughter. Nevern Prosecutor Lloyd,John Nevern, 
farmer Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

Jones John 1846 Nevern The only Pembrokeshire member for Arch Camb Vol 1-1846 
Pembrokeshire in By,gone Days 

Ladd John 30 January 1801 Newport, co. Pemb. Mayor Offence Promoting an unlawful assembly 
on market day with the intention of lowering the price of com. The speech in Welsh. Prisoner 
led the unlawful assembly to Llwyngwair, Nevern where two justices lived. Ordered the 
gathering toreconvene at Newport on the next market day where he would supply them with 
barley and oats from the storehouses. No indictment. Food riot. Newport, co. Pemb. Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Lewis Owen 1 823 Of Trewem Nevern High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 

Lloyd Catherine 1 July 1771 - Alban Jenkin Nevern Yeoman Charged with Murder of Catherine 
Lloyd wife of John Lloyd, Nevern, farmer , by striking her. Recognizance refers to 
manslaughter. 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



319 



Mathias Thomas c. 1570-1617 of Glastir, Nevem, Pembrokeshire, married Lloyd Jane, co-heiress 
of Llangwarren. The estate descended in the male line, passing to Mathias Charles Delamotte 
1777-1851 , who married Bethell,Mary of Somerset. 

Mathias Charles of Llangwarren 1817 High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire. Charles Mathias 

purchased Lamphey Court, Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, in 1810-1811, and built a new mansion 
there in 1823 

Owen George 1591 Kemes Married as first wife Elizabeth daughter of William Phillipps of 
Picton Castle whose sister married Alban Stepneth claimants to the estate of William 
Philliipps and his wife Jane Perotte George Owen MSS1591 Jan 12 Arch Camb 1854 

Owen William 9th of March, 1574 was buried at Nevern the day after his death.' 

George Owen's father, William, was directly descended in the male line from Lucas de Hoda. He 
married Elizabeth Herbert, who was descended from William, Herbert Earl of Pembroke, 
the first Welsh, man that was ennobled. William Owen was the first in his family to follow the 
English fashion of having surnames, and to assume the name of Owen. He lived to a ripe old 
age, dying, on the 9th of March, 1574, when he was 105 years old, and leaving behind him his 
son and heir, George Owen, who thus writes on the matter" For experience whereof my dearest 
ancestor at his death was accountedto have lyved 105 years,and was at his latter dayes lustie of 
bodyand always in health, well able to travell and dayly used to walke agood swift pase, 4, 5, or 
6 myles a morning for his pleasureand lesse then six yeares before his death, he, taking his 
journey fi-om the towne of Pembroke towards his house in the country, began his journey a 
foote, willing his man to bring his horse after him, for that his horse was not then taken (and 
indeed was not that daye , he having began his journey a foote was forced soe to ende the same 
and come to his house by one of thte clock e, being 20 Mileshe carried all his teeth with him to 
the grave, and a fewe yeares before his death would eat a handfiiU of nuttes, shells and all he 
was the yongest of his ancestours that 

died the last two descents before him. My mother, alsoe, yet living (God grant it Long (died in 

1603. , and two other gentle-women of the same parish, all three in perfect memory, can reckon 
between them at least 260 yeares, soe helthful is the ay re and soyle. 

Owen George of Henllys Kemes wrote Description of Pembrokeshire 

Owen George 1552 born at Henllys, in the parish of Nevern, near Newport, Pembrokeshire, in 
1552, and died there on 26th August, 1613. It was from Meredydd (who died 1188) ,ap 
Gryffydd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr, who lived at Henllys, that the Property descended to Nesta, the 



320 



spouse of Philip, son of Richard de Hoda, and so on in the direct male line to George Owen. 
Thus he could truly write of Henllys, as he did* It did not appear that any other family or 
person than my ancestors 

had ever lived there.'* The Owens ,continued to live at Henllys till the death of William Owen, the 
great grandson of George Owen, in 1721. Some time between this and the end of the century 
Henllys was pulled down, and there is now only part of the foundations, overgrown with grass, 
that can with difficulty be traced. 

George Owen married, in 1573, Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of William Phillips of Picton, 
Pembrokeshire, by whom he had ten children, the eldest and only surviving son being Owen 
Alban 26th August, 1613 who succeeded him as lord of Cemaes. 

About his second married there is some confusion. Fenton states in his Pembrokeshire (p. 563) , 
from a MS. alleged to have been written by George Owen himself, that his second spouse was 
Ann, "daughter of John Gwillim, a French gentleman of Norman descent." 

But according to a pedigree signed by Owen himself, his second spouse was Ancred, daughter of 
Obiled, William of Carmarthen, gent." According to this pedigree, Owen had seven children by 
her, but Owen himself states that there were twelve children of his second married. 

This married with Ancred is corroborated by the Inquisition Post Mortem of George Owen, in 
which the jurors further say that certain lands were granted by George Owen by deed d 18th 
August, 1613, to John Owen of Trecwn and Henry Bow en of Cilgwyn to the use of George 
Owen and Ancred his spouse and the survivor for life, with remainder to the use of their son 
Thomas Owen and the heirs of his body, with remainder to the use of their son Rhys Owen, his 
heirs andassigns." By Ancred George Owen had five sons George, the York Herald, Evan, 
Chancellor of St David's, William, Thomas,and Rhys. The jurors fijrther state that George 
Owen died on the 26th day of August last (1613) , and that Alban Owen was at theof that 
Inquisition of the age of thirty-three years. They also further state that Ancred is yet alive." 
Alban was the only son by the first spouse who lived to maturity there were also several 
daughters. 

According to this Inquisition Post Mortem taken at the GuildHall, Haverfordwest, on the 4th day of 
May, 1614, Alban Owen, his son and heir apparent, was on the 24th September, 1596, betrothed 
to Lettice, daughter of Johanna,and her late Husband William Mercer deceased, and George 
Owen then covenanted to grant certain houses and lands, etc., to their use for either or both 
their lives and then to their sonssuccessively in tail male with ultimate remainder to the right 
heirs of George Owen,before 'the Feast of All Saints then next.". . . . "The jurors find that this 
"married was duly solemnized and George Owen performed his covenant by a deed of 
feoffment d the 24th October, 1596, to "the effect thatlands at the Bury, formerly the grange of 
the " Castle of Newport in the occupation of various persons .... and "the manor house or dairy, 
called The Court, in the parish of Eglwyswrw, with lands extending West of Pencelly Forest, by 
Berllan "to Pencelly Fawr, thence by Blaen Palley Vychan to the Queen's "highway, leading 



321 



from the church of St. David, at Llantood, to " Bwlch y Garreglwyd, thence by Gwaun y cyver 
to George Owen's " new hedge at VRoches," were to be held for the use of Alban Owen and his 
spouse for hfe and to their sons successively in tail male, "the " Castle and Town of Newport 
and the Barony or Lordship of Kemes, "and the manors of Eglwyswrw, Newcastle, Redwalls, 
Bayvill and " Moylgrove, parcel of the barony," devolving on Alban on the death of his father. 
The pedigree attached to the Baronia de Kemes states that Alban married in 1591 Joan, 
daughter of William Bradshaw of St. Dogmaels possibly Joan died early and Lettice may have 
been his second spouse . 

According to the same Post Mortem Inquisition before, among others, William Bradshaw of St. 
Dogmaels, Esquire, the jurors present, " that George Owen was in his lifetime seised in his 
demesne. ' as of fee, of the Country, Barony or Lordship of Kernes, the Castleand Town of 
Newport, with a close called The Park, the manors of Newcastle, Bayvill, Eglwyswrw, and 
Moylgrove, PenKelly Forest, certain lands called Henllys Ucha. Henllys Issa. and Henllys 
Vorganand four water grain Mills called Jordan's Mill, Newport Mill, Moylgrove Mill, and 
Velindre Marchog Mill, all parcel of the Barony." 

Owen George 1573 Augusti 5 Henlis "being ye married was admitted to be of Bamards Inne in 
Holboren and fistt came to dwell at Henlis with his wife on Thuesday 9th Febr 1573/4, his 

father and dwelling at Henlis. He was about 22 years old when his father died but his mother 
Eliz ( daughter of Sir Geo Herbert of Swansey) lived till 1603. George Owen's MSS from yje 
muniments at Bronwydd Arch Camb 1867 

Owen George 1613 of Henllys Lord Marcher of the Barony of Cemais Elizabethan historian and 
geologist Memorial Tablet Nevern Church 

Owen William 1717 Captn born at Nevern,Pembrokeshire into a farming family of local repute and 
substance. He was a clever boy and his father had ambitions for him to be a clergyman, but he 
ran off to sea in his teens. Noted Smuggler who was executed for the murder of James Lilly at 
Carmarthen on Saturday the 2nd May 1747 

Rees Evan 20 August 1755 Nevern Offence Nuisance - by damming water in a pond thus flooding 
the Road . No indictment. Nevern Fined 6d Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

Rees Josiah 9 June 1782 Nevern Yeoman Offence Theft of barley. Nevern Prosecutor Thomas 
David, Nevem,farmer Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



322 



Smith Samuel 20 January 1786 Nevem Labourer Offence Burglary of the house of John Griffith 
and stealing cloth belonging to him. Nevern Prosecutor Griffith James . Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Smith William 20 January 1786 Nevem Labourer Offence Burglary of the house of John Griffith 

and stealing cloth belonging to him. Nevem Prosecutor Griffith James Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Thomas Oliver 1663? Oct 4 Neveme Clk M A vicar of Neveme co Pembroke (13 Chas IIp47 No 
144) Ecclesiastical appointments Patent Rolls Charles II Arch Camb 1886 

Warren Thomas 1638 of Trewem Part of Nevem of the line of Gwrwared, - son of William 1638 
High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 

Warren William 1674 of Trewern Nevem High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 

Warren Mary 1725 Trewem Nevem married Lawrence Colby of Bletherston WWHR 1915 

Warren John 1712 of Trewem Nevem High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 

Warren William 1604 Nevem"of Trewem in the parish of Nevem, esq,sued by Bateman Richard 
a mercer in Haverfordwest, plaintiff, for £6 15s, 3d, for goods delivered before 23 Dec, 1604" 
"William Warren was the son of Mathias Warren of Trewem, by Elizabeth Catharne his 

wife" Pembrokeshire in Byegone Days 

Webb James 2 April 1747 murdered at Nevem stabbed in the chest by Christopher Huntley of 
Nevem Charged with Murder by stabbing in the chest. Guilty. Punishment Death Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Williams Thomas 21 Febraary 1818 Nevem Labourer Offence Theft of sheep, Nevem Prosecutor 
Thomas Davies esq. Verdict No tme bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



323 



Yong Grace 1645-6 Feb. 2 Will Dated . Grace Yong of Argoed, in the parish of Nevem, 
widow. Pembrokeshire in By-gone Days. 



Names Nevern Parish Hearth Tax 1670. 



Mends David - 


Nevem 


H 


Bevan Thomas - 


Nevem 


H 


Jerman John - 


Nevem 


H2 


William Owen. esq. Of Henllys Nevem 


HIO 


Lloyd John ' 


Nevem 


H5 


Owen Capt- William - 


Nevem 


H2 


John James ' 


Nevem 


H2 


John Jenkin' 


Nevem 


H 


Lloyd Owen ' 


Nevem 


H 


Pugh Ellinor ' 


Nevem 


H5 


Webbe Thomas - 


Nevem 


H4 


Walter Ellinor - 


Nevem 


H 


Richard James - 


Nevem 


H 


Young William 


Nevem 


H4 


Rees. Evan senior - 


Nevem 


H2 


Jenkins - Owen - 


Nevem 


H 


Morgan - Thomas - 


Nevem 


H 


Rouland Owen - 


Nevem 


H 


William John - 


Nevem 


H 


John . David. 


Nevem 


H 



324 



Rudd[erch] Evan 


Nevem 


H2 


Morgan James . 


Nevem 


H2 


John . Owen. 


Nevem 


H2 


leroth . William. 


Nevem 


H 


John leroth. 


Nevem 


H 


Lloyd George 


Nevem 


H2 


William . Griffith. 


Nevem 


H 


Thomas David . 


Nevem 


H. 


Bowen Perrott. 


Nevem 


H 


Knowles' Thomas 


Nevem 


H5 


Thomas Evan 


Nevem 


H 


Rudd[erch JThomas 


Nevem 


H 


James Thomas . 


Nevem 


H 


David Evan 


Nevem 


H 


Griffith John. 


Nevem 


H 


Bull John. 


Nevem 


H8 


Tuckerjohn clerk' 


Nevem 


H4 


Vaughan Martha 


Nevem 


H 


Price Thomas 


Nevem 


H2 


John David, glover . 


Nevem 


H 


Bowen James, esq. Of Llwjoigwair. Nevem 


H6 


Hilier Thomas . 


Nevem 


H 


Me5a'icke .Thomas . 


Nevem 


H 


Francis Elizabeth 


Nevem 


H 2 


Warren William .of Trewern Nevem 


H5 


Phillipps Thomas of Pentre Evan. Nevem 


H4 



325 



Jones . Lettice. 


Nevem 


H5 


Lloyd Thomas 


Nevem 


H5 


Griffith Lewis. 


Nevem 


H 


Griffith Morgan 


Nevem 


H5 


David, James miller 


Nevem 


H 


Lloyd Evan 


Nevem 


H 


William George. 


Nevem 


H 


William Evan. 


Nevem 


H 


Lewis Morgan . 


Nevem 


H 


John John Rees ap . 


Nevem 


H 


Bowen John . 


Nevem 


H 


Thomas Will, deed 


Nevem 


H 


Sevan Lewis ap. 


Nevem 


H. 


Shelby Thomas . 


Nevem 


H. 


Hellier Richard . 


Nevem 


H. 


James David . 


Nevem 


H.2 


John Mathias Thomas. 


Nevem 


H.4 


George Katherine 


Nevem 


H2 


James Maude . 


Nevem 


H3 


James George . 


Nevem 


H. 


James . Thoma . 


Nevem 


H2 


Rosser David .. 


Nevem 


H. 


Frees Henry. 


Nevem 


H 


Richard Thomas. 


Nevem 


H Z 


John . George. 


Nevem 


H 


David William - - 


Nevem 


H- 



326 



John John Thomas . 


Nevem 


H. 


Thomas . Thomas ap. 


Nevem 


H 


David Bennett — 


Nevem 


H 


Thomas Rowland - 


Nevem 


H4 


Pany - Griffith - - - 


Nevem 


H 


Luke Rees, miller . 


Nevem 


H 


Warren Alban. . 


Nevem 


H 


Yerwarth William. 


Nevem 


P 


Harry Thomas Phillip . 


Nevem 


P. 


Hugh Thomas. 


Nevem 


P 


Griffith David . 


Nevem 


P. 


James Robert. 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas Rees . 


Nevem 


P 


George . David Thomas. 


Nevem 


P 


Lewis John . 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas Mary . 


Nevem 


P. 


Thomas EUenor. 


Nevem 


P. 


James Robert. 


Nevem 


P 


George David Tbomas. 


Nevem 


P 


Hugh Thomas . 


Nevem 


P. 


Phillip Tbomas. 


Nevem 


P. 


David Morice. 


Nevem 


P 


William William ap . 


Nevem 


P. 


PHwaTfl Tnhn 




p. 


Rees . William. 


Nevem 


P. 


Young EUinor 


Nevem 


P 



327 



Evan Katherine. 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas Mary . 


Nevem 


P 


James Lewis . 


Nevem 


P 


Bevan William . 


Nevem 


P 


Vince William . 


Nevem 


P. 


Lloyd Thomas . 


Nevem 


P. 


Picton Duggy . 


Nevem 


P 


William Richard, taylor 


Nevem 


P 


Watkin Jane . 


Nevem 


P. 


Morice Jane. 


Nevem 


P 


John . Evan. 


Nevem 


P 


Phillipps Re5aiold. 


Nevem 


P 


Lewis Hugh. 


Nevem 


P. 


David Anne . 


Nevem 


P 


Evan Licky. 


Nevem 


P 


Jones Margarett . 


Nevem 


P 


Richard Peter. 


Nevem 


P 


Owen Evan . 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas David . 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas Lewis . 


Nevem 


P 


Mathias Thomas. 


Nevem 


P 


Mortimer . 


Nevem 


P 


William . Morgan. 


Nevem 


P 


RirhaTrl rrportrp 




p 


Evan Thomas ap 


Nevem 


P 


Phillipps Thomas 


Nevem 


P 



328 



Owen . Morice. 


Nevem 


P 


John Maude . 


Nevem 


P 


Lloyd Thomas . 


Nevem 


P. 


Lloyd . Morgan. 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas David. 


Nevem 


P 


Richard . Rees. 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas Evan . 


Nevem 


P 


Younge Edward. 


Nevem 


P 


Andrew Richard. 


Nevem 


P 


Morgan Katherine . 


Nevem 


P 


William Mary. 


Nevem 


P 


Howell John . 


Nevem 


P. 


Griffith Evan . 


Nevem 


P 


Lewis Thomas . 


Nevem 


P. 


Mathias John . 


Nevem 


P. 


Francis John . 


Nevem 


P 


Lewis John . 


Nevem 


P 


Owen Owen ap. 


Nevem 


P 


George .William 


Nevem 


P 


Griffith David. 


Nevem 


P 


Roger George . 


Nevem 


P 


Lewis Thomas . 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas William 


Nevem 


P 


WilliaTTi Tohn 




p 


Bowen Thomas ap 


Nevem 


P 


Younge' Rees - - 


Nevem 


P 



329 



Hugh John . 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas Jennett 


Nevem 


P 


Richard William. 


Nevem 


P 


David John. 


Nevem 


P 


Edward Maude - 


Nevem 


P 


Phillip John . - 


Nevem 


P 


Powell William . 


Nevem 


P 


Row Margarett . 


Nevem 


P 


Jenkin David. 


Nevem 


P 


Griffith Evan . 


Nevem 


P 


Vaughan Morice . 


Nevem 


P 


Morgan John . 


Nevem 


P 


George David . 


Nevem 


P 


William John. 


Nevem 


P 


Evan George. 


Nevem 


P 


Evan . Phillip. 


Nevem 


P 


David Christopher 


Nevem 


P 


John Thomas . 


Nevem 


P 


Evan Phillip . 


Nevem 


P 


Younge Evan . 


Nevem 


P 


Owen John . 


Nevem 


P 


John . Griffith. 


Nevem 


P 


Rees Evan . 


Nevem 


P 


David David ap . 


Nevem 


T) 

r 


Margarett . 


Nevem 


P 


John . Maude. 


Nevem 


P 



330 



Phillip .Morgan 


Nevem 


P 


Jenkin William. 


Nevem 


P 


James Margarett. 


Nevem 


P 


William Margarett 


Nevem 


P 


Thomas .Griffith 


Nevem 


r 


Miles George . 


Nevem 


P 


David John . 


Nevem 


P 



Nevern mining 

Un-named mine SN 096.387. Three trial adits in river bank below wood north of main 
A487 road, 500 yards south west of Felindre Farchog.. No historical detail is available. 
Adits remain open although one is very wet. (Oldham) 



Sites of interest 

RCAM 1914 
Foelv Eeyr 

A caim on the summit of Waun Maes at an altitude of 1530ft. It is built of mountain strewn stones, 
most of which could be handled by two men; white quartz stones are found in the mass. The 
cairn has a abse circumference of about 250ft and a height of 10ft. It is evidently sepulchral and 
has not been much disturbed. The prospect from it is extensive, embracing the greater part of 
the county. - Visited 9* July 1914. 



Moel Feddau Cairn 

A mound crowning one of the summits of Prescelly, in the south east of the parish; most certainly 
sepulchral. Standing at an altitude of 1520 ft above the ordinance datum. It has a base 
circumferwence of about 300 ft and an average height of 8 ft. It is constmcted of mountain 



331 



gathered stones and is overgrown with turf. It has been interfered with -Visited 19* June 1914. 



Mynydd du Cairn 

This is a much disturbed cairn to the west of Syfynwy brook, which here divides the parishes of 
Nevem and Maenclochog. Its base circumference is about 150ft and height about 3 ft. In its 
construction some white quartz stone appears. - Visited 9* July 1914. 



Pentreb Ifan Cromlech 




This is probably the finest example of its class in Great Britain. It stands on a field called Corlan 
Samson about y4 mile south east of Pentre Ifan farmhouse. The earliest known sketch and 
description of any British cromlech is that furnished of this structure by George Owen (1552 - 
1613) of Henllys in this parish, in his "Description of Pembrokeshire" (Owen's Pembrokeshire 
1892, 1, 251). In an enumeration of the natural and artificial beauties of his county, that able 
and energetic local antiquary remarks:- 



332 



An other thing worth the noteinge is the massive stone called Maen y gromlegh upon Pentre Jevan 
lande; )^ is a huge and massie stone mounted on highe and sett on the toppes of iii other highe 
stones, pitched standing vpright in thegrounde, yt farre passeth for biggnes and height Arthur's 
stone in the waye between Hereford and the Haye ,or Legh yr ast neere Blaen Forth in 
Cardiganshire or any other that ever I sawe, saving some in Stonedge vpon Salisburie plaine 
called Chorea giganlum, beinge on the sheefe wonders of England; Th shones wheron this is 
layed are so highe that a man on horeback may well ride under it without stowpinge, the stone 
that is thus mounted is xviij foote longe and nyno, foote broade, and three foote thicke at the on 
ende, but thinner at the other, and from it, as it is apparante since his placeinge there, ios broken 
a peece 5 foote broad and 10 foote longe, lyeing yett in the place more than 20 oxen would not 
drawe, doubtles this stone was mounted longe tjmie seethence in memory of somer notable 
victorye or the buryall of some notable parson, w'ch was the ancient rite , for that it hathe 
pitches stones standing on against the other rounde aboute, and closeclose to the huge stone 
w'ch is mounted highe to be scene afarre off They call the Stone Cromlegh" 

Fenton (Tour, p560) quoying from "Ms Geo Owen" after the words "Twenty Oxen" interjects a 
sentence which does not appear in the above 'Description ' 

"There are seven stones that doe stand circle e like a form of a new moon, under the south end of 
the great stone, and on either syde two upright stones confronting each other". 

Edward Lhuyd, at the time when he was engaged upon his additions to Camden's Britannia had not 
seen this monument , as he expressly tells us (Gibson's edition col 636) and contents himself 
with the above account of it which he obtained at second hand from a manuscript of George 
Owen. 

The Rev John Jones (Tegid), vicar of Nevern (1842-1852) writing in 1847 says that the cromlech 
was formerly in a circle of rude stones 150ft in circumference ... in an adjoining field about 
100 or 150 ft north east from the above cromlech, is a huge recumbent stone evidently intended 
for an altar; but broken in the act of being lifted or hoisted up' (Arch Camb 1847 I ii,374). 

The capstone measures 16ft 9in in length is 9ft 6in broad and has at its thickest (the southern) end a 
debth of 2ft 8in. The stone is light in weight and appearance ; the northern end is pointed. The 
two highest supporters are about 7ft 6in above the soil, the third a few inches shorter. In close 
proximity to the shortest of the pillars, are two fine monoliths standing in line which may have 
formed part of a gallery or passage, of which the recumbent stone s also formed a part. The 
two still erect are quite unconnected with the sipport of the capstone, and formed no part of the 
enclosing walls of the chamber beneath it. 

The circle of stones mentioned by Camden (following George Owen), and stated by Tegid to be 
150ft in circumference ,is not to be traced with any certitude. The area immediately about the 
cromlech is sfrewn with large and small boulders, very many of which bear signs of recent 
shifting and displacement. It has beenimpossible to locate Jones's "huge recumbent Stone." A 
difficult point to settle is whether this famous cromlech was originally hidden beneath a mound 



333 



of stones or of mixed earth and stones. In such case the cairn would have been of unusual 
proportions, though in view of the immense mound near Newmarket in Flintshire, Avebury in 
Wiltshire, and the innumerable Norman mottes, it is clear that the mere size of the mound 
would present no insuperable difficulties. Les easy to answer is the argument - if the cromlech 
was intended to be covered, why it should have been constructed on such a colossal scale? It is 
of course possible that the structure represents onlu a partially finished whole; and if it was 
intended to cover the bones of a hero, or was commemorative of one who had been slain in a 
tribal or racial conflict, a rapidly moving host would not have sufficient time to erect so huge a 
camedd as the cromlech would require. 

The cromlech is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments Protection Act of 1882 - Visited 8* June 
1914. 



Pentre Van 

At PENTRE EVAN in this parish there is a megalithic tomb which is scheduled as a 
national monument as it is probably the finest example of its class in Great Britain. It is 
also interesting fi^om its proximity to the Preseli Mountains, whence were taken the 
famous bluestones to form two of the inner circles at Stonehenge. How, or why, these 
stones were moved some 206 miles are matters of conjecture. 

[See paper read to the Society of Antiquities of London on I9th of April, 1923, be Mr H. H. 
Thomas, D.Sc, Petrologist to the Geological Surrey, and Early Britain, by Jacquetta 
Hawkes, published 1945 (Collins). The evidence can be studied in the museum at 
Salisbury.'] 

Cromlech Trelyffant 

This cromlech stands about 500yds north west of Trelyffant farm house. The ground about it is 
slightly raised, being in all probability the remains of the mound which originally covered it; a 
few of the base stones can still be detected in the soil. The capstone measures 6ft 8in by 5ft 
llin, with a thickness of 2ft 7in; it is an unshapoely mass which has been forced sideways but 
sufficiently to dislodge it from the three pillars upon which it stands. The height above ground 
is 5ft Sin. When sketched by Sir J Gardner Wilkinson (Collectanea Archaeologica 1871 Vol II 
part iii p230) there was a small stone inserted between the square headed supporter and the 
capstone which has since been removed. 

Adjoining the cromlech is a large stone and several small ones, suggesting the probability that this 
had originally been a double cromlech. The upper surfaces of both this stone and the capstone 



334 



are pitted with a number of cup like depressions of varying dimensions, which appear to fall 
into three of four irregular groupings. In the comer of the adjoining field, about 300 yds south 
east of the cromlech, is an erect stone 4ft 6in high possibly a pointer to the cromlech. It is not 
marked on the 6in Ord. Sheet. The field upom which the cromlech stands bears the name of 
"Pare y Uech" --Visited 23 June 1914. 



Trefael Burial Chamber 



This Burial chamber, a Scheduled Ancient Monument, dates to the Neolithic and is thought to have 
been in use between 3,500 and 2,500 BCE. It is situated some 125m above AOD, and is located 
within a rectilinear field, some 15m from its southern boundary. The burial chamber is 
approximately 350m south of St Andrew the Apostle's Church (NPRN225). Modern aerial 
photographic coverage and Ordnance Survey mapping show a further stone located within or 
adjacent to this field boundary, directly south of the burial chamber. Historic Ordnance Survey 
mapping (1889-1907) depicts this stone approximately 80m further to the south-east. 

A cup-marked stone, lying tilted on its side, is thought to have been the burial chamber's 
capstone. The stone is comprised of silicified sandstone and measures 2 x 2.3m. It appears to 
have been significantly damaged on one side, and a large stone flake measuring some 40cm x 
35cm appears to have been sheared off. A programme of geophysical survey and excavation 
was undertaken in 2010 by the Welsh Rock-art Organisation, followed by further excavation in 
201 1 and 2012. A total of five shale beads, thought to date to the Mesolithic, have been 
discovered to date. 2m north of the stone the remains of a Late Neolithic Grooved Ware pot and 
an intact human cremation burial were found. Overlying the supposed Neolithic ground 
surface, immediately south-west of the capstone, the remains of a possible Bronze Age stone 
burial cist were found. The cist was incorporated into a shale/earth mound, thought to have 
originally been circular in shape. This was found to contain a vertical cut, suggesting that the 
stone may have been subsequently erected upright within the cut, as a standing stone. A large 
amount of white quartz was found to be present around the southern part of the stone, possibly 
representing the remains of a pavement. 

Sources include: 

Nash, G, Stanford, A, Therriault, I, and Wellicome, T., 201 1, 'Transcending ARTISTIC ritual 
boundaries,from dolmen to menhir: The excavation of the Trefael Stone, South-west Wales' 
National Assembly of Wales, 2009, vertical AP 
Ordnance Survey, 1889, First edition 25inch 
Ordnance Survey, 1907, Second edition 25inch 
www.independent.co.uk, 10 April 2012 



335 



N Vousden, RCAHMW, May 2012 



Nevern - Trefael 12th February 2014 

Archaeologists make fascinating discovery at north Pembrokeshire Neolithic site 

An ancient monument in a field near Nevern has been giving up its secrets to a team of 
archaeologists fi-om the Welsh Rock Art Organisation. 

Trefael was previously classified as a standing stone, probably of early Bronze Age, until an 
archaeological team, led by Dr George Nash of the University of Bristol, undertook a 
geophysical survey in 2009. 

The results led them to believe that the stone, which is decorated with over 75 cupmarks, is a 
capstone once supported by a series of upright stones to form a Neolithic burial chamber, 
probably a Portal Dolmen, one of Western Britain's earliest burial monument types. 

The team continued excavating the site for another two seasons, and in 2012 cremated bone was 
discovered in one of the trenches that stood close to the stone. It was accompanied by later 
prehistoric pottery. 

The cremation and the surrounding deposits were carefully excavated and lifted by Welsh 

archaeologist Catarina Rees and sent for dating and analysis. The burial was also radiocarbon 
dated to between 2,200 and 1,900 BC. 

Dr Nash said: "The cremation burial, one of only a handful within this part of Western Britain to be 
dated using modem chronometric dating techniques, clearly shows that Trefael was more than 
just a standing stone. Careful archaeological excavation over three years has shown that the site 
has been utilised over at least a 5,000 year period." 



Llech y tribedd 

Llech y tribedd, "the tripod supported or triangular shaped stone", is 1 % miles north east of the 
Trelyffant cromlech. It is 9ft Sin long by 9ft broad with a thickness of 3ft 11 in; it stands on 
three supporters the whole structure having a height of 9ft 6in. The capstone is a huge 
unshapely block of stone. A fourth stone lies prostrate. A correspondent described to Edward 
Lhuyd its appearance in the year 1693:-- "It is placed on four supporting stones pitched in the 
earth about Vi yd high, one whereof is sunk a little in the earth, so that it doth not touch the 
covering stone; This covering stone declines towards the north occasioned by the thickness of 
the south end". The ground on which the cromlech stands is perfectly flat, and ther is no trace 
of an outer ring of stones . The field name of Pare y llech is still in use. 



336 



A short distance off there stood, formerly, a single stone which may have been connected with the 
cromlech. (Fenton Tours p 534) states that " At The west end of the field in which the cromlech 
stands, towards the sea, I pass a stone called Maen y tri thivedd, of the stone of the three heirs, 
the possessions of three different men having met there " This stone is said to be buried beneath 
the hedge between the field and the lane abo)^ 50yds west of the cromlech - Visited 23'^'' June 
1914. 



Cromlechau Meibion Owen 

About 500 yds north west of Croesffordd dwr bach are the remains of two cromlechs, of which only 
one is shown on the 6in Ord sheet. The first has tree supporters two erect and one fallen. The 
erect stones are distanced 6ft from one another, and are respectively 95 and 90 in above ground. 
The prostrate stone is 12ft long and somewhat pointed. Of the capstone there is no trace, and no 
local tradition of it appears to exist. It was unknown to the late father of Mr David Howells 
(aged 69), of the adjacent farm of Cilgwyn Mawr, who was bom here. 

To the east of this cromlech and distant fro it 30yds are the remains of the second. This one has one 
supporter still in situ standing 90ins above the ground; it leans slightly towards the east. 
Another pillar lies flat, and is now partly covered by turf; At its side is a prostrate boulder 
which may have been the capstone. The field is called Pare cerrig hirion. In the next field is an 
unfailing spring called "Ffynnon cerrig hirion " - Visited 30 June 1914 



Blaen Meini Stone 

On a field in the north west of the parish is an erect stone now somewhat hidden under bushes. It 
stands 3ft 6in above the ground, has a breadth of 3 ft, and a thickness of 9in. It faces north. It is 
not marked on the 6in Ord sheet -Visited 16* July 1914 



Pare Ian Stones 

Two erect stones on Pare Ian. One which is somewhat pointed is 57 in above ground; the other is 
more square and rises 45 in from the surface. They are not marked on the 6in Ord sheet. ~ 
Visited 30* June 1914. 



Ty gwyn Stones 

In the hedge opposite Ty Gwyn vottages ,on the Morfa in the north west of the parish are two erect 
stones now doing duty as gate posts. The taller and more southerly stands *ft 4in anbove the 
ground; The shiorter , distance 8ft to the north has a height of 6ft 3in; both are square topped. A 



337 



curious local tradition asserts that these stones were dropped on their present site while being 
taken to build the Trelyffant cromlech. They are not marked on the 6in Od sheet.— Visited 16* 
July 1914. 



Y Garreg Hir. 

An erect monolith marked "standing stone" on the 6in Ord sheet, about 600 yds south west of 
Trefach farm house, on the western slope of Bank du. This is a well proportioned slightly 
pointed stone. It stands 9ft clear of the ground, faces west, and has a girth of slightly over 1 1ft. 

To the west of this stone, and at a distance of 15yds, are 5 large stones embedded in the turf, having 
the appearance of belonging to a ruined cromlech. Nothing more can be said without 
excavation of the site - Visited 2°'' July 1914. 



Alignment. 

Outside the garden of Troed y rhiw house, hald a mile south west of Carnedd meibion Owen, is an 
alignment of unhewn stones running due east and west for a length of 40ft. The stones number 
24; they are pitched on end and have an average height of 2ft. They are set so as to touch one 
another. A few yads fi-om the west end is a rudely circular group of stones, probably 12 in 
number, some having almost disappeared beneath the turf The alignment and the circle are 
doubtless part of the same work, the object of which is not clear. The stones are not marked on 
the 6in Ord sheet. The site calles for excavation. Visited 30* June 1914. 



Waun Mawn 

Of this circle on Waun Mawn, one monolith - indicated on the 6in Ord sheet by the words "standing 
stone" - is erect, three lie prostrate on the surface of the common, and a fourth has apparently 
sunk, until its pointed top is barely visible. The standing stone, which is the mostnortherly of 
the five , is 65 in above the ground. Distance 30fy in a easterly direction from this stone , is a 
prostrate boulder 6 Vi ft in length; a depression in the ground at its base marks its original 
position. The third stone 30ft further on, has been fractured either by its fall or by frost; what 
remains is 43 in in length. Prostrate on the line of the circle to the west of the standing stone , 
and distance from it 70ft is the fourth stone, a monolith of 6 '/^ ft in length. A slight depression 
in the turf marks the spot occupied by the stone when it stood erect. The fifth stone to the south, 
of which only the point is visible, is probably on the circumference of the circle, and this would 
give the circle a diameter of 150ft. The surface of the common is much broken up by turf 
cutting, which has evidently oblitereated traces of further stones in the circle, though it is 
probable that a careful! examination would reveal their positions. Two hundred yds to the south 
west are two erect stones, and a V4 mile to the east is a third maen hir, all probably connected 



338 



with the circle. -Visited 18* June 1914. 



Castell Cynon 

The existance of this perfect example of one of the smaller promontory fortresses in the country is 
known from the Tithe Commutation schedule, for although indicated on the 6in sheet, its 
charscvter as a historical monumenj^ is not suggested, nor is it recognised in the 
neighbourhood as an anttiquitu. The camp is placed in the north east comer of a field known as 
Pare Castell immediately north of Tre Gynon farm house. The defence consists of a semi 
circular rampart facing west, and a steep declivity to the river Gwaun on the east, at the point 
where the parishes of Nevern, Llanychllwydog and newoport meet. The existing bank at its 
southern end is 10ft high with a fall of 20ft to a fairly well preserved ditch 3 to 4ft wide. The 
entrance is at the south end of the rampart, the width of the opening being about lOft. The 
nortem end of the bank is brought close up to the fall to the river that flows below. The adjacent 
field is known as Roft y Gaer - Visited 2"'' July 1914. 



CasteU HenUys 

This is a fine promontory camp situated some 300yds north east of Meline Parish church. The 
earthwork stands on the bank of the river Duad, which here forms the boundary between the 
parishes of Nevern, Meline and Eglwyswrw. The east and south slopes show distinct signs of 
scarping to a terrace 25ft wide, which has been utalised as a roadway to an entrance on the 
eastern side of the camp. The tongue of land is cut off by a formidable rampart drawn in an 
imposing cresent across the northem and western sides of the enclosure. The enclosed area is a 
little over one acre; it is known as Pare castell. The northern side of the rampart rises 15ft from 
the level interior and falls about 40ft to a ditch 20ft in width; both have been largely destroyed 
to the west. The entrance to the east has been distrubed but the clubbed end of the rampart is 
still to be traced - Visited 8"" July 1914. 



CasteU Trefach 



The 6 in Ord surv, sheet gives no indications of the existence of this earthwork, but the name of the 
field recorded in the Tithe commutation Schedule led to its discovery. About 150 yds south east 
of Trefach farmhouse, and half a mile north east of Nevern parish chiurch, is a field known as 
pare Castell the south of which terminates in a promontory defended on three sided by 
precipitous descents to the Camman stream on the east and a small unnamed tributary on the 
west, both streams uniting at the base of the promontory. The enclosed area measures slightly 
less than an acre. It is defended on the north by a well preserved rampart and ditch. The bank 



339 



has a length of 180ft; it riss 10ft to a fall of 20ft to a ditch 10ft wide. It is best seen at its west 
end. The entrance 30ft wide is at the eastern end of the bank. The top of the rampart is of 
unusual breadth, being of an average of 6ft. The southern slope to the river has been scarped. 
The field to the west is called Pare y domen -Visited 2y^ June 1914. 



Banc Llwydlos Hut Dwellings 

The site marked "Hut Circles" on that part of the Prescelly range called Banc Llwydlos is now 
difficult to locate. The surface has been much disturbed within recent years by mountain 
torrents and by stone seekers. One hut dwelling can be traced having a diameter of 8ft within 
the walls, but its site is much hidden beneath rank vegetation. The Pembrokeshire 
Archaeological Survey notes "a stone circle which could scarcely have been intended for a 
wall. There are ten or twelve hut circles; these appear to be really the foundations of dwelling 
places and not spaces marked out for sepulchres of unknown purposes" 

It is quite possible that a group of genuinely prehistoric hut dwellings stood here but the site has 
been so disturbed that it is impossible to trace any connection, much less communication, 
between the chaotic heaps of half hidden stones — Visited 19* June 1914. 



Waun Mawn Hut Circles 

About 200 yds north of the Waun Mawn ruined circle the 6in sheet marks a "Hut Circle" This is a 
slight oval enclosure about 12ft in diameter . The encircling wall stands about 1ft high and 
appears to be formed of mountain gathered stones . It is probably a sheep enclosure -Visited 
18* July 1914 



Castlell 

On a field called Pare Castell 6ooyds west of Blaen Meini farm house, are faint traces of an 
earthwork which without excavation, it is impossible to classify. The outline gives a rectangular 
enclosure about 100ft by 60ft, the bank having an average height of 2ft. There is no ditch. It is 
probably a medieval enclosure for agriculural purposes; but the name , if it is old, presents a 
difficulty. In the next field to the north stands the Blaen Meini standing stone - Visited 16* 
July 1914 



Castel y garn 

A field of this name 1 Va north west of Nevern. On the second field east of the farmstead of Pare 
Castell are the traces of a small sircular earthwork that is so much obliterated by cultivation as 



340 



to admit no more than this brief notice of it. After a fall of snow it is said that the outline is 
plainly discernible - Visited 23'^'' June 1914 

Houses 
Trewern 

The patrimonial residence of the family of warren about 1 Vi miles south-east of the parish church; 
known to older inhabitants as Tre Waryn. William Waring (or Warren) appears in the Dale 
castle MSS as sherif of his county in 1674. He was the thrirteenth in his line and in all 
probability to him or his father should the oldest parts of the present house be credited. It is of 
E plan having a hall with two wings and a central porch. The stone seated porch leads to a 
massive oaken door, having fine wrought iron hinges and inside bar holes. This gives access to 
a spacious apartment, having a panelled ceiling, noe used as a kitchen. This room opens on the 
hall, from which broad oak stairs lead to the oak panelled bedrooms. In the coach house is 
aloose stone found near the house, inscribed "Built by John Warren Esq. , 1710". This in all 
probability, refers to a vanished summer house or out building -Visited 15* July 1914. 

Henllys 

A modern farm house occupies the site of the home of George Owen (1552 - 1613) lord of Kemes, 
the first of a line of local historians as author of a History of Pembrokeshire, which has been 
published in the Hon. Cjmamrodorion Society Record Series by Henry Owen D.C.L., another 
Pembrokeshire worthy. 

Fenton (Tour,p 562) 1811 records George Owen description of his home :- 

"cheifiy of the age of king Henry VII, built of stone covered with tile, to which is belonging a stable 
of seven bays long, and a barn of thirteen bays, besides all suitable outhouses, buildings, 
curtilages , gardens and orchards". A fragment of walling east of the present house is stated to 
be a portion of the kitchen of the vanished mansion. Through the wood and dingle south of the 
house , runs the overgrown lane by which it was approached from Pont Baldwin. 



Llwyngwair 

The present house is , in the main of modem date though some portion of its walls may belong to 
the structure erected by Sir James bowen, an active supporter of Henry Tudor in 1485, who was 
living in 1517. Llwyngwair is mentioned by George Owen in his History of Pembrokeshire 
(1603) as one of the county residences which stood in the midst of surrounding plantations - 
Visited 14* July 1914. 



Pentre Evan 



341 



The earlier home of the Bowen family before a branch established itself at Llwjaigair. By fenton's 
time (Tour p559) the mansion had become "a mere farmhouse, once the principal mansion, not 
only of this particular district , but of this county in the reign of HenryVII, when Sir James ap 
Owen, one of his strenuous adherents, occupied it in the true style of baronial magnificence" 

The present house id without archaeological interest. In the yard is a tiled building of twoi storeys, 
the remains of the stabling attached to the former dwelling. The upper floor is approached by 
outside stone stairs, and has numerous small openings for light. 



Velindre farchog 

The house known as "College" was built as a school by George Owen, who died before he could 
carry out his project. It bears the inscription renewed, " Llysdy Arglwyddi Cemmes 1559- 
1620". The little building has been modernised and given a new roof, ceiling, floor etc. the two 
windows facing the road retain their original stone mullions. As the above inscription implies, 
the room was also used for the court leets of the barony of Kemmes, and still continues to be so 
(RCAM 1923) 



The Grange 

On the site now occupied by the present house of this name stood the principal grange of the lord- 
ship of Kemes. 



Eglwys Fair RCAM 

The site of the little chapel of St Mary is reputed to be the sumit of Bane du, at the foot of which % 
miles to the north is the present chapel of St Mary. About 1900 the Pem Arch Survey reported 
upon few remains the visible. There has been quarrying in the area. 

It is improbable that the building thus described was an early chapel, for it is not likely that a 
religious edifice dedicated to St Mary would have been erected on such a site after the Norman 
intrusion. The chapel of the Virgin was more probably on the site now occupied by the church 
of Cilgwyn, where there are traditions of an earlier building than the 18* century church which, 
in its turn, gave way in 1884 to the present structure, The Cilgwyn font has a square bowl, 27in 
each way which may be ancient Both Visited 2°'' and 9"^ July 1914 



Site of Capel Cynon P265 

According to George Owen (Owen's Pem 1 509) there are no fewer than eight chapels in this parish 



342 



to which pilgrimages were wont to be made. Most of them were then in ruins. Their names, as 
he gives them, are Capell Reall, Capell Padric, Capell St Thomas, Capell St Ffrede, Capell 
gwenfron, Capell wenddith, Cappell Kilgwin and Capel St George . To which of the eight 
belonged the faint outlines visible at Capel Cynon it seems impossible now to say. The site 
shows a depression 30ft in length, and 18ft in width. A few foundation stones are visible in the 
soil, and there is sufficient to prove that the little building lay east and west. The ruins stand on 
Roft y capel -Visited 2""* July 1914. 



Pont Baldwin (Bridge) 

A britdge over the river Duad, at this point the boundary between the parishes of Nevem and 
Meline. Its name is commemorative of Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, who in the year 
1188 preached the crusade at this spot, but it is not to be assumed that the bridge was then in 
existence. The structure has recently been widened, giving new pwrwpets , and generally 
modernised. From the bed of the stream can be seen a little of the old masonry in the crown of 
the arch -Visited 8* July 1914. 



Buarth Brynach (Well) 

On the slopes of Prescelly, about 600yds south of Camedd Meibion Owen is a spring dedicated to 
St Brynach, and situated within Buarth Brynach. It id ferered to by Fenton (Tour 355) as 
follows " Above that range of rocks called Varnedd Meibion Owen, on the side of the mountain 
by the highway,and is compassed around with a curtilage of stone wall called Buarth Brynach - 
Brynach 's Fold, the wall being 6ft thick". —No trace of a stone wall exists today -Visited 30* 
June 1914. 



Finds 

Bronze Dagger 

In August 1922 a Bronze dagger was found during quarrying operations at Carreg y bont quarry 50 
yds west of Pont Brjoiberian. Its length is 10 % in, maximum breadth 3in weight lib. The haft 
has disappeared, but the holes by which it was secured are to be seen. The mid rib is rounded in 
section and well developed. Now in the Museum of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society. 



343 



RCAHMW, 



Nevern Bridge, Nevern 

Fine stone bridge. One large and one smaller arch. Buttressed. Thought to have been built after the 
c. 1 7th century.RCAHMW, 



Nevern, St Brynach's Churchyard, Nevern 
Nevern, St Brynachs Churchyard PGW Dy 67 new site 

This churchyard is Registered because of its magnificent and unusual avenue of yew trees, 
which, the Register suggests, though without presenting any evidence, could date from the 
medieval period. Besides its well-known Early medieval High Cross, the graveyard contains 
significant family graves dating from the eighteenth century, many fragmenting and in need of 
record and conservation. C.S.Briggs 20.10.05. 

Depicted on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25-inch map of Pembrokeshire VI, sheet 9 
(1907). C.H. Nicholas, RCAHMW, 24th August 2006. 



St Brynach's Cross; The High Cross, Nevern RCAHMW 

St Brynach's Cross is a free-standing composite pillar-cross, with a separate, elaborately caved, 
quadrangular shaft and wheel-head. Ascribed to the late 10th- 11th century. 

Associated with: Church J.Wiles 19.03.02 



Castell Trefach, Nevern 

A generally oval earthwork enclosure, about 68m east- west by 46m, set on a promontory above 
a stream confluence, defined by natural scarps except on the north, where a rampart & ditch 
face rising ground. RCAHMW J.Wiles 06. 10.03 



Pilgrim's Cross;Rock Cross, Nevern RCAHMW 



344 



An equal armed cross cut in rough relief in the living rock to the W of Nevem parish church. This 
cross is associated with the medieval pilgrimage route to St David's, on which Nevern is said to 
have marked the last stage, however a monument such as this is not readily susceptible to 
dating. J. Wiles 19.03.02 



Vitaliani Stone, Nevern 



Pillar stone, 1.8m high, with Ogam and Latin inscription, that had formerly served as a gatepost at 
Cwm Gloyne . Ascribed to the 5th - e.6th century. Associated with:Church J. Wiles 19.03.02 



Chapel (CAPEL;RUIN), Nevern 



Nevem Chapel was marked on the 1889 25" map but by 1993 stood just as a ruin. 
RCAHMW,May2011 



St Brynach's Church, Nevern 

St Brynach's church, Nevem is a 15th century Anglican parish church with a 12th century 
tower, much restored 1864 by R. J. Withers, architect of London. The tower is broad with a 

battered plinth, small two-light bell-openings and corbelled embattled parapet. The nave has a 
1864 blue lias ashlar porch. The south aisle is unusually two-storey, with a priest's chamber in 
the loft. There is a fine 1864 Bath stone font and pulpit. A curious cross-inscribed stone with 
unusual knotting is reused in south aisle window sill and there is another inscribed stone on the 
adjoining sill, both are in Latin and Ogham and were found in 1906 in the wall leading to 
priest's chamber. 

Inscribed stones 

St Brynach's churchyard 

Pilgrim's Cross 

St Brynach's Cross 

Sources: CADW listed buildings database; T.J. Hughes, Wales's Best One Hundred Churches, 
2006. 



345 



RCAHMW, 13 November 2007. 



Pentre Ifan;Pentre Evan, Nevern 



1 . Site of earlier house of Sir James Bowen, adherent of Henry VII. In the yard are the remains of 
the stabling of the earlier house. 

2. Late 18th-early 19th century 2-storey farmhouse consists of rubble walls, a purple slate 
pitched roof and rubble end chimney stacks. A 3 -window front with horned sash windows and 
voussoirs to the ground floor. Modem gabled central porch. Projecting from the right hand 
front corner, but not bound in, is a lower 2-storey rubble range. 
PE/Domestic/SN03NE from Cadw 



Pentre Evan, Barn And Stables;Pentre Ivan, Nevern 



Medieval, late 15th or early 16th century. 2 storeys. Original use is uncertain but appears to belong 
to a small category of buildings where main house was constructed as a gatehouse. Possibly a 
gatehouse/ courthouse? 

2-storey rubble masonry with quoins and dressed surrounds to the door and window openings. 
Probably originally had a thatched roof A tall broad segmental arched opening with voussoirs, 
monolithic jambs and continuous chamfer. To the immediate left is a pedestrian doorway now 
blocked by a hopper window; similar blocked opening towards the right end. 
PE/Domestic/SN03NE from Cadw 



Llwyn Goras, Nevern 



1. This garden is depicted on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25-inch map of Pembrokeshire 
VI, sheet 9 (1907). Its main elements on that map include bog, house, woodland, wild, tennis 
court, summerhouse, shrubbery, box hedges, reservoir, m, gate, possible formal garden, exotic 



346 



trees and plants, lawns and a possible kitchen garden. 
C.S.Briggs 27.09.05 



2. Elizabethan gentry house- eventually descended to a tenanted farm which probably saved the 
levels in garden from alteration. 

3. The present owners took over a largely derelict garden in 1963 and have been restoring it 
ever since. Apart from a few forest treees - Quercus, Acer Pseudoplatanus (sycamore) Abies 
Nordmanniana (the Caucasian or Nordmann Fir) and Taxus baccata and Hibemica and some 
remnants of box hedges the planting has all taken place since 1963, though Ruseus, Lilium 
montyagna and tibrium var flaviflorum were discovered in dark comers. The 1889 O.S. Pembs 
sheet VI. 9 shows the whole of the farm. 

Mrs Eileen Wheeler, (owner) spring 1997 

WHGT with spelling corrections by WH and C.S.Briggs 2001 



Pentre Ifan Chambered Tomb, Near Nevern 



Pentre Ifan is perhaps the finest surviving Neolithic tomb in Wales and forms one of a group of 
Portal Dolmens built around the tributaries of the Nevern Valley approximately 6,000 years 
ago. Its chamber is formed by a capstone of around 16 tonnes upheld on three uprights about 
2.5m high at one end of a cairn some 30 m long. The tomb was excavated by W F Grimes in 
1936-7, who thought that it was heavily influenced by prehistoric contacts with Ireland. More 
recent research suggests the tomb was an indigenous creation by the local communities but 
may have been nonetheless influenced by Irish culture and contact during a later stage of its 
use, when the long mound, long since eroded away, was extended. Finds from Pentre Ifan, as 
from other Welsh prehistoric tombs, were meagre, numbering a few sherds of pottery from a 
shouldered bowl and a triangular flint arrowhead. Its present appearance, as a gaunt 
freestanding structure supporting a delicately balanced capstone, may never have been 
witnessed by the communities who later used it. Instead, it is thought that the whole structure 
was covered in a massive mound or cairn of stones with access to the chamber permitted only 
through the door or 'portal' at the south end. 

It is a monument in the Welsh Assembly Government's guardianship and has public access. 
T. Driver, RCAHMW, 28th October 2009. 



Tyganol Fort;Tycanol Fort, Nevern 

A promontory defined by steep natural slopes is cut off by a stone and earth wall and ditch, 
347 



producing a rather oval enclosed area, c.72m N-S by 42m: the entrance is thought to have been 
on the E side, approached up the steep natural slopes, leaving the W-facing rampart blind: the 
interior is subdivided by rough stone walling. J. Wiles 08.09.04 



Chapel, Nevern 



Nevem Chapel was built during the early nineteenth century, converted into a school during the late 
nineteenth century and by 1993 had been converted again into a village hall. RCAHMW, May 
2011 



Berry Hill Camp 

A ploughed-down, sub-circular enclosure, about 90m by 75m, set on ground falling to the 
south-east, showing a possible north-east facing: survey & test-pitting, in 1985, indicated that 
this was a late prehistoric style settlement enclosure, within which a medieval building had 
been set, this possibly being a grange (see Nprn22006): pre-medieval finds were limited to four 
pot sherds, assigned a generalised prehistoric date. 
Source: Mytum & Webster 1993 (BBCS 40), 198-211. J. Wiles 08.03.05 

Photographed as a soihnark by RCAHMW on 23rd June 2005. T. Driver. 



Trellyffaint Burial Chamber 

Six upright earth- fast stones, three of which support a capstone, whilst two others, to the north- 
west, may have formed part of a second chamber: a prostrate stone & the capstone are pitted 
with possible cup-marks: traces of a mound have been reported, but were not apparent by 1966. 
Source: RCAHMW AP965 054/70 J.Wiles 23.03.05 



Gethsemane Welsh Calvinistic Methodist, Morfa 



Gethsemane Methodist Chapel was built in 1844 in the Simple Round-Headed style of the gable- 
entry type. By 2010 this chapel had been converted for other use. RCAHMW, November 2010 



348 



Penuel Welsh Baptist Church, Rhyd-Y-Maen, Cemaes 



Penuel Baptist Chapel was built in 1824 and rebuilt as the present chapel in 1860. The chapel is 
built in the Simple Round-Headed style with a gable entry plan. Penuel is now Grade 2 Listed. 
RCAHMW, November 2010 



Bethel Welsh Independent Chapel, Moylegrove 



Bethel Independent Chapel was built in 1691, rebuilt/restored in 1837 and rebuilt/restored again in 
1901. The present chapel, dated 1901, is built in the Simple Round-Headed style of the long- 
wall entry type. 
RCAHMW, November 2010 



CasteU Treruffydd; CasteUtreuffydd 



A sweep of degraded rampart and ditch defines a roughly tear-drop ahaped enclosure, about 68m 
north-east to south-west by 38m, resting on steep coastal slopes on the north-west: the 
enclosure circuit serves to isolate a promontory below the coastal slope, as well as Careg Yspar, 
immediately offshore: it has been suggested that a pot sherd recovered fi-om the enclosure is 
Roman (Davies 1980, 520). 

Source: Davies 1980 Aspects of Native Settlement in Roman Wales', unpublished PhD thesis. 
University of Wales. 
RCAHMW AP965054/68 

J. Wiles 08.03.05 



349 



350 



Newport 



1811 Fenton Tours Newport 

Newport from its distribution, appears to have several streets intersecting each other at right angles, 
and dignified with names, giving one an idea of its having from the first, been a considerable place, 
probably enlarged when it became a great woollen manufactory three of four centuries after. 
Though now but a straggling place meanly built with many chasms in its streets to fill up, the mere 
skeleton of the town as it once was, yet, at a little distance in the aggregate interspersed with trees 
as it is, with the ruins of its castle and a respectable looking church, it has a good effect. 

The Castle stands on an elevated knoll above the town at the extremity of the principal street, in the 
centre of which was the cross. The grand entrance was by a gateway between two noble bastions, a 
specimen of excellent masonary, facing the north; within it was another, having the marks of a 
portcullis. The area of the castle nearly round was about fifty paces in diameter, and was 
encompassed with a deep moat, having a fine command of water. Atthe west end are the remains of 
a magnificent bastion, and two other large ones to the south and southeast; if we may judge from 
what we can noe trace, the principal rooms, perhaps, occupied the south east portion of the 
buildings, which in every part united strength with elegance 

The church is a cruciform building, consisting of a nave, chancel and cross aisles, roofed with old 
oak. The nave is separated from the chancel and side aisles by plain pointed arches. There was a 
rood loft in the memory of some old people handsomely wrought and gilt. It is said there was an 
organ, but that 1 doubt. In the chancel just without the communion rails in the south wall are two 
plain stone canopies, one covering a grave stone raised a little from the floor, having a head 
embossed on it much defaced, with a cross fleury the whole length of it, the other united with it, 
vacant; but an old mason, then working in the church, told me that about thirty years back it 
enclosed the effigy of a man, but whether of a warrior or priest he could not say, yet remembered it 
being taken away,adding, with great exulktation, that it served to cut up into fine arches for 
windows. The two canopies probably might have been erected for Sir William Martin and his lady, 
the Lord rhys's daughter as the reputed founders of the present church, which entitled them to the 
distinction of sepulture in the chancel, where none were admitted at that period but such as fully 
andswered , or where otherwise very great benefactors to the church, and though the first founding 
of it may be more justly ascribed to St Byrnach some centuries before, yet Sir William Martin and 
his consort claim the honour of having enlarged and beautified the original structure, and increased 
its endowment. On the south side of the belfiy there is an elegant niche for holy water, arch pointed; 
and on the west side of the entrance prrch the ruins of a detatched building said to have been the 
record office of the town. Over the west door in the wall of the steeple pretty high up are two 
escutcheons united of light freestone, bearing the same coat. At the end of the nave issuing from the 
roof on the outside is a richly wrought open spire for a bell; and the windows of cut stone, though 
now almost entirely filled up, exhibit no mean tracery. 



351 



1839 Newport Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 

NEWPORT, a sea-port, market-town, and parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, 
county of Pembroke, South Wales, 19'/i miles (N. E. by N.) from Haverfordwest, and 242 (W. by 
N.) from London; containing 1751 inhabitants. The ancient British name of this place, Trevdraeth, 
signifying literally "the town on the sands," appears to have been derived from its situation on a 
sandy beach of considerable extent, which intervenes between it and the bay of Newport. The town 
is indebted for its origin and early importance to the descendants of Martin de Tours, the first lord of 
Kemmes, which territory he had wrested from the Welsh by conquest, and erected into a lordship 
marcher. William, son of Martin, built a castle at this place, which he made the head of his barony, 
and endowed with many privileges. He bestowed upon the inhabitants a charter of incorporation, 
vesting the government of the town in a mayor and burgesses, to whom he gave an extensive grant 
of lands, with liberty to hold a weekly market, and several valuable immunities; all which were 
confirmed, in 1 192, by his son Nicholas, who granted common pasture, and water from the fosse, 
and whose charter declares that the burgesses "ought to have a bailiff and common council." The 
lordship was entirely independent of the palatinate of Pembroke: the lord held his courts in the 
castle of this place; all writs were issued in his own name exclusively, and neither in that of the Earl 
of Pembroke, nor even of the King of England. In 1215 the castle was taken by Llewelyn ab 
lorwerth, but it soon afterwards reverted to its original proprietors, whose descendants continued to 
hold it, together with the lordship, in which they exercised jura regalia, till the time of Henry VIII., 
when all such jurisdictions were abolished. 

Under the protection of its ancient lords the town increased in extent and wealth, and enjoyed many 
additional privileges, some of which were granted to the barony in the 34th year of the reign of 
Elizabeth. It had become extremely populous, and carried on an extensive woollen manufacture, 
about the commencement of the sixteenth century, when a pestilential disease occasioned such 
mortality among its inhabitants, that its market was transferred to Fishguard, the trade of the port 
ceased, and the town fell into decay. The market has however been reestablished, and some little 
addition to its trade has gradually taken place since that period; but the town has never recovered its 
former importance. 



Newport stands on the high road from Cardigan to Fishguard, and is pleasantly situated at the 
mouth of the river Nevern, which falls into St. George's Channel at Newport bay, and on ground 
ascending gradually to the Cam Ingle mountain, which shelters it from the south-easterly and south- 
westerly winds, and rises to a considerable height beyond the town. It consists of small streets 
irregularly formed, and is neither lighted nor paved, but the inhabitants are naturally well supplied 
with excellent water. The houses, with some few exceptions, are indifferently built, but, from the 
intermixture of numerous trees with the buildings, the town, at a small distance, has a pleasingly 



352 



rural appearance; and the surrounding scenery, in which its venerable church and the picturesque 
remains of its ancient castle form prominent and interesting features, renders the more remote view 
of it strikingly beautiful. 



The trade principally carried on is the working of some extensive quarries of slate, with which the 
neighbouring coast abounds, and of which great quantities are shipped to various places, the vessels 
being enabled to approach close to the quarries, and to receive the slates from the overhanging 
cliffs. In the burning of lime, also, for the supply of the adjacent districts, a considerable portion of 
the population is employed. A vein of alum shale is said to lie within a short distance of the town, 
but it has never been worked. There is a sahnon-fishery on the river Nevem, which in favourable 
seasons is carried on with advantage; and a herring-fishery also exists here, but the demand is so 
inconsiderable that it is not productive of much benefit to the persons engaged in it. The port is 
subject to the customhouse of Cardigan: the principal exports are com and butter, and the produce 
of the quarries; the chief imports are coal, culm, and limestone. The harbour, which is small, has its 
entrance partially obstructed by a sand-bank; but it affords good shelter to the coasting-vessels 
occupied in the trade, and to the boats connected with the fisheries. A compact and well-protected 
bay, on the south and east, stretches out before the town, fi-om which it derives its name of Newport 
bay. The market is on Friday; and fairs take place on June 27th and October 16th. 



Newport retains the ancient form of government which it held under the charter granted by William, 
son of Martin de Tours, and afterwards confirmed by his son Nicholas. The control is vested in a 
mayor, bailiff, and an indefinite number of aldermen and burgesses. The mayor, who acts as a sort 
of head constable, is appointed by the lord of the borough from two burgesses presented by a jury; 
the bailiff, or pound-keeper, is chosen by the mayor; and the body of aldermen consists of those 
who have served the office of mayor. Courts leet and baron occur twice in the year; the petty- 
sessions for the hundred are held in the town on the first Friday in every month, and Newport is a 
polling-place in the election of a knight for the shire. The freemen, who are appointed by 
presentment of the jury, at one of the courts leet, are entitled to common and pasture upon the waste 
lands, which are about three miles in circumference. The boundaries of the borough are co- 
extensive with those of the parish, and are well ascertained, being duly perambulated at certain 
periods. 

The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £16, and endowed with £400 
parliamentary grant; present net income, £216, with a glebe-house; pafron, Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of 
Bronwydd, lord of the manor. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is an ancient and venerable 
cruciform structure, partly in the early style of English architecture, with a square tower at the west 
end. The roofs of the nave, chancel, and transepts, all of carved oak, are supported on ranges of 
plain pointed arches, and in the chancel are two stone canopies plainly wrought; over the nave is a 
richly wrought open spire for a bell, and the windows exhibit tracery of considerable elegance. The 
building a short time since received an addition of 418 sittings, towards defraying the expense of 



353 



which the Incorporated Society for the enlargement of churches and chapels contributed £200, in 
consideration of which grant 218 of the new sittings are free. On the west side of the porch are the 
ruins of a detached house, said to have been the record office of the town. There are places of 
worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists. A school on the National system is 
supported here on the foundation of the late Mrs. Bevan, for the gratuitous instruction of poor 
children; it is a permanent establishment, and the central school in which the teachers are prepared 
who superintend the several circulating branch institutions connected with the foundation. The 
school contains about 150 males and females; and the master has a salary of £40 per annum, 
together with a house and garden rent-free. This plan of "circulating" instruction was originally 
projected by the Rev. Griffith Jones, of Llandowror, in the county of Carmarthen, in the article on 
which parish an account of the charity is given. A British school is supported by subscription; and 
four Sunday schools are held, one of which is in connexion with the Established Church. 

On an elevated knoll rising abruptly at the extremity of the principal street in the town, are the 
remains of the ancient castle, consisting principally of one of the circular bastions that defended the 
grand entrance, the other having of late years fallen down, and some portions of the dungeons, 
between which and the town was a subterraneous communication, discovered not many years ago. 
The bottom of this concealed way was flagged, and the sides and the roof were secured by smooth 
stones. The castle was surrounded by a moat, and though the ruins bespeak it to have been 
originally occupied as a seat of baronial magnificence rather than as a fortress, it was no doubt well 
adapted to both purposes, and in its general construction it appears to have combined strength with 
elegance. Newport bay, bounded by the headlands of Dinas and Ceibwr, opens beautifully in front, 
rendering the situation peculiarly delightful. Beyond the site of the castle rises the lofty rocky 
eminence of Cam Ingle, where St. Brjoiach, to whom many churches in Wales are dedicated, is said 
to have passed his life in religious seclusion, and to have conversed with angels, from which 
fabulous tradition the place has been termed also "Mons Angelorum." There are Druidical remains 
in the vicinity: about half a mile from Newport, in a field on the Fishguard road, and near a bridge, 
are some very curious antiquities of this kind, consisting of a small chamber formed of massive 
stones; and close to the town, in a field on the road leading to Berry Hill, about 200 yards from the 
Nevem river, is a very fine cromlech. On a hill connected with Cam Ingle is a large stone, named 
Morris' Grave. According to Speed there was anciently a house of Augustine friars at this place, but 
no particulars of its foundation or history have been preserved 



1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

Nestling beneath the castle, on the outskirts of the town, stands the handsome parish church of St. 
Bjmach. The original edifice is said to have been erected by the builder of Newport Castle, but the 
present Decorated structure has superseded a building of later date that was the very epitome of 
ugliness. Within the church stands a very early font, probably the original one of Norman times. Of 
the finely wrought and gilded rood-screen it is said once to have possessed, not a vestige has been 
preserved. 



354 



St. Byrnach, the patron'saint of Newport Church, was an Irishman by birth, and a contemporary of 
St. David. He appears to have been held in high esteem throughout all this district, where many of 
the parish churches are dedicated to his name. This holy man is supposed to have led the life of a 
hermit, dividing his time between Buarth Bjonach, or Bymach's Fold, on the singular mountain 
called Camedd Meibion Owen, and the rocky recesses of Carn Englyn, the Angel's Peak, above 
Newport town, a hill that derives its name from a tradition that St. B5aTiach was nourished by angels 
during his lonely sojourn there. 

Newport was anciently a borough town, having obtained its charter of incorporation as early as a.d. 
1215. The town also received the grant of a market from Sir Nicholas FitzMartin, Lord of Kemaes, 
in the year 1278. This ancient document is still extant. Henceforth Newport continued to grow and 
prosper, and in the sixteenth century carried on extensive woollen manufactures. Upon the outbreak 
of the ' sweating sickness,' the place suffered severely ; its market was discontinued, and many of 
the inhabitants fled to the more salubrious air of Fishguard. 

Though its privileges have been much curtailed in modern times, the town has still nominally a 
municipal body, though the latter has neither revenues to dispose of, nor functions to perform. Of 
recent years, however, Newport has shown signs of re-awakening prosperity; and when the long- 
talked-of railway line becomes a fait accompli, this pleasant little market town will doubtless enter 
upon a new lease of life and activity. 

At Parrog, where the Nevem stream embouches upon Newport Bay, we find a watering-place in its 
infancy. Parrog is an attractive spot in a quiet sort of way, and draws a fair sprinkling of holiday- 
makers from up the country during the long days of summer. A few comfortable if unpretentious 
lodging-houses offer decent accommodation, and cater in a manner that leaves little to be desired 
where criticism is disarmed by lusty appetites, bred of long hours spent in the brine-laden air. The 
neighbourhood, too, is pleasantly diversified, and contains many secluded nooks affording 
charming rural rambles. 

But to return to Newport. At the farther end of the town, after passing the Llwyngwair Arms, we 
turn down a lane in the direction of the river, and in a couple of hundred paces descry a cromlech 
standing amidst an adjacent meadow. Though smaller than many others in the county, this cromlech 
is in a good state of preservation, and, possesses an uncommonly massive capstone. 

Lies on Fishguard to Cardigan Road where the River Nevern flows into Cardigan Bay. 
Once the chief centre of the barony of Cemais, this is a Norman town in the heart of the Welshry 
with a Norman castle (much modified and now used as a private residence), the church (with a solid 
Norman tower) and the old mills which used to depend upon water power. The town dates from the 
late 12th century and the regularity of its street-pattern confirms the documentary evidence that this 
was a planed borough created within the lordship of Cemaes. 

It is not known if this new borough displaced an existing Welsh vill as was sometimes the case. The 



355 



traditional Welsh name for Newport is Tref-draeth, which denotes a settlement on the sand, and it 
has been suggested than an earlier settlement existed by the shore at Parrog which has since been 
lost through sand encroachment. 

The Normans had originally chosen nearby Nevem as this districts caput, but the castle there was 
destroyed by the Welsh in 1191. William de Tours elected to build its successor on a new site half a 
mile inland, and within two years it was completed. 

1215 The town was given a charter before 1215 by William de Tours who built the Anglo Norman 
Borough and ancient traditions are still preserved. This Charter was confirmed by his son Nicholas 
and gave the burgesses the right to appoint a Mayor in consultation with the Lady or Lord Marcher, 
an unique privilege which continues to this day. 

The Court Leet meets regularly, and the Mayor has to perform various duties during the year. One 

of these is to ensure that the parish boundaries are in order, and the annual Beating of the Bounds 
ceremony takes place during August. 

The Newport area is well blessed with prehistoric monuments and remains. Iron age camps, Flint 
working sites the remains of a drowned forest of 5000 BC and the cromlech called Carreg Coetan 
which is located in the town, incongruously fenced off at the edge of a small housing estate. 
Parrog is a part of Newport tourist industry which is now of great importance to Newport, and the 
town is able to capitalise on its wonderful scenic resources - river estuary, Traeth Mawr (the finest 
sandy beach on the North Pembs. coast), sand dunes, magnificent sea cliffs, wooded valleys, and 
the rocky eminence of Camingli as a backdrop. 

Newport, ranked among the largest of the medieval Welsh towns functioning as the head of the 
independent lordships of Cemaes. The lords exercised jura regalia rights within their own territory 
and their own gaol and gallows were located just beyond the town near Cnwcau Farm on the 
Penfeidr road. 



356 



Charter Of The Town Of Newport, A.D. 1215. 

"LET THOSE, present and to come, know that I, Nicholas, son of William son of Martin, 
Lord of Kemes, have given and granted, and by this my Charter have confirmed to my 
Burgessess of Newburgh all the Liberties and Customs underwritten, which William son of 
Martin, my Father, to the same did grant and give, that is to ay-That they shall have 
Common of Pasture in my Land and Common, in the Water from the Fosse which encloses 
the Town Eastwards to the Sea, and Easement of Wood for their Houses and Buildings, and for 
Firing, by view of the Forester. Likewise, if a Burgess dies of what death soever, unless by 
Judgment for Felony he should lose his life, I will have nothing of his Chattels, but his 
Relief, to wit. Twelve Pence. Likewise if a Burgess delivers up any of his Cattle (in 
charge) to any one, and the same is judged guilty of Felony or Robbery, or shall lose his 
Cattle, the Burgess, by good and lawful men may prove his Cattle, and have them. Likewise, 
if a Burgess hath hired Land of any Free Man, and that Free man infringe the compact, I 
ought to cause him to hold to the Agreement ; in the same manner I ought to compel the 
debtors of Burgesses of whom they hold bail and witnesses, and make them render their 
Debts. Likewise, a Burgess accused of any Forfeiture may be repledged by his 
Neighbours. Likewise, they ought to have a Bailiff and a Common Council for me and 
them. Likewise, no Foreign Merchant may buy or sell outside of my Borough of 
Newburgh. Likewise, a Burgess accused of Felony, or Robbery, if he ca]ls on me, I 
am to defend him, and take upon me to enable him to make a good defence. 
Likewise, the Burgesses shall not be bound to go in the Army, except as the Burgesses of 
Pembroke do. Likewise, with the aforesaid Liberties, I have granted to them all the 
Liberties and good Customs of Pembroke, all which said Liberties I have granted and 
confirmed to them and their Heirs to be holden and had of me, and of my Heirs, 
freely and entirely and peaceably; and that this my Donation and Grant and Confirmation 
may be firm and steadfast for ever, to this Charter and Confirmation I have put my Seal. 
These being Witnesses-John de Arundel; Jordan de Cantiton; Robert ap Owen; 
William ap Gwn, : ared, then Constable; David ap Owen; Henry Gait; William . • . ; 
Howe lab Evan Meredith, Clerk; and many other s."-(Baronia de Kemeys, ) 

Burgages and the town 

1324 Aborough rental of 1324 realised 46s., which, if the burgages were let at the standard Is. 
each, meant only 46 plots but there are reasons for assuming that this was a serious undervaluation 
as one hundred years later an extent of 1434-8 gives a detailed list of the burgesses and their 
holdings and what street the plots were on. There were a total of 223 plots, 20 of the south side of 
West Street beginning near the stream called Warentrelak and running east towards the castle; 20 off 
Bridge Street; 24 along Goat Street; and 11 along Vicus Mabudrud, Long Street 88, and St Marys St 
59. 



1275 The lords mill, mentioned in 1275, stands along the Afon Felin immediately below the castle, 
while on the east side St. Marys churchyard was originally much smaller and burgages lined its 
northern edge. Adjoining was the old vicarage, known locally as The Court, which remained until 
1800 although some vestiges were still visible 30 years later when Lewis visited the town. North- 



357 



west of the church at the junction of Church Street and Bridge Street stood the small market-place, 
while immediately north on the west side of Long Street was the town hall, although the building 
had ceased to be used for administrative purposes by the late 16th century. Finally, at the end of 

West Street, near Warrentree Lake was an area set aside for use by the town potters. Two kilns 
dating from the late 14th and early 15 th centuries were discovered here in 1921 by workmen laying 
the foundations of the Memorial Hall. 



1594 All but 50 of the 233 burgages recorded in 1434 had fallen into decay and stood 
untenanted, even the towns weekly market had ceased to be held. The reasons behind this sudden 
decline are unclear, and the evidence conflicts with the traditional view of 16th-century Newport as 
the centre of an important woollen industry with its port. The development of Fishguard during this 
period is said to have resulted from the migration of many Newport inhabitants fleeing from plague, 
and although the story has been described as a myth there may well be much truth in it, particularly 
since another outbreak recorded in 1665 (see plague at Haverfordwest and Dale and the bodies 
found at the building of the Cleddau Bridge) was sufficiently severe to cause the removal of the 
revived market to a village four miles away, where it was still being held in 1714. 



Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments -Newport Castle 

Newport Castle 

In the year 1 195, following upon the foundation of the New Port in place of Castell Nanhyfer as the 
seat of the Norman lords of Cemes, a stone castle was built within the newly founded borough by 
William grandson of Martin de Turribus, the founder of the Marcher Lordship of Kemes of which 
Nanhyfer (Nevem) castle had hitherto been the caput. In 1324 the castle and Lordship passed 
through an heiress to the baronial family of Audley, remaining in that family until the reign of 
Henry VIII. The barony of Kemes next passed into the family of Owen of Henllys until another 
heiress conveyed it to the Lloyds of Bronwydd. The present owner Sir Marteine Lloyd bart., 
exercises the original lord marcher privilege of nominating the mayor of Newport each year. 

The castle which stands on a circular mound, is surrounded for two thirds of its extent bt a wet 
moat; the continuation of the moat is through higher ground, and is always dry. The dominate 
features of the original castle that still remain are the gateway and its flanking tower. From a square 
base the tower takes a circular form and rises to a polygonal story of a later date 



358 



At the north east angle of the bailey is a circular tower of two storeys containing a fine chamber 
known as the Hunters hall in which are traces of an early English fireplace. The wall between the 
gateway and the tower is much ruined. This curtain is continued on both the east and west sides of 
the mound ceasing at the point where the wet moat commences. The eastern curtain terminates in a 
circular tower springing from a square base, but presenting a flat side to the court. It contained a 
gardrobe, and two large recesses, the object of which is not apparent. Adjacent to this tower on the 
north is a vaulted under croft of the early Decorated period, having a central pier 4ft high fro which 
eight ribs radiate to the angles and sides of the chamber. It has two single lights splayed from 1 % ft 
to 4 Vi ft. When this crypt was cleared out in 1858, two interesting 15* century vessels came to 
light. In the south west angle is the still perfect underground room called dungeon, with its curious 
herring bone ashlar lining. The cell measures 9ft by6ft; it has a manhole in its vault, and a door 3 
l/2ft above the floor level. This is without doubt alluded in the entry "the lord has a goale for felons 
in his castle at Newport and all felons taken in [the lord-ship of JKemes were to be brought there " 
{Baronia de Kemeys p21). Just north of the goal are vestiges of what would seem to have been a 
large oven. In 1859 the present residence was erected on the site of the great gateway, since which 
date the ruins have been admirably cared for and preserved - Visited 14"* July 1914. 



1909 Edwards, Emily Hewlett Castles and strongholds of Pembrokeshire Tenby 

About thirty years ago the late Sir Thomas Lloyd restored Newport Castle, which was then a mere 
shell ; the principal remains consisted of a great gateway with its western flanking tower. A long 
chamber could be traced within, known as " The Hunter's Hall." Here were the scanty remains of a 
fireplace with relics of an Early English moulding. A wet moat defended the castle; this was 
supplied by two streams. - Edward Laws 



Newport Castle - Tony Roberts 1989. 

The first Norman invader in north Pembrokeshire was Robert Martin, who, not content with his 
estates in Somerset and Devon, was greedy for land in Wales. Landing first at Fishguard near the 
mouth of the Gwaun Valley, he later moved to Nevem and became the first Marcher Lord of Kemes. 
His grandson William married the daughter of the Lord Rhys who in 1191 ejected him from Nevem. 
William then built a castle at a new place, Trefdraeth (Newport) along with a town and church. 
Proximity to the sea, better than at Nevem, was probably a strong point in favour of the site. 
The Marcher Lordship of Kemes passed to the Audleys, but twice in the 13th century the castle at 



359 



Newport was destroyed by the Welsh. The present castle was probably built after these destructions. 
In 1543 the lordship was bought by a prosperous Welsh lawyer, the father of George Owen of 
Henllys, famous for his Description of Pembrokeshire. The Owens wanted the lordship rather than 
the castle, which was described as an utter ruin in mid 16c, but eventually the castle was restored 
and a residence made from the gatehouse by the Lloyds of Bronwydd in 1859. 
The castle consists of a massive gatehouse flanked by two circular towers, the dungeon tower on 
the southwest and the Hunters tower on the northwest. The relatively vulnerable southeast side was 
protected by a large D-shaped tower. Adjoining this are the remains of part of the chapel and a 
vaulted crypt. A vaulted dungeon remains in the aforementioned southwest tower. The castle is 
privately owned and some restoration work is being done, after which there will be some access for 
the public. Part of the castle can still be viewed from across the road. The castle is in private 
ownership and viewing is from the surrounding area only. 



Church St Marys. 

1810 R. Fenton Pembrokeshire edition 1903 p 299. 

The church is cruciform in building, consisting of a nave, chancel and cross aisles, roofed in old 
oak. The nave is separated from the chancel and the aisles by plain pointed arches. There was a 
rood-loft in the memory of some old people handsomely wrought and gilt. It has been said there 
was an organ, but that I doubt. 




St Mary's Church 




1914 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

In the years 1834-5 the church was enlarged and a gallery built. In 1859 Arch Camb. found the 
church had undergone so many alterations that little then remained of the original edifice. It was 
again restored in 1878 when the only portions then retained were the tower, font, holy water stoup 
and rood-loft stairs at the left hand side of the chancel arch. 



361 



The Church consists of Chancel nave , north and south transepts and western tower The tower is of 
three storeys, with corbel table and parapet. At The north and south angles are stepped buttresses, 
that to the north having a small niche with ogee head, and on the stop above , a corbel showing a 
man's face. The west doorway has a pointed arch, and on either jamb a shield of heater shape 
charged with a chevron. The west window above the doorway is modem. Above the window, and at 
too great a height for decipherment are two escutcheons which Fenton says bore party per pale, a 
chevron; and on the north side are two defaced shields. The stairs are in the south east angle; They 
are carried slightly above the parapet. The font of the cushion type , is one of the finest in the 
county, retaining its original bowl, moulded shaft and base. The bowl, externally 25 Vi inches and 
internally l^Vi inches square is lead lined; it shows traces of a hinged cover, and its exposed faces 
have been coloured red and black. The total height is 35 inches. In the south wall of the tower and 
adjacent to the font is a stoup, the projecting circular bowl terminating in a trefoiled head. A 
projecting corbel in the north wall of the nave bears a male face; this may not be in its original 
position. 

The fi-agments of a 14"* century coffin slab found in the churchyard have been collected and placed 
in the base of the tower. The stone measures 71 Vi in by 26 Vi in at head and 17 Vi in at foot; it bears 
in relief a male face, much damaged , and a floriated cross. The inscriprion reads: CES; ANE; 
GIT; ICI; DEV ; DEL; ALME; EIT ; MERCIE 



In the vestry is the discarded communion table of late 17* century date, 60in by 28 Vi in by 33 in 
with a carved frieze and legs of conventional pattem Visited 10"" July 1914. 



Churchyard enlarged 1886. 

1994 Acc/to The old Parish Churches of South West Wales by Mike Salter 

The west tower is 16c. The chancel and nave have old masonry but no old features, although the 

nave is flanked by two bay chapels (or aisle transepts). There are fragments of a 14c cross slab. The 

communion table is 17C. There is a Norman Font and in the Churchyard a stone with a ring cross 

on in suggested to be fi^om the 7C. 



Pembrokeshire Parsons. 

1291 Described as Ecclesia de Novo Burgo, this church was assessed in 1291 at £8 for tenths to the 
King. - Taxatio. 



362 



1326 This rectory was appendant to the barony of Kernes. In 1326 the advowson of Newport, of the 
yearly value of 12 marks, with other advowsons and knights fees was assigned to James de Audele, 
kinsman and coheir of William, the son of William Martyn [Lord of Kemes.] - Close Rolls. 

1535 Newport. - Ecclesia ibidem ex presentacione ejusdem domini de Awdeley unde Willielmus 
Davis clericus est rector valet cum gleba communibus annis £16. Inde decima 32s. - Valor Eccl. 



1714 Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- Newport Trefdraeth R. (St. Mary). Dom. de Audley 
olim Patr.; Anne Lloyd, widow, 1714; John Laughame, Esq., 1735; Thomas Floyd, Esq., and Anne 
his wife. 1759. Clear yearly value, £44. King's Books, £16. - Bacons Liber Regis. 

1878 On 30 July, 1878, a faculty was granted for the restoration of the parish church. 

1903 On 6 June, 1903, a faculty was issued for the erection of a memorial tablet with a medallion in 
memory of the late Mrs. Alderson in the parish church. 

Two pilgrimage chapels, called Capell Dewy and Capell Kirick are mentioned, in George Owens 
list of such edifices as being in Newport parish. - Owens Pern. 



Clergy 

Walter , Morgan 
Owen , Evan 
Williams, William 
Gwjoi, Daniel 
Pritchard, Johannes 
Gwynne, Daniel 
Price, Carolus 

363 



1607 Rector 

1626 Rector 

1661 Rector 

1672 Rector 

1672 Curate 

1672 Rector 

1685 Rector 



Boulton, Johannes 1697 

Morris, David 1714 

Williams, Jacobus 1714 

Bolton, Johannes 1714 

Morris, David 1716 

Williams, Jacobus 1717 

Williams, Jacobus 1720 

Thomas, Jacobus 1720 

Rice, Jacobus 1722 

Thomas, Johannes 1727 

Brock, Georgius 1730 

Hughes, Joseph 1733 

Laugharne, William 1735 

Williams, James 1735 

Parry, George 1740 

Bow en, James 1743 

Lewis, John 1759 

Lewes , Watkin 1759 

Lewes, Watkin 1759 

Lewes , Watkin 1770 

Pugh , David 1770 

Philips , Henry 1796 

Phillips , Henry 1796 

Pugh, David 1804 

Pugh, John 1808 

Grey Hughes , William 1815 

Grey Hughes , William 1817 

Pugh, David 1817 

Grey Hughes , William 1817 

364 



Rector 
Curate 
Rector 
Vac (Death) Rector 
Curate 
Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Curate 
Curate 
Curate 

Curate 
Rector 
Vac (Death) Rector 

Curate. 

Curate. 
Curate _ 
Rector 
Rector 

Vac (natural death) Rector 
Rector 
Curate 
Curate 
Rector 
Curate 

Curate 

Curate 

Vac (natural death) Rector 
Curate 



Jones , John 



1817 



Rector 



Davies , David 



1822 



Curate 



Lloyd Thomas , Llewel5ai 1 824 



Rector 



Jones , John 



1824 Vac (resignation) 



Rector 



1851 Newport, St Mary's Parish Church - Llewelyn Lloyd Thomas, Rector 



Pembrokeshire Church Plate 

Newport — An Elizabethan Chalice with Paten cover; height, 7 in.; diam. of bowl, 3 in.; depth, 3 
in.; weight, 9 oz. 1 dwt (see Amroth). Within the second belt on the bowl is the following inscription 
"P0CVLVM»ECLES1E « DE # NEWPORTHE ". Here the knop which divides the stem is quite 
plain. The button of the cover bears the inscription " 1574 "; diam., 4 in.; height, 1 in.; weight, 3 oz. 



Another Chalice and Paten cover bear the hall marks of 1836 with maker's mark TB in a plain 
oblong stamp. These pieces are copies of the Elizabethan ones the cup a inscribed " Newport A gift 
from the Communicants to the Parish 1836 ". Height, 7in.; diam. of bowl, 3ins.; . The cover 
measures 3 in. in diameter; height, 1 in.; 

An ewer-shaped Flagon, bearing the hall mark of 188o height, 14in.; inscription "To the Glory of 
God and in loving memory of Sarah Bowen who entered into rest Sep. 1 874". 

A large pewter Plate, 13|in. in diameter. 

There are besides, two Patens of electro-plate, and a very large plated Cup with two handles. The 
latter is ornamented with chased foliage and scrolls with no marks, and appears to be a modem non- 
ecclesiastical vessel of very little value. 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

Bethlehem, in Newport town [Baptists, 1760]. Baptistry, Mill Lane, Newport - 1851 David Owen, 
Informant, Market St Erected before 1800. There is upwards of 350 members belonging to this 
Chapel. Great part of them is off on sea and other places. Having no stated minister at present, but 
are supplied by the ministers of the neighbroad in rotation. 

Tabernacle, in Newport town [Calvinistic Methodists, 1815].Welsh CM Erected in 1815, rebuilt in 
1837 "The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists have no stated ministers, their system being Presbyterian, 
they are supplied regularly by their own County Ministers in rotation, and also at times from the 
neighbouring counties of Cardigan and Carmarthen" John Harries, Secretary still open in 2006 



3 dwts. 



365 



Ebenezer, in Newport town [Independents, c 1740]. 1851 Ebenezer Independents or 
Congregationalists Erected before 1 800, rebuilt in 1 844 "The attendance at Ebenezer on March the 
30th 1851 was about 100 or 150 less than usual on account of illness and other causes" Samuel 
Thomas, Independent Minister, Ebeneyzer still open Dec 2006 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is a resident clergyman. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 6d to 8d a day 
with food and Is a day on their own finding. It also includes number of seamen There is no resident 
land proprietor. Many of the population cannot read or write. 

Mrs Bevans Central School The model School for masters of Mrs Bevans circulating schools is 
practically the parish school of Newport. The trustees pay £40 per annum to a permanent master 

there and find him a house and garden. I called on this master on the 5* February. The school was 
not in operation having been closed during some months for repairs. Up to the time of my visit, this 
model school had been furnished with neither maps, cards, prints, blackboard, enclosure, or privies. 
It did not appear that any permanent school registers were in existence. The master had , he said, at 
one time kept them, but not finding them called for, had discontinued them. 

It is almost superfluous to add that such an institution is most inadequate as the nucleus of a charity 
so richly endowed as Mrs Bevans David Lewis Assistant 

British School On the 28* of January I visited the above school. It was held in a room over a 
cottage belonging to the Independent chapel. The school room was furnished with desks and 
benches on the British and Foreign plan and well lighted, but rather low. The furniture was in good 
repair. I heard a class read out of the Scripture Lesson Book. They were nine in number. Five read 
with tolerable ease. They possessed a very competent knowledge of the patriarchal history. Some 
few questions on the rudiments of grammar were very readily answered by four of them. Arithmetic 
they were not so well versed in. The master was an intelligent person and spoke English correctly. 
His scholars answered partly in English and partly in Welsh. David Lewis Assistant 

John Evan's School On the 28* of January I visited the above school. It was kept by and old man 
(who told me that he had formerly been a master mariner) in a wretched cottage. The room was 
very badly lighted, and still worse ventilated. The floor was uneven. The only school furniture was 
two or three planks laid across benches, and two rotten old tables. 
There was a bed in the room. David Lewis Assistant 

Independent Sunday School On the 24* of January I visited the above school, which was held, 
morning and evening, on alternate Sundays. I learned from one of the teachers, that on each Sabbath 
previously to the commencement of the school there was a teachers meeting held to take into 
consideration what chapter will be read on the following Sunday. On the day of my visit the 
chapter read was the S''' of St Matthews Gospel. I visited most of the classes in the school, and 
found no further instruction given than putting each clause of each verse verbatim into the form of 
an interrogation. The instruction was altogether in Welsh. Most of the classes could read with 
tolerable ease. David Lewis assistant 



366 



People of the town 

Records of Newport 1434 & 1594 B G Charles -NLW Cyf rh 2(gaeafl951) 

Voill William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages 

of the town 

ap Jankjoi Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the 
town 



Fill' David 1434 Feast of St HilaryNewport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Voil David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Myir William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 
Cryth Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Vechan John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Dew Jany 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Morice Phillip 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Rotpart Walterl434 Feast of St Hilary NewportJuror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Thomas Watkjoi 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the 
town 



367 



Picton ? 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Juror for rental on oath of the burgages of the town 



Picton John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport reeve 



Dovenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport clerk 



ap Llewel5ai ap Owain 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport seneschal 



Daudli James 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Lord of Kemmeis 



Mill' William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Jordan Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



ap Res ap Llewelyn ap Oweyn Llewelyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of 
Long Street 



Mill' Joan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Crj^h Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Dovenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Voill David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newportburgage west side of Long Street 



ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



368 



Verchan Jany 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Revell Watkyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Fill' David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Dyer William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Lleweljai Margaret 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Dod Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Ronwey Jany 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Thomas Watkyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Phillips Margaret 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



ap Llewelyn ap Owain Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Mendous Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



Mendous Robjoi 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 



369 



Bon Margaret 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage west side of Long Street 

Jordan Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

Voil William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newportburgage east side of Long Street 

ap Llewelyn ap Owain 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

Hiyr Guillim 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

St John the Baptist 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

Mill' Joan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

Cok' levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

Vechan David 1434 Feast of St 

ap Oweyn ap Res Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus 
caprarum)Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 

ap Res ap Rotpert 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
370 



da RobjTi 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
Dovonold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
Dod Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
verch Rob)^! Alson 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
Sturmyn Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
Dyer WiUiam 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
Watt David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
Mill' William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage east side of Long Street 
Myir Joan 1434 Feast of St Hilar 

ap Oweyn ap Res Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus 
caprarum)y Newport burgage southside of West Street 

Mull John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 

Jordan Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 

ap Lleweljai ap Owain Jankjai 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 

371 



ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Dovenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Gentill Jany 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Ronwey John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Dew Jany 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Fill' David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Dyer WiUiam 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Mendous Robyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



ap Jankjoi ap Rotpert Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage southside of West Street 



Dyer William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage eastside of Long Street west side of 
Cemetery 



Jordan Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage eastside of Long Street west side of 
Cemetery 



Hode David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage eastside of Long Street west side of 
Cemetery 



372 



ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage eastside of Long Street west side of 
Cemetery 



Picton John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage eastside of Long Street west side of Cemetery 



Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus caprarum) 



ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus caprarum) 



ap Oweyn ap Res Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus 
caprarum) 



War5ai William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus caprarum) 



Lloid Phillip (Sir) 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus caprarum) 



Dovenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus caprarum) 



Voill William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport burgage south side of Goat St(vicus caprarum) 



Voill William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage north side Goat St 



Wilkyn Alson 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage north side Goat St 



Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage north side Goat St 



ap Oweyn ap Res Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus 
373 



Marie) 

Picton Jankjoi 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 

ap Res ap Rotpert Llewelyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus 
Marie) 

ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 

Filys David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 

Waryn William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus 
Marie) 

Da William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 

Picton Jankjoi 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 

Picton Robyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 

ap Llewelyn ap Owain levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus 
Marie) 

Picton Janckyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 

Dovenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 
374 



ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



Coton William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



Picton Phillip 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



Badour Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



Mill' Wolcock 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



Picton William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



verch Robyn Alson 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



Fill' Jankjoi 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus Marie) 



ap Jankjoi ap Peuerell 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side St Mary's St (vicus 
Marie) 



Voill William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side Goat St 



Wilkjoi Alson 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side Goat St 



Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage east side Goat St 



Picton John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 



375 



ap David Hiyr Griffith 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

Goch Jany 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

Morice Phillip 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

ap Res ap Lleweljai ap Oweyn Llewelyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St 
Mary's Street 

ap Llewelyn ap Owain levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's 
Street 

Coch Wolcok 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 
Da Robyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 
ap David Hiyr Griffith 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 
Coton Phillip 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 
Picton Wilham 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 
Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 
376 



ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

Dovenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

Voill William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

Jordan Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side of St Mary's Street 

Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

Voyl William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

Dany Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

Douenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

Watt David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis 

Dovenold Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

ap Llewel5ai ap Owain levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus 
pontis) 

Lloid ap Gwillim ap Atkyn David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St 
377 



(vicus pontis) 

Boir Jany 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

Griffith Robyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

Jordan Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus pontis) 

ap Oweyn ap Res Merduth 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage west side Bridge St (vicus 
pontis) 

Pycton Jankjai 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage north side vicus Mabudrud 

Burg' Goldsmj^h 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage north side vicus Mabudrud 

Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage south side vicus Mabudrud 

Morse Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Burgage south side vicus Mabudrud 

Col the younger Phillip 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage south side vicus Mabudrud 

ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage south side vicus Mabudrud 

ap Gwuillim Phillip 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage south side vicus Mabudrud 

Mayd Alson 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport formally held Burgage south side vicus Mabudrud 
378 



ap Res ap Llewelyn ap Owejai Lleweljoi 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage south side vicus 
Mabudrud 

Jordan Thomas 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria west part of town at 
Trefkediuor 

ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria west part of town at 
Trefkediuor 



ap Oweyn levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria west part of town at 
Camloid nearTrefkediuor 

Picton Jankjai 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria west part of town at 
Holmys 

ap Oweyn ap Res Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria west part of town at 
Browysclif 

Howel levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria west part of town at 
Dewiyscome 

Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town 
at Voilgoch 

Jankjoi levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town called terra 

magyn 

379 



ap Gwillim ap Llewelyn ap Phillip Phillip 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria 
north part of town at Vdlgoch 



Picton Jankjai 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town at 
Castellycam 

ap Oweya ap Res Howel 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town 
at Knokybayvil 

ap Oweyn Meredith 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town 
at Panylludu 

verch Robyn Alson 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town at 
Panylludu 

Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town 
at Panylludu 

Lloid David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Burgage in the patria north part of town at 
Morvavastlecam 

ap Llewelyn John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Formerly held Burgage in the patria north part 
of town at Panylludu 



ap Gorwared ap Hechdon William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Formerly held Burgage - 
default of heirs 



Raptepei John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Formerly held Burgage in the patria north part of 



380 



town at Panylludu - default of heirs 

Picton Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - for 
le Mershe and Knokybodi 

Land of the abbott 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - 
Gwemgranoyte 

Voil William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - for 
Knok Jankjai 

Waryn William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town -terre 
Harplond 



ap Rotpert John 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town -for terre 
Seyse 

Wate David 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - for Keholyn 

David levan 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - Cadmanyspark 

War)^! William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - for 
Bonteynyspark 

ap Oweyn ap Res 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - for 
the parcus near the cemetery 

381 



Voil William 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - for 
parous veteris castri 

CoU'Jankyn 1434 Feast of St Hilary Newport Rent of Franchise east side of town - for 
terre ypylle 

Lewis (gent) Hugh 1594 Newport Mayor - Made rental 

Devenald John 1594 Newport Long St west side one burgage in tenure of Henry Stidman 
Stidman Henry 1594 Newport Long St west side one burgage held by John Devenald 
Moris Cicelial594 Newport Long St west side one burgage 

Dio Pris Llewelyn 1594 Newport Long St west side one burgage held by Llewelyn Dio Pris 

Miller Thomas William 1594 Newport Long St west side one burgage where Thomas William 
Miller lives 

Devenold John 1594 Newport Lane - one burgage where Henry Stydman lives called Old Sheer 
hall 

Stydman Henry 1594 Newport Lane - one burgage held by John Devenold called Old Sheer hall 

Stydman Henry 1594 Newport Lane - one burgage in his own tenure 

Moris Ceclia 1594 Newport one burgage where William Merbury lives 
382 



Merbury William 1594 Newport one burgage in tenure of Ceclia Moris 



Le Sheer Hall 1594 Newport One burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard— near the cross formerly called le Tolehouse 



Devenold John 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
in tenure of Henry Stydman 



Stydman Henry 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard held by John Devenold 

Canon Thomas 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard in tenure of Henry Stydman 

Owen George 1594 Newport Half burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard called Le Jaille 

Roblin John 1594 Newport two burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 



Perrot 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard in tenure 
of Thomas Rydderch 

Rydderch Thomas 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard held by Perrot 

Devenallt John 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
in tenure of Henry Stydman 

383 



John y gove Griffith 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard in in the right of Mawde verch Ivan John his wife 

verch Ivan John Mawde 1594 Newport wife of Griffith verch Ivan John 

Lloide Thomas 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 

Gworda William Phillip 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard 

Devenallt John 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
where William Phillip Watts lives 



Devenallt John 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
where William Thomas David the elder lives 

Watts William Phillip 1594 Newport "one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard held by John Devenallt 

David the elder William Thomas 1594 Newport 2545one burgage Highway through middle of the 
town towards Fishguard held by John Devenallt 



Phillippes Lewis 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard where John Griffith Galle lives 

Galle John Griffith 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard held by Lewis Phillippes 

384 



Peeter Thomas 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard where Lewis Goche lives 

Goche Lewis 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
held by Thomas Peeter 



Moris Ceclia 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 



Phillippes Lewis 1594 Newport one burgage in right of his wife in tenure of James Thomas 



Thomas James 1594 Newport one burgage held by Lewis Phillippes 



Morgan Henry 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
in tenure of David Newyth 



New3^ David 1594 Newport one burgage held by Henry Morgan 

Dio Pris Llewelyn 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard in tenure of Thomas William Millet 

Miller Thomas William 1594 Newport One burgage held by Llewelyn Dio Pris 



Thomas Griffith Gwillim 1594 Newport Two burgage Highway through middle of the town 
towards Fishguard held by Perrot 



Goch Lewis 1594 Newport two burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
385 



Lloyd Thomas 1594 Newport one Burgage east side of street beginning at the river and ascending 
to castle 

St John the Baptist 1594 Newport small garden east side of street beginning at the river and 
ascending to castle 



Devenald John 1594 Newport two Burgage east side of street beginning at the river and ascending 
to castle 



Perrot 1594 Newport "four Burgage in a lane tenure of John Lewis Harrie, four John y gove, two 
Jenkin James " 



Harrie John Lewis 1594 Newport "four burgage held by Perrot, one Thomas Peeter" 



Peeter Thomas 1594 Newport one Burgage in a lane tenure of John Lewis Harrie 



Devenald John 1594 Newport one Burgage where John Rees Lives 



Rees John 1594 Newport One burgage held by John Devenald 



Gworda William 1594 Newport One burgage in a lane 



James Jenkin 15 94 Newport two Burgages held by Perrot 



y gove John 1594 Newport "four burgages held by Perrot, one by Lewis Phillips" 



386 



Phillips Lewis 1594 Newport one burgage in lane tenanure John y Grove 



Lewis Hugh 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 



Devenald John 1594 Newport three and a half burgage Highway through middle of the town 
towards Fishguard in tenure of Henry Stydman one called le WoUhouse 



Stydman Henry 1594 Newport three and a half burgage Highway through middle of the town 
towards Fishguard held by John Devenald one called le WolUiouse 

Lloyd Thomas 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard where Christoper Teg Lives 

Teg Christopher 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard held by Thomas Lloyd Rees 

Rees Water 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards 
Fishguard where David Thomas lives 

Thomas David 1594 Newport one burgage Highway through middle of the town towards Fishguard 
held by Water Rees 



Phillippes Lewis 1594 Newport one burgage- the way by the Church in tenure of Lewis David 
Lloide 



Lloide Lewis David 1594 Newport two Burgages - the way by the Church- tenent of Lewis 
Phillippes and David Meredith 



387 



Meredith David 1594 Newport one burgage- the way by the Church in tenure of Lewis David 
Lloide 

Lloyd Thomas 1594 Newport Two burgage-South side of West St. one in tenure of Christopher 
David 

David Christopher 1594 Newport One burgage - South side of West St -held by Thomas Lloyd 

Dio Pris Llewelyn 1594 Newport One burgage - South side of West St -tenure Thomas William 
Miller 

Miller Thomas William 1594 Newport One burgage - South side of West St -held by Llewelyn dio 
pris 

Devenald John 1594 Newport One burgage - South side of West St -tenure Henry Stydman 

Stydman Henry 1594 Newport One burgage - South side of West St -held by John Devenald 

Browne Thomas Mathias 1594 Newport two burgage - South side of West St -tenure James William 

William James 1594 Newport two burgage - South side of West St -held Thomas Mathias Browne 

ap levan Jenkin Owen 1594 Newport "Three burgage - South side of West St -tenure Lewis 
William,Thomas Gworda" 

William Lewis 1594 Newport two burgage - South side of West St -held by Owen ap levan Jenkin 

Gworda Thomas 1594 Newport one burgage - South side of West St -held by Owen ap levan Jenkin 
388 



Phillips Lewis 1594 Newport two burgage - South side of West St -tenure Phillip Saer 



Saer Phillip 1594 Newport two burgage - South side of West St -held by Lewis Phillips Phillip Saer 

Canon Thomas 1594 Newport "one and a half Burgages- South side of West St- where Sir John 
Lewis,clerk, lives" 

Lewis John(Sir) 1594 Newport " Clerk, tenent one and a half Burgages- South side of West St- held 
by Thomas Canon" 



Morris Cecilial594 Newport half a burgage South side of West St- in tenure of Lewis goche 



goche Lewis 1594 Newport half a burgage South side of West St- held by Cecilia Morris 



Thomas James Owen Gwillim 1594 Newport One burgage South side of West St 



William Lewis 1594 Newport Weaver - One burgage South side of West St -where James Gentyll 
lives 



GentyllJames 1594 Newport One burgage South side of West St held by Lewis William 



Jones Owen 1594 Newport One burgage South side of West St where David Griffth gall lives 



Younge Rowland 1594 Newport One Burgage - land leading to Carne Englye 



Perrot 1594 Newportone Burgage- Goate St -in tenure of Maurice Richard 
389 



Richard Maurice 1594 Newport one Burgage- Goate St - held by Perrot 
Melchior William 1594 Newport half Burgage- Goate St 

Perrot 1594 Newport "six burgage - lane from bridge to Came Engly - tenants - William Phillip 
Howel,David Vywe Powell,William Thomas David junior, Richard David 

alias Teg, Morris Richard " 

Howel William Phillip 1594 Newport Burgage- lane from bridge to Came Engly -held by 
Perrot 

David (junior) William Thomas 1594 Newport Burgage- lane from bridge to Came Engly -held by 
Perrot 

David (alias Teg) Richard David 1594 Newport Burgage- lane from bridge to Came Engly -held by 
Perrot 

Powell David Pywe 1594 Newport Burgage- lane from bridge to Came Engly -held by Perro 
Richard Morris 1594 Newport Burgage-lane from bridge to Came Engly -held by Perrot 
Perrot 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- Tenure Edward John 
John Edward 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- held by Perrot 
Rees Walter 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- Tenure William Morgan 
390 



Morgan William 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- held by Walter Rees 



John Griffith 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- held in right of his wife Maud verch levan John 



verch levan John Maud 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- wife of John Griffith 



Younge Owen Phillip 1594 Newport Five burgage -St Maryes St- holds as Tenant 



Perrot 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- Tenure Owen Phillip Younge 



Warren William 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- Tenure Owen Phillip Younge 



Moris Cicilia 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- Tenure Owen Phillip Younge 



Picton Owen 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St- Tenure Owen Phillip Younge 



Hodge David John 1594 Newport burgage -St Maryes St 



Picton Owen 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- where William Thomas 
lives 



Thomas William 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- held by Owen 
Picton 



Phillips Lewis 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town 



391 



Perrot 1594 Newport Three Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- tenure of John Thomas 
David 



David John Thomas 1594 Newport Three Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- held by 
Perrot 



Devenald John 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- tenure of Henry 
Stydman 



Goch Lewis 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- tenure of David 
Mreddith 



MreddithDavid 1594 Newport Two and a half Burgage-Highway through middle of the town - held 
by Lewis Gochand Owen Picton 



Picton Owen 1594 Newport One and a half Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- tenure 
of David Mreddith 



Goche Lewis 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- where levan Lewis 
Goche lives 



Thomas Griffith Gwillim 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town - held by 
Perrot 



Picton Owen 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- in tenure of William 
Thomas Gwillim Penrye Penrye 



William Thonas Gwillim 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- held by 
Owen Picton 



392 



Owen James 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town- where Griffith Gwillim 
Thomas lives 

Thomas Griffith Gwillim 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town-held by 
James Owen 

Hodge John David 1594 Newport Two and a half Burgage - lane of Highway through middle of the 
town 



Owen James 1594 Newport Burgage - lane of Highway through middle of the town in tenure of 
Griffith Gwillim Thomas 



Devenald John 1594 Newport Burgage - lane of Highway through middle of the town in tenure of 
Henry Stydman 



Perrot 1594 Newport two Burgage west side St Mary's St tenure Owen Phillips Young 
Young Owen Phillip 1594 Newport two Burgage west side St Mary's St held by Perrot 



Devenald John 1594 Newport two Burgage west side St Mary's St tenure Henry Stydman 



Stydman Henry 1594 Newport two Burgage west side St Mary's St held by John Devenalld 



Mathias Thomas 1594 Newport Half a Burgage west side St Mary's St tenure William Lloyd 

Lloyd William 1594 Newport Half a Burgage west side St Mary's St held by Thomas Mathias and 
One burgage held of the Lord Hodge 

393 



David John 1594 Newport two Burgage west side St Mary's St held of the Lord and one held 
by Lewis Phillippes 

Phillippes Lewis 1594 Newport one burgage west side St Mary's St tenure David John Hodge 

Thomas James Owen Gwillim 1594 Newport one burgage west side St Mary's St tenure Griffith 
Gwillim Thomas 

Thomas Griffith Gwillim 1594 Newport one burgage west side St Mary's St held by James Owen 
Gwillim Thomas 



Moris Cecilial594 Newport two and a half Burgage - lane off St Mary's St tenure James Wilham 
Phillip 

Phillip James William 1594 Newport two and a half Burgage - lane off St Mary's St held by Cecilia 
Morris 

Mathias Thomas 1594 Newport One and a half Burgage - lane off St Mary's St - tenure of David 
Mreddith and William Lloyd 

Lloyd William 1594 Newport half a burgage lane off St Mary's St where he lives held held by 
Thomas Mathias 

Mreddith David 1594 Newport TwoBurgage lane off St Mary's St held by Thomas Mathias and 
Owen Picton 

Mreddith David 1594 Newport off St Mary's St where he lives One Burgage lane 
394 



Picton Owen 1594 Newport Two Burgage lane off St Mary's St tenure David Mreddith and John y 
gove 



y gove John 1594 Newport One Burgage lane off St Mary's St held by Owen Picton and three from 
the Lord 

Parrot 1594 Newport Three Burgage lane off St Mary's St where he lives two in Tenure of John 
Thomas David 



David John Thomas 1594 Newport two Burgage lane off St Mary's St held by Perrot 

Warren William 1594 Newport Half Burgage-Highway through middle of the town in tenure of 
Owen Phillipp Young 

Younge Owen Phillip 1594 Newport Half Burgage-Highway through middle of the town held by 
William Warren 



Picton Owen 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town 



Picton Owen 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town where Edward John 
lives 



John Edward 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town held by Owen Picton 
and one held by James Owen Gwillim Thomas 

Devenallt John 1594 Newport Three Burgage-Highway through middle of the town in tenure of 
Henry Stydman 

395 



Thomas James Owen Gwillim 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town tenure 

Edward John Thomas David 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town in hands 
of the lord 

Moris Cicilia 1594 Newport One 

Burgage-Highway through middle of the town tenure William Mreddith 

Mreddith William 1594 Newport Burgage-Highway through middle of the town held by 
Cicilia Moris 

Goldsmithes Burgage 1594 Newport Burgage- North side of Highway through middle of the 
town is in the hands of the lord 

Perrot 1594 Newport Two Burgage-South side Highway through middle of the town tenure James 
Howell 

Howell James 1594 Newport Two Burgage-South side Highway through middle of the town held 
by Perrot 

Perrot 1594 Newport Burgage -lane ascending towards Camengly- tenure James Howell and 
Thomas William Miller 

Howell James 1594 Newport Burgage -lane ascending towards Camengly- held by Perrot 

Miller Thomas William 1594 Newport Two and a half Burgage -lane ascending towards Camengly- 
held by Perrot and Llewelyn dio pris 

396 



Dio Pris Lleweljoi 1594 Newport Two Burgage -lane ascending towards Camengly- tenure Thomas 
William Miller 

Devenallt John 1594 Newport Eight and a half Burgage west side Bridge St tenure Rees Hatter and 
Henry Stydman 

Hatter Rees 1594 Newport One Burgage west side Bridge St held by John Devenallt 

Owen James 1594 Newport One Burgage west side Bridge St tenure of William Mreddith 

Mreddith Williaml594 Newport One Burgage west side Bridge St held by James Owen 

Phillips Llewelyn 1594 Newport One Burgage west side Bridge St tenure of Henry Stydman 

James Thomas Bowen 1594 Newport Burgage west side Bridge St tenure of Phillip Mreddith 

Mreddith David 1594 Newport One Burgage west side Bridge St where Phillip Mreddith lives 

Mreddith Phillip 1594 Newport One Burgage west side Bridge St in hands of the Lords 

Perrot 1594 Newport Two Burgage -Hickmans Crosse and lane- Parke Crosehicman-tenure James 
Howell 

Howell James 1594 Newport Two Burgage -Hickmans Crosse and lane- Parke Crosehicman- 
held by Perrot 

Picton Owen 1594 Newport One Burgage-Hickmans Crosse and lane tenure of Owen Phillip 
Younge 

397 



Younge Owen Phillip 1594 Newport One Burgage-Hickmans Crosse and lane held by Owen Picton 



Melcheor Willaim 1594 Newport Gwern y Rhaw 



Melcheor Willaim 1594 Newport Brithdir where Llewelyn Hughe lives 



Hughe Lleweljai 1594 Newport Brithdir held by William Melcheor 



Bateman Thomas 1594 Newport called Peny y Knweke where Rees Williams lives 



Williams Rees 1594 Newport tenement called Peny y Knwekeheld by Thomas Bateman 



Thomas James Owen Gwillim 1594 Newport land called Slade 



Pictoune Owen 1594 Newport land at Comdewi in tenure of William Thomas and Edward John 



Thomas William 1594 Newport land at Comdewi held by Owen Pictoune 



John Edward 1594 Newport land at Comdewi held by Owen Pictoune 



Perrot 1594 Newport Two tenement at Hohnys on in tenure of Ellen levan and the other Lewis 
William 



levan Ellen 1594 Newport tenement at Holmys held by Perrot 



398 



William Lewis 1594 Newport tenement at Holmys held by Perrot 

Owen James 1594 Newport Two tenement at Holmys on in tenure James Jenkin Kethin 

Kethin James Jenkin 1594 Newport Two tenement at Holmys held by James Owen 

Devenald John 1594 Newport Parke y Maris in Tenure of Henry Bowen 

Bowen Henry 1594 Newport Parke y Maris held by John Devenald 

Williams Rees 1594 Newport land Gwein Josep held from lord by tenure 

John levan David 1594 Newport land Gwein Dolache held from the lord by tenure 

Bradshawe (gent) John 1594 Newport tenement called capella sancte milbyrge in tenure of Hugh 
Lewis 

Lewis Hugh 1594 Newport tenement calledcapella sancte milbyrge held by John Bradshawe gent 
Lloyd Thomas Tenements at Trekediuor 1594 



Records of the Borough of Newport B G Charles NLW Journal Vol Vll 

de Audley James 1341 Newport farmed out the issues of Newport to Phillip de Chetwinde for the 
term of the latters life 

de ChetwindePhillip 1341 Newport held from James de Audley for the term of his life 
399 



Gworda Phillip William 1589 apr 20 Newport David John Hodge — one burgage in Reol Vajre 



Hodge David John 1589 apr 20 Newport one burgage in Reol Yayre -Phillip William Gworda 



Phillips Eynon 1589 Newport burgess- died 



Bowen Henry 1589 Newport of Parke y Maries 



verch Phillip LIeykyl589 Newport Spinster - rescued her cattle and sheep from Jane Griffith held 
in the Common Pound 



Griffith Jane 1589 Newport held sheep and cattle of Lleyky verch Phillip in the common pound 



Rees Phillip 1589 Oct 7 Newport Encroached on libeties of town 



Toumer Thomas John 1590 Mayl 1 Newport Bloody assault on Morice Teylour 



Teylour Morice 1590 Mayl 1 Newport assaulted by Thomas John Toumer 



William Thomas 1591 Apr 26 Newport Miller of Mertell rescue and affray 



Lewys Owen 1591 Apr 26 Newport Bailiff - rescue and affray 



Edwards Robert 1591 Apr 26 Newport rescue and affray 



Thomas Owen 1591 Apr 26 Newport of Moelgrove rescue and affray 



400 



ap levan ap Howell Melchior 1591 May 10 Newport died left property to William Melchior 

Melchior William 1591 May 10 Newport heir Melchior ap levan ap Howell 

Lloid John 1591 Newport of Rossemaen- land from William Phillip Gwrda 

Gwrda William Phillip 1591 Newport land to John Lloid 

Thomas Lewis 1591 Newport of Kilgwin assualt and rescue 

Lewys Owen 1591 Newport bailiff assualt and rescue 

Gwrda William Phillip 1592 July Newport repair of hedges 

Howell James 1592 July Newport repair of hedges 

Tumour Thomas John 1592 July Newport repair of hedges 

John Jennet 1592 Newport widow repair of hedges 

John Griffith 1592 Newport Smith - Assualt on Agnes wife of John David alias Taylor 
Perrott James 1604 May 3 Newport freehold tenant of the town 
Rees Walter 1604 May 3 Newport freehold tenant of the town 

401 



Perrott Cicil 1604 May 3 Newport 



Sir James Perrott- freehold tenant of the town Knight - 



Picton Owen 1604 May 3 Newport Gent - freehold tenants of the town 



Kiblewhite John 1604 May 3 Newport - freehold tenant of the town 



Yong Rowland Thomas 1604 May 3 Newport - freehold tenant of the town 



Griffiths Owen 1604 June 16 Newport non attendance at fair 



John Jenet cl604 Newport Widow pigs unringed 



Tanner Caria cl604 Newport broke assize of ale selling small measure 



ap Hugh Lewis 1604 Oct 8 Newport broke the assize of ale 



Lloyd James William 1604 Dec 3 1 Newport played cards and other illicit games in his house 



John Hugh 1604 Dec 3 1 Newport played cards and other illicit games in his house 



ap levan Richard 1606 Apr 25 Newport Tailor - sold ale without a licence 



Stedman Henry cl606 Newport Died held land of George Owen 



402 



Owen George cl606 Newport Lord of the Town 

Gwrda Thomas Phillip 1611 Oct 7 Newport refused to take the oath 

Melchior William 1612 Oct 12 Newport refused to remove a stone wall he erected on the 
common deprived of right of being a burgess 

Thomas David C 1612Newport fined for catching small salmon 

Hughe Thomas C 1612Newport fined for catching small salmon 
Bedo 

Edward William 1621 Apr 23 Newport not paying rent and doing service 

Anthony William Newport Keeping mangy horses 

James Katherine Newport Keeping mangy horses 

Lloyd John Newport Clerk Keeping mangy horses 

Hugh Trevor Newport Clerk Keeping mangy horses 

Smith Thomas Owen 1655 Feb 25 Newport taking tobacco in open court 

Roberts John 1715 May 19 Newport sworn a burgess 

403 



Hellier Thomas 1715 May 1 9 Newport sworn a burgess 



William Thomas 1715 May 19 Newport sworn a burgess 



Powell Morris C1600's Newport attorney 



Bowen M C1600's Newport attorney 



Young Phillip C1600's Newport attorney 



Vaughan Gruffydd C1600's Newport attorney 



Gwyn William C1600's Newport attorney 



Bowen William C1600's Newport attorney of Holmus 



Sjmiins John C1600's Newport attorney 



John Griffith C1600's Newport Bailiff 



Taffe John C1600's Newport offender 



Lewis Owen C1600's Newport pledge 



Lloyd PhwkeC1600's Newport of Cardigan - owed money by John Taffe 



404 



Warren William C1600's Newport Sheriff 

David Owen John 1630 Aug 23 Newport pledge for William Phillips arrested to satisfy the debt 

Phillips WUliam 1630 Aug 23 Newport owed money fled the bailwick 

Gwrda Thomas Phillip 1600 Nov 3 Newport distrain goods and chattels 

Yong Roland 1600 Nov 3 Newport debt owed by Thomas Phillip Gwrda 

William Lewis 1600 Nov 3 Newport Valued cow to satisfy debt owed by Thomas Phillip Gwrda 

Meredith Phillip 1600 Nov 3 Newport to satisfy dept owed by Thomas Phillip Gwrda Valued cow 

Lewys Owen 1589 Feb 24 Newport "plea of trespass against George Gworda, Ellen verch David 
and Thomas Gworda" 

Gworda George 1589 Feb 24 Newport guilty of trespass 

verch David Ellen 1589 Feb 24 Newport guilty of trespass 
Gworda Thomas 1589 Feb 24 Newport guilty of trespass 

Warren William 1590 June 16 Newport against Henry ap levan - trespass 

ap levan Henry 1590 June 22 Newport case dismissed 

405 



ab Bowen Rees 15 89 June 16 Newport against Maurice ap Hoel of Morvill - trespass 



ap Hoel Maurice 1589June 16 Newport case adjourned 



Bowen Henry 1590 July 20 Newport plea of trespass against Etheldred Thornton 



Thornton Etheldred 1590 July 20 Newport Found guilty damages £3 6s 8d 



ap Rees Gall John 1590 July 20 Newport foreman of Jurors Etheldred Thornton guilty 



ap levan ap Howell Rees 1590 Sep 13 Newport plea of debt against Phillip William pedlar 



William Phillip 1590 Sep 13 Newport guilty has to pay debt and 5s 9d costs 



Lloyd John 1607 May 24 Newport Of Rosjmiaen plea of debt against John William Roblyn yeoman 
of Newport 



Roblyn John William 1607 May 24 Newport Guilty has to pay debt and 6s 4d costs 



Powell Richard 1604 Sep 10 Newport of Fishguard plea of debt against Thomas Phillips of 
Fishguard gent 



Phillips Thomas 1604 Sep 10 Newport Not Guilty 



Thomas William 1604 Sep 10 Newport foreman of Jurors Thomas Phillips not guilty 



ap levan Thomas David 1611 June 10 Newport plea of trespass against William Antony 
406 



Antony William 1611 June 10 Newport none payment of wages 

John y gove Rowland 1611 Jan 1 Newport plea of debt 3s for a stone of cheese sold to Thomas 
William clerk 

William Thomas 1611 June 10 Newport Clerk - bought cheese and should have paid for it by 1 
May 1611 

James Thomas Bowen 1611 July 22 Newport Llannerch plea of trespass against Jankin ap Richard 

ap Richard Jankinl611 July 22 Newport dismissed outside the liberties and jurisdiction of the court 
of the town 

Walter levan 1609 Sep 29 Newport plea of debt - one stone of cheese 
David Jenkinl609 Sep 29 Newport of Neveme 

James Thomas 1611 May 16 Newport of Kilgwyn plea for trespass against levan James 
John Lleweljai for false malicious and scandalous Welsh words 

Lleweljoi levan James John 1611 May 16 Newport of Kilgwyn- plaintiff did not prosecute 

James Robert 1611 July 24 Newport of Harysmote plea for trespass against Robert Thomas William 
for scandalous words plea for trespass 

William Robert Thomas 1611 July 24 Newport Guilty to pay 3d damages 
407 



Richard Morris 1611 July 24 Newport Foreman of Jurors Robert Thomas William guilty 

Lloyd Thomas 1611 July 8 Newport of Fishguard plea for trespass against Hugh Thomas of 
Newport clerk regarding a lease to Griffith ap Rees 

Thomas Hugh 1611 July 8 Newport requested that land be leased to Griffith ap Rees 
ap Rees Griffith 1611 July 8 Newport defaulted on pajmients 

Bowen William 1611 July 22 Newport plea of trespass against Gwenllian verch levan spinster for 
withdrawing from work and service of the plaintiff before the end of the term agreed 

John Owen 1611 Aug 5 Newport plea of trespass 

Lewis James 1611 Aug 5 Newport plea of trespass 

Lloyd Rees 1611 Aug 5 Newport gent boat owner 

Owen Alban 1611 Aug 19 Newport gent plea of trespass 

Gwrda Thomas Phillip 1611 Aug 19 Newport Guilty has to pay 6d 

Bowen Thomas 1611 Nov 1 1 Newport Plea of debt 15s 6d for herrings sold to Owen Hugh 

Bowen Henry 1612Jan 22 Newport Plea of trespass and damage to the plaintiff 

408 



Gwyn William 1612 Jan 22 Newport defendant acknowledged £3 8s lOd plaintiff satisfied 

David Owen John 1612 ay 11 Newport Plea of trespass and damage to the plaintiff 

ap levan Gall Griffiths 1612 May 1 1 Newport plaintiff lost 6 months sheeps milk 

David Nicholas 1612Aug 3 Newport Complained about scandalous words about Margaret 
his wife 

Penry William Thomas 1612Aug 3 Newport guilty fined 3d 

Llewelyn Robert 1615 July 31 Newport plea of trespass scandalous words spoken by Henry 
William 



Newport Names from Jottings 

Jones Thomas of Wenallt Newport 1679 High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 

ap David ap Owen John cl505? Newport Kemes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 
1862 

ap David Rese 7555 Newport Kemes per Annuml3s 4d plus 2 hens Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott in 
Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

ap David Rice cl505?Newport Kemes the pece hath brok5ai George Owen Baronia de Kemeys 
409 



ArchCamb 1862 



ap Guillym Margret cl505? Newport Kernes is warde undir that lordshippe George Owen Baronia 
de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Gwillam Richard cl505? Newport Kernes hath brok)^! the pece George Owen Baronia de 
Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Ho' Picton Owen cl505?Newport Kernes is warde undir that lordshippe George Owen Baronia 
de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Howell lankyn cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Jeuan Thomas John 1528 August Newport Kernes presented to courte for felonye George 
Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Jeuan ap Eeynon de TreewrachGr. cl505?Newport Kernes "land in Kilsauey, Dolmawr, 
Kiluach" 

George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Jeuan de Dinas cl505?Newport Kernes land in Brinhenllan George Owen Baronia de Kemeys 
Arch Camb 1862 



ap Llewhelin Thomas cl505?Newport Kemess hath brokyn the pece George Owen Baronia de 
Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Moelwin Jeuan cl505?Newport Kernes land in Baivill George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch 
Camb 1862 



410 



ap Owen Owen 1523 Newport Kernes appointed attumey of the Baronye of Kernes George Owen 
Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Ph' ap leuan Hugh cl505? Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 
1862 



ap Phelipps David cl505? Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap R'ys Lewys cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Rederech Rice cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Rice Lewis cl505?Newport Kernes is warde undir that lordshippe George Owen Baronia de 
Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



ap Rice Lewis cl505?Newport Kernes hath brokjoi the pece George Owen Baronia de Kemeys 
Arch Camb 1862 



ap Thomas Rice cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Ap William Lloid Griffith cl505?Newport Kernes land in Moelgrove George Owen Baronia de 
Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Alderson Mrs 6 June 1903 Memorial tablet Newport Church Acc to Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Aldhouse Green Stephen 1984. Dr of University of Wales College Newport excavations Hoyles 
Mouth Cave Tenby 



411 



Appowell David 1588 Newport Kernes per Annum 9s plus 2 hens Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott 
inCemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 



Beynon David 28 Jauary 1808 Newport, co, Pemb,, Yeoman Offence Theft of copper, Indicted 
twice for the fact, the being different, and without an accomplice, David Martin mentioned in 
recognizance but not indicted. Copper originally came from a shipwreck, Newport, co, Pemb,, 
Prosecutor Thomas, David Newport, shopkeeper Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830,, 



Beynon William 10 October 1802 Newport, co. Pemb., Tailor Offence Theft of salt. Prisoner aged 
37. Newport, co.Pemb., Prosecutor Bowen Essex Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Bowen James Bevan 1828 of Llwyngwair JP - MP for Pembrokeshire 1866-1868 High Sheriff 
1862 Mayor of Newport 1870-71 a member of the Inner Temple son of George Bowen bom at 
Llwjoigwair 21 May 1828 graduated BA Oxford succeeded to the estate in 1856 married 6th May 

1857 Standly Harriette youngest daughter of Rev John Standly of Southoe Hants. Had children.- 

Bowen George Bevan 1858 

Bowen James Robert 1860 

Bowen Blanche Harriette 1864 



Bowen James 1517 Newport Kemes Sir appointed to be his auditor and attumey of his Barony of 

Kemes and to take fines of tenants and to punish all offenders and trespasses done within his 
baronye of Kemes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 

Buttler Matthew 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 3 s plus 1 hen Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott in 
Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

David John Thomas 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 1 3s 4d plus 2 hens Rent Roll of Sir John 
Perrott inCemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 



David William 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 6s 8d plus 2 hens Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott in 



412 



Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 



David ap Guelyham John cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 
1862 



David ap Gwillim John cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 
1862 



de Audele James 1326 kinsman and co heir of William son of William Eartyn Lord of Kemes 
Close Rolls Pembrokeshire Parsons 



de Audele Nicholas 1376 July 4 lordship of Newport son of James de Audele advowson of the 
church of Nevem 28Aug 1377 Pat Rolls 

de Kerthragor Madog cl505?Newport Kemes Tenancies land in Trevigin of Momington 

George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 

de Tours William 1191 grandson of Robert Fitzmartin First Marcher Lord of Kemes Cemaes built 
Castle also built the town and Church of Newport completed probably by 1 194 



Devenald lamys cl505? Newport Kemes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Douenallt William cl505?Newport Kemes is warde undir that lordshippe George Owen Baronia 
de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



fil. Jordani Lloid William cl505?Newport Kemes land in Eglosserow George Owen Baronia de 
Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



413 



Genkene Rese cl505?Newport Kernes nonage George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Goth Jen'm Lewis 1588 Newport Kernes per Annum 1 5s plus 2 hens Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott 
in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 



Griffiths , John 28 June 1811 Fishguard, Yeoman Offence Assault on Prosser Elizabeth, 
prosecutor's wife, Newport, co, Pemb,, Prosecutor Prosser, William Llanrhian, tailor Before the 
Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830,, 

Harry Lewis 1588 Newport Kernes per Annum 6s 8d plus 1 capon & 6 hens Rent Roll of Sir John 
Perrott in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Howells John 1 December 1798 Haverfordwest Mariner Offence Conspiracy to commit highway 
robbery against the prosecutor No indictment Haverfordwest Prosecutor Davies George Newport, 
mariner Verdict No true bill? Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830, 



lurdayne Lewys cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



James Edward 2 August 1798 Newport, co. Pemb. Surgeon Offence Assault Newport, co. Pemb. 
Prosecutor Watts John Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

James Jenkyn 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 15s plus 2 capons & 1 hen Rent Roll of Sir John 

Perrott in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Jen'n Ellen 1588 Newport Kemes widow-per Annum24s plus 2 capons Rent Roll of Sir John 
Perrott in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Jenkins John 28 January 1808 Newport, co, Pemb, Scrap dealer Offence Receiving stolen goods - 
copper. Copper originally came from a shipwreck, Newport, co, Pemb, Prosecutor Thomas David, 

414 



Newport, shopkeeper Verdict principal acquitted, Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Jones Thomas 1679 of Wenallt Newport //ig/? Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 



Ladd John 30 January 1801 Newport, co. Pemb. Mayor Offence Promoting an unlawful assembly 
on market day with the intention of lowering the price of corn. The speech in Welsh, . Prisoner led 
the unlawful assembly to Llwyngwair, Nevern where two justices lived, ordered the gathering to 
reconvene at Newport on the next market day where he would supply them with barley and oats 
from the storehouses. No indictment. Food riot. Newport, co. Pemb. Before the Pembrokeshire 
Courts 1730-1830, 



Laugharne John 1735. patron Newport Church Acc to Pembrokeshire Parsons 



Lewis James 1 December 1798 Haverfordwest Currier Offence Conspiracy to commit highway 
robbery against the prosecutor. No indictment. Haverfordwest Prosecutor George Newport, mariner 
Verdict No true bill?. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830, 



Llewelin Evan 1762 mariner of Newport parish sloop 



Lloyd Anne 1714 widow patron Newport Church Acc to Pembrokeshire Parsons 



Lloyd Thomas 1759 Esq and Anne his wife Newport Church Acc to Pembrokeshire Parsons. 



Martin William 1301 Newport Kemes lorde of Cameyes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch 
Camb 1862 



Melchior William 1620 May 24 Will dated . William Melchior of Newport. Pembrokeshire in By- 
gone Days. 



Nicholas Llewhellin 13 August 1805 Newport, co, Pemb, Mariner Offence Assault, Newport, co. 



415 



Pemb, Prosecutor Lewis Margaret Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Peek William 1398, 17 November Guy etc to our beloved son Sir William Peek rector of the parish 
church of Newport In Kemmes, of our diocese, greeting etc. We grant to thee special license to 
absent thyself from thy said church for one year continuously from the of these presents 

and freely take and have the fruits, rents and profits of the same, attending in the meantime on the 
service of the noble lady, the lady of Audley, 



Pond August 1934 trans Atlantic flyer crashed on Cam Ingli above Newport. 



Porter John 1407, March 31. Also on 31 March, 1407, at Charlton, the same reverend father 
granted to Sir John Porter rector of the parish church of Newport In Kemeies, a special licence of 
non-residence from the of the making of these presents until next to come provided that the said 
church be laudably served in divine offices and the usual charges of the same duly borne. 



Protheroe David 1 July 1751 Alias David Ruthero, Phillip Newport, co. Pemb. Millwright Offence 
Theft of cloth belonging to Robert Phelps, clothier. Carew Guilty to the value of 10/- - partial 
verdict. Punishment Transported for 7 years. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Roberts William 1837 of Milford married Margaret daughter of John Davies of Newport 
descended from the Havards of Moilgrove .He died inl837 He was an eminent shipowner and 
builder whose father came from North Wales 

Rudd Thomas 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 15s plus 2 capon Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott in 
Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Sabelli ? August 1934 frans Atlantic flyer crashed on Cam Ingli above Newport. 



Salmon David 1926 Newport West WalesHistorical Records Vol XI 



416 



Thomas Griffith Gillin 1588 Newport Kernes per Annum 10s plus 2 capons Rent Roll 
of Sir John Perrott in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Thomas Jordan 1434 Newport held burgage plot Long Street 

Thomas Owen Gillin Thomas 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 25s plus 2 capons 

Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott inCemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Thomas Philip 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 13s 4d plus 2capons Rent Roll of Sir John 
Perrott inCemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Tournor Thomas Jo. 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 13s 4d plus 2 hens Rent Roll of Sir John 
Perrott in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Tuchet James 1505 Jan 30 Newport Kemes Lord Audeley - heir John Tuchet his eldest son George 
Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Vachan ap David ap Jeuan David cl505? Newport Kemes land in villa Jordani George Owen 
Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Vachan ap Jeuan Jeuan cl505?Newport Kemes "land in Pentrehenrie in Traian, Diffrin" George 
Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 



Vaughan William 1 December 1798 Haverfordwest Paper maker Offence Conspiracy to commit 
highway robbery against the prosecutor. No indictment. Haverfordwest Prosecutor 

Davies George Newport, mariner Verdict No true bill?. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730- 
1830, 



All 



Verney Richard cl505?Newport Kernes George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 

Vychan David cl505?Newport Kernes land in Meliney George Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch 
Camb 1862 

Wall Margaret Philip 1588 Newport Kernes per Annum 9s plus 2 hens Rent Roll of Sir John 
Perrott in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Waren John cl505? Newport Kernes father of William Warren George Owen Baronia de Kemeys 
Arch Camb 1862 

Warren William 1513 Newport Kemes sale of the wardshippe of William Warren George 
Owen Baronia de Kemeys Arch Camb 1862 

William Lewis 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 16s plus 2 capons Rent Roll of Sir John Perrott in 
Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 

Younge Owen Philip 1588 Newport Kemes per Annum 10s plus 2 capons Rent Roll of Sir John 
Perrott in Cemys 1588 Arch Camb 1866 



Newport Parish Hearth Tax 1670 

Harry James Newport H 

William Thomas Newport H 

Lloyd Robert Newport H 

Harry David Newport H 

William Jenkin Newport H 



418 



John John ap 


Newport 


H 


Llewhelin Evan 


Newport 


H 


Bowen Perrett 


Newport 


H 


Henry Griffith 


Newport 


H 


Williams William 


Newport 


H2 


Owen William 


Newport 


H 


Evans Owen 


Newport 


H 


John William 


Newport 


H 


Folke Jane 


Newport 


H 


George James 


Newport 


H 


Williams Nicholas 


Newport 


H 


Hillier Thomas 


Newport 


H 


Phillip Morgan 


Newport 


H3 


George Elizabeth 


Newport 


H 


Evan John 


Newport 


H 


Davies George , clerk 


Newport 


H2 


Jones Thomas , gent 


Newport 


H4 


James Henry 


Newport 


H 


James Oliver 


Newport 


H 


Havard John 


Newport 


H5 


Rosser Marie 


Newport 


H 


Morgan Morgan ap 


Newport 


P 


William James 


Newport 


P 


R oHpft Owpn 


Npwnnrt 


p 


Lysa Edward 


Newport 


P 


Penry Johan 


Newport 


P 



419 



John George 
Phillipps John Griffith 
Morgan Samuell 
David Morgan 
Thomas Jenett 
Roch Evan 
WiLlaim George 
Griffith Ehzabeth 
Bevan Tho Rees David ap 
George Elinor 
Rees Griffith 
William John 
James Katherine 
William Nicholas 
Harry Elizabeth 
Lloyd Elizabeth 
Thomas Jane 
Richard EUinor 
James William 
John David 
John William 
Pecttsall Thomas 
William John 
Rees Jenkin 
Owen Thomas 
David William 



Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 

Newport P 



420 



Richard James 


Newport 


P 


John Owen David 


Newport 


P 


James Johan 


Newport 


P 


Rees Richard 


Newport 


P 


Harry Phillip 


Newport 


P 


Owen Morice 


Newport 


P 


Rudd[erch] Evan 


Newport 


P 


Rudd[erch] William 


Newport 


P 


Evan, John David 


Newport 


P 


David Moses 


Newport 


P 


Lloyd John 


Newport 


P 


Rudd[erch] Rees ap 


Newport 


P 


Elis Phillip 


Newport 


P 


Bowen Owen 


Newport 


P 


Griffith Peter 


Newport 


P 


Griffith EUinor, widow 


Newport 


P 


Lloyd John 


Newport 


P 


Morgan Anthony 


Newport 


P 


Hugh Rouland 


Newport 


P 


Rees Flizaheth 


Newnnrt 


p 


John Morice 


Newport 


P 


John Morice 


Newport 


P 



1844 Newport Pigot & Co. South Wales directory 

A small market town, sea-port and parish, in the hundred of Kemiss. The trade of Newport was at 
one time more considerable than now. The importations comprise timber, limestone, coal and culm; 
and its exports, com, butter slates. In some seasons the salmon and herring fisheries are profitable; 



421 



and the bay forms an excellent harbour of refuge from the easterly and southerly winds. 

The parish church of Saint Mary stands in the upper part of the town, and is a handsome and 
commodious edifice, in form crucifix; the living is a rectory, in the gift of the Bronwydd family. 
There are places of worship for dissenters, and a charity school. Several romantically situated seats 
ornament the neighbourhood of Newport; and the scenery, from many points, is pleasing and 
picturesque. The parish contained, in 1831, 1,798 inhabitants; but by the last census (1841), it 
appears the number was only 1,751. 

Post Office,Frances Owen, Post Mistress.~ Letters from various parts arrive (from Cardigan) every 
afternoon at half past three, and are despatched every morning at half past eight, ^Letters from 
Haverfordwest and parts West, &c. arrive every morning at half past eight, and are despatched 
every afternoon at half past three. 

Gentry And Clergy. 

Bowen George, Esq. Llwyngwair 
Bowen James, Esq. Newport 
Bowen the Misses, Berry hill 
Bowen Mrs.-, Gotham 
Davies Miss-, Deepwell 
Davies Miss-, Newport 
Davies Mrs. Margaret, Newport St. 
Davies Mrs.-, Llwyngwair 
Foulks Miss-, Deepwell 
Foulks Mrs.-, Deepwell 
Griffiths G.D. Esq. Berllan 
Griffiths Miss-, DeepweU 
Harries Miss-, Gellyfawr 
Harries Mrs.-, Newport 
Harries Captain Thomas, Newport 
Harries Mr. Thomas, Newport 
Harries Captain William, Newport 
Havard Mr. David, Newport 



422 



James Mrs.-, Ann, Newport 

James Mrs.-, Gellyfawr 

Jones Rev. J. Nevem 

Nicholas Mrs. Ann, Newport 

Owen Mrs. Jane, Newport 

Owen Owen, Esq. Cwmglo)^! 

Richards Lient. (coast guard) Dinas 

Rogers Lient. Edward, Newport 

Symmons Mrs.-, Henllys 

Thomas Rev. Llewelljai Lloyd, Court House 

Schools. 

Charity School John Morgan, Master, Mary Morgan, Mistress, 

Evans John 

Price Ann 

Auctioneers. 

Harries David 

Thomas William 

Bakers. 

Martin Ann 

Thomas Mary 

Williams Mary 

Blacksmiths. 

Davies Samuel 

James William 

Parry David 

Rees David 

Boot & Shoe Makers. 

Davies William 

Davis Thomas 

423 



Morgan John 
Rowlands Thos. 
Thomas John 
Williams Thomas 
Carpenters & Joiners. 
Davies Stephen 
Evan David 
Gilbert Thomas 
Howell Thomas 
Hughes Thomas 
John Thomas 
Morris Joshua 
Nicholas James 
Owen John 
Corn Merchants. 
Lamb James 
Vaughan Levi 
Williams Benjamin 

Grocers, Drapers And Dealers In Sundries. 

Davies John 
Davis Jane 
Evans Ann 
Gilmore Sampson 
Harvard Levi 
Johnston Andrew 
Laugham Thomas 
Morgan John 
Nicholas William 
Richards Mary 

424 



Williams Hannah 
Williams Mary 
Williams Sarah 
Inns And Public Houses. 

Angel Inn, Thomas K. Bevan 

Castle Inn, Ann Lloyd 

Farmers' Arms Mary Thomas 

Golden Lion, William Owen 

Jolly Sailor, David Williams 

Masons' Arms Benjamin James 

Plough, Ann Rees 

Royal Oak, John Hughes 

Ship-a-Ground, Margaret Havard 

Ship & Castle, Stephen Davies 

Tavern Spite, Evan Jones 

Waterman's Arms, Charlotte Roach 

Lime Burners. 

Berryman Richard 

Matthias Wilham 

Maltsters. 

Bowen Ann 

Davies Sarah 

Griffiths John 

Millers. 

James Stephen 

Owen David 

Milliners & Dress Makers. 

Davies Maria 
Dodding Margaret 

425 



Evan Ann 

James Ann 

Jenkins Elizbth. 

George Ann 

Griffiths Esther 

Morgan Ann 

Morris Elizabeth 

Thomas Mary 

Slate Merchants. 

Castles W.H; John Davis, agent 

Davies Jane 

Stone Masons. 

George James 

John Benjamin 

Nicholas William 

Salmon James 

Surgeons. 

Bevan Thomas K. 

Crosswell Charles Lewis 

Llewelljoi John 

Tailors. 

Griffiths Edward 
Lloyd Stephen 
Lloyd Thomas 
Phillips Thomas 
Richards Benjamin 
Miscellaneous. 

Davies Grace, Straw Hat Maker 
Davies Jane, Slate Merchant 

426 



Evans John, Architect 
Griffiths Charles Watch Maker 
Griffiths James, Druggist 
Griffiths William, Cooper 
Havard Levi, Ship builder 
Hughes John, Butcher 
James John, Weaver 
James Thomas, Glover 
Jenkins Griffith, Weaver 
Laugham Mary, Carding Mill 
Lloyd David, Weaver 
Owen David, Saddler 

Price John, Inspector of Weights and Measures 
Rees James, Plaisterer 
Rodrick William, Butcher 
Carriers. 

To Cardigan, ~ James Thomas, every Saturday 

To Fishguard, James Thomas, ~ every Thursday 

To Haverfordwest, ~Wm. Nicholas, Enoch Williams and James Williams, once a week. 
Parrog. 

Was once a thriving fishing and sea trading community but the estuary has now silted up. The 
remains of old warehouses as still there one converted into a sailing club house and there are many 
fine old houses showing that it was once a prosperous community many of them belonged to retired 
sea captains. 

Old stepping stones used by the pilgrims on their way to St David's still visible in the river by the 
bridge at low tide [but be very careful trying to cross using them - 1 tried and slipped off one and 

427 



fell in the river causing much amusement] 



Sites of interest. 

Carningli Common. Undefended Settlement. 1 mile south of Newport - 

The hill slope around the hill fort of Mynydd Carningli is covered with the remains of undefended 
settlements which comprise hut circles and associated field systems. These monuments are difficult 
to date in the absence of excavation and may range in date from the bronze age to the post Roman 
period. 



Carn Briw 

This Cairn formed of small boulders, is places on Cam Ingli Commonat an altitude of 1089 ft above 
sea level. It has a height of 8ft and a base circumference of 300ft commanding a wide prospect in all 
directions. It has not been injured by man, but has been slightly disturbed by animals -Visited 29* 
July 1915. 



Carreg Coitan Arthur 



A well preserved cromlech standing about 300 yds north west of the town of Newport, on the left 
hand side of the road leading to the bridge over the river Nevern. The capstone which is somewhat 
ungainly in form is supported by only two of the original pillars. In length iy is 10ft 7in, in breadth 
8ft 1 lin and in thickness from 3 to 3 /4 ft. the chamber is about 5 '/^ ft by 4 Vi ft. the supports vary in 
height from 3 to 4ft. Closely adjoining the structure are four other stones partially buried in the soil, 
and faint fraces are visible of the base of a cairn. The cromlech is locally known as the "Quoit 
Stone" and "Arthur's Stone"-- Visited 7* July 1914. Arch Camb 1872 pi 40 



Ffynhonnau Stones 

In the north west comer of a little common immediately south of Ffynhonnau house is a heap pf 
mountain sfrewn boulder stones, which have the appearance of being the contents of a ruined caim 
-visited 2"'' July 1914 



428 



Cerrig y Gov 

Distance about a mile and a quarter from Newport in a field on the right hand side of the Fishguard 
road are the remains of what must have been , when in a perfect state, one of the most interesting 
monuments in the county. It consisted of nfive stone cists, the group forming a circle that was, and 
still is, raisd slightly above the surrounding field. Its existance has always been known, but in 

Fenton's Time it was "overgrown with weeds and briars" so that no descriotion of its special 
features was possible. In 1920 the undergrowth having been carefully removed the real character of 
the structure became clear. Fenton (Tour p 555) remover the covering stones of the cists, and 
digging down about a foot through fine mould, came to charcoal, and soon after pieces of urns of 
the rudest pottery, some particles of bones, and a quantity of black sea pebbles. He adds: " I opened 
them all, and with very trifling variation of their contents found them of the same character . In the 
vacant space between each cistvaen, as well as in the centre over which the cromlech had been 
raised I likewise dug but found nothing indicatory of sepulture . . . The largest lid stone was 13ft 3 in 
in length, nor were the others much less and the whole group was in circumference 42 yds". 



Bedd Morus (or Maurice) 

According to Lewis, Top Diet 1833 " There is on a hill connected with Carn Ingi, a large stone, 
called Morris's Grave" A descriptio n in Arch Camb 1875 p305 reads "Judging from its form it was 
probably a portion of a cromlech. Its height also (7ft 6in) is one usually found in chambers of 
moderate dimensions. There are a few stone near it , but not apparently connected with it, as the 
land around is full of such stones. It s known as @Bedd Morris@, which Morris or Morus, was a 
notorious robber, who lived among the rocks on the summit of the hill commanding the pass; and 
which is the old, and was once the only, road to Newport.... the stone may be one of the groups that 
existed on the same line of road, the most remarkable part of which is the long line of upright stones 
called 'Pare y Marw'" . 



Y Garreg hir 

An erect stone standing at the meeting point of three fields known as Pare garreg hir one mile west 
of Newport. It has a sonewhat rounded top, is 41 in above the soil, and faces south. Tradition is 
silent about it -Visited 2P* July 1914 



429 



Cross inscrised Stone 



In a field close to College Square, south of Nevem Church, is an erect stone, which is not marked 
on the 6in sheet, and which is said to have been disinterred some years since from ground close by. 
It is an undressed boulder of Prescelly diabase, standing 58 in above ground with a breadth of 38 in. 
On it is inscribed a cross within a circle, of extremely rude workmanship. The circle has a diameter 
of 28 in, the arms of the cross are of equal length, but do not quite join the circle. A small stud is 
placed in each of the quadrants formed by the cross arms -Visited 3"* July 1914 



Cross Incised Stone 

On the 12^ March 1924, following upon communication from the Director of the National Museum 
of Wales ( Dr R.E.Mortimer Wheeler, F.S.A.), a cross bearing stone was discovered serbing as a 
gatepost to the encliosure shown as Cnwe y Crogwydd, "gallows hillock". The cross is of the 
ordinary simple type; equal armed, within a rudely formed and somewhat smaller sized circle than 
usual. The arms are extended slightly beyond the bounds of the circle; the vertical arm to a greater 
extent than the others, and is terminated by a small dot. About an inch lower than this terminal, and 
apparently sheltering it, is a curved bar. There is no inscription or Ogam markings. The stone should 
be carefully removed to a place of safety. 

Carn Ingi 

This is one of the best preserved of the pre historical camps of Britain. 

The following article is by Lieut Col W LI Morgan R.E. F.S.A. :- 

Cam Ingli is situated at the top of a high mountain, about 1 Yi miles north of Newport. 

The defences consist of a series of stone walls connecting tors, some of which are of considerable 
size. The walls in places are still perfect, though generally thay have fallen forward. Owing to the 
immense quantity of loose stone lying about in all directions, it is eveident that the walls have never 
been robbed for the sake of stone; and further that the builders being in no way restricted in these 
materials. The walls were limited to their very moderate dimensions for some practical reason. In 
several places where they are intact the width of rough walling is about 3 ft, backed with rough 
stones, according to the slope of the hill. The free use of headers shows that the constructors were 
no novices in the art of building. They appear to have considerable difficulties with their 
foundations, and, consequently, every advantage was taken of massess of rock projecting above the 
surface of the ground for the foundation of the wall. 



430 



The height of the wall at present in no case appears to exceed 4ft but the foot is generally buried in 
masses of fallen stone - 2ft to 3ft at the least. The height probably never exceeded 6ft to 7ft. In the 
case where the walls are on fairly level ground , and have now fallen into a shapeless mass of ruins, 
the stones which have never been reduced in number by either time of man, would if collected 
together, represent a wall 6ft high and 6ft wide. It is remarkable that with the abundance of 
building materials the walls were not made higher. It is hardly likely to enable the defenders of one 
line to retreat to the next, for in those days the retreat from the first line to the second would have 
been made as difficult as possible; there the defenders would have to stay of die. Tey for some 
reason the height of the ramp was limited to 6ft or eight ft at the most. The only reason I can assign 
is that it was restricted to this height to enable the defenders, at a favourable moment to jump down 
and finish the fight at close quarters, which they would be unable to do in the case of a high 
rampart. 

The Great Tor of Cam Ingli divides the main camp into two. The north east portion is defended on 
the west by the scarps of the tor, and on the south by a wall connecting this tor to another on the 
east, above a steep and rocky slope. A wall running east and west connects this last tor with the 
main tor, forming the northem side of this north east portion. This wall is well preserved and is in 
places 4ft high by 3ft wide, but it is probably highes owing to the accumulation of stones at its base. 
It seems to have been platformed at the top, and was ,consequently never higher than it is now. 
Projecting masses of rock have been largely utalised in the foundation of this wall. 

The north east outwork - From the junction of the north wall with the main to another wall runs 
north east 300 ft to a small tor. This wall is in a ruinous condition, but it is eveident that no stone 
have been removed from it. It is now continued 100ft to another small tor. This portion is better 
preserved ; it is broken by an entrance, but it is very doubtful whether this is original; at all events it 
has been so altered that only the site remains. The wall curves round the northern extremity, and 
turning southward forms the eastern side of the outwork. It afterwards divided into two, the the 
commencement of another outwork. Both are thrown upon what has been called the eastem tor; one 
is 120ft below the other. In places they are well preserved, and the space between them both, on the 
upper and lower slopes, is covered with masses of loos rock rendering approach very difficult. The 
interior and exterior of this outwork are covered with hut circles, and ponds of various sizes, more 
particular on the eastem and eastem slopes, and even between the two outworks, among the masses 
of stones are to be seen traces of huts. 

The westem portion of the main camp is protected on the east by the Great Tor; a short wall 
connects this with a smaller tor, and together they form the southem defence. A wall with an 
entrance now much damaged, continued northwards about 120 ft, forms the western defence. The 
northem consists of a wall joining the western wall with the main tot. it can be fairly well traced 
among a mass of stones which render any defence almost unnecessary. A further outwork towards 
the west containing the best preserved entrance is defended by a wall on the southern and northem 
sides overhanging considerable elopes, and on the west by a wall better defined than in most places. 
A further outworl extends to the tor on the westem point. The wall, more especially on the southem 
side is mostly composed of portions connected together bt projecting rocks, but beyond the tor it 



431 



disappears in large masses of broken stones, very difficult of access. Some distance down is an 
outer wall in continuation of the wall of the lower wastem outwork, and joining the eastern and 
western tors. The whole slope between the ridge and thia outer wall, and for some distance outside 
is covered in hut circles and pounds , as also to a lesser extent, the northern slope; the only part 
where they are absent is on the western approach, and here the ground is so strewn with detached 
stones placed in such a manner as almostto suggest that the hand of man had something to do with 
their distribution. There are no circles in the main camp or western outworks. 

Cam Ingli, when it is better known will be recognised as a typical example of the men of the early 
iron age in Wales. The low rampart connecting small tors with the fighting platform above is most 
characteristic of those times. The numerous outworks, with the multiple of hut circles and pounds is 
unequalled anywhere in Wales, and these features have been preserved in a marvellous manner bt 
the vast accumulations of stones upon which they are built, the result of the disintegration of the 
trap rock. --Visited 12*^ Aug 1915 -Arch Camb 1905 pi 62. 



Carn Ffoi Camp 



The following article is by Lieut W. LI Morgan R.E. F.S.A. 

A little stone wall camp on the western spur of carn Ingi mountain about 1 % miles distant. The 
walls have crumbled into a mass of ruins, and have mostly fallen forward down the slope of the hill, 
and have been further destroyed by farmers. The defences consist of a single line of wall connecting 
projecting tors. To the east the ground on the outside almost commands the interior of the camp. 
Here the wall is straight and most messes about. There are no traces of a ditch, which never existed. 
A few hut circles along the line of the wall are still to be seen. The two entrances are probably 
original but have been altered out of all recognition. The geological formation is trap, ans stones are 
abundant on the whole mountain, but they are more numerous here and at Carn Ingli -Visited 1 8* 
July 1915. 



Intrenchment 

A cresent shaped intrenchment stands on the south bank of the river Nevern near its mouth, and but 
a few feet above high water level. It has a length of 180ft and a height of about 10 ft with a fall to a 
ditch 10ft wide. -Visited 3"^ July 1914. 

Bedd Samson 

About 500 yds east of the earthwork at the mouth of the river Nevern and close to the spring 
marked Ffynnon Care on the Ord. Sheet, is a mound known locally as Beed Samson which is not 
shown in the 6in sheet. Its length is 35ft and breadth 12 ft, an it has a south east north west axis; the 



432 



south eastern end has been disturbed. The averalge height is about 5ft. It stands on the south bank of 
the river Nevem, on a spot liable to floods, and covered at spring tides. Its form is that of a long 
barrow, and its name suggests a burial; but it was probably sdesigned to serve as a fighting platform 
to the earth work. It is analogous in size and location and appearance tp the mound near the mouth 
of the Loughor -Visited February 1921. 



Circular Hut Dwellings 

About half a mile south west of Cam Ingli and just above the 1000ft contour line, are two or three 
groups of hut circles or village sites, enclosed within walls of rough dry masonry. The largest and 
most perfect of the groups is north of a natural prominence called Cern Edward. It has an area 55 ft 
in diameter; the encircling wall is built of small stones without mortar, of a height of nearly 2ft with 
an average breadth of one ft. there are two entrances one to the north west, and the other to south 
east; both have awidth of 5 ft and are fairly indesturbed. The hut circles in the area have diameters 
varying from 6 to 10ft. A second enclosure, a little to the north north west of the first is of a similar 
type , but with a diameter of only 20ft and apparently with only one enfrance to the south. There 
may have been a third enclosure adjoining these two, but the disturbed state of the ground renders it 
difficult to be certain. It seems to have been similar in size and arrangement to those already 
described. Not far off is a small pool. The walling is altogether too slight for prehistoric structures , 
and the circles are probably medieval sheep folds -Visited 29"* July 1915. 



Carnewn Well 



Camewn is the rocky prominence at the foot of cam Ingli, on the right of the road leading from 
Newport to Cilgwyn. The well is exactly south of the "Rising Sun" inn. It is placed in a cleft of 
overhanging rock. The spring is still frequented,its water is , which is djsaid to rise and fall with the 
tide, being regarded as a cure for warts; a pin is thrown into thewell for each wart -Visited 3"* July 
1914. 

St Curig's Well 

This is situated to the south east of the castle, but no traditionbs could be gathered conceming it - 
Visited 10* July 1914, 

Medieval Pottery Kilns 

In January 1921, workmen employed in preparing the foundations for apublic hall in West St 



433 



uncovered the bases of two 15"* century pottery kilns, which were seen by our Inspecting Officer a 
few years after the discovery had been made. The structures were surrounded by a quantity of 

sherds of pitchers, bowls, ridge and floor tiles and baked clay. The base diameter of the kilns was 
5ft Sin; round each of them ran a flue 2ft 6in wide connecting with the arch of the firehole. One of 
the lilns was cut through; the second is in excellent preservation. Specimens of the ware and tiles 
are exhibited at the National Museum of wales Cardif and the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society 
Museum at Carmarthen. The earthenware pitcher and two handled poy which are preserved in the 
latter museum were evidently made in these kilns. Both retain traces of their original yellow green 
glaze. 



Mining Newport 

Possible working Exact location not known; copper lode reported near the alum deposits on the 
coast. No necessarily worked. 



434 



Pontfaen 



Settlement in the Gwaun Valley with a tiny celtic church St Brynach rebuilt in 1860s. There are 
memorials to Arden family of Pontfaen house and four 9c memorial stones in the churchyard. 
The Dyffiyn Arms in the Gwaun Valley is a public house, famous for its home brew. The newly, 
opened Gwaun Valley Trail to Tregjaion starts in Pontfaen. 



1839 Pontvaen (Pont-Faen) Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 

PONTVAEN (PONT-FAEN), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county 
of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (S. E.) from Fishguard; containing 52 inhabitants. It lies on the 
turnpike-road leading from Haverfordwest to Newport, and has a diversified surface, enlivened by 
the river Gwajai, which runs through it. Pontvaen House, formerly the residence of the Laugharnes, 
and now by purchase, together with the estate, including the whole of the parish, the property of 
Henry Rees, Esq., is a handsome mansion, pleasantly situated, and surrounded with thriving 
plantations. The neighbourhood is supposed to afford some of the best grouse-shooting in the 
county. The soil is in general fertile; the substratum is slate, which, however, has not yet been 
worked. The living is a perpetual curacy, rated in the king's books at £3. 6. 8., and endowed with 
£1200 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £72; patron and 
impropriator, Mr. Rees. The church, dedicated to St. Bernard, is not remarkable for any architectural 
details of importance. 



Pembrokeshire Antiquities Arch Camb 1865 St Brynach Church Pontfaen. 



435 



No. 1. — PONTFAEN ChUECH, INTERIOR. 1859. 



The church of this parish was, in 1859 one of the humblest and most ruinous of any in 
Pembrokeshire; but it still had attached to it several objects of antiquity worthy of record The 
church itself consists of a nave 20ft by 15 ft internally; a chancel 12 ft by 9ft 6in and a chapel on the 
north side 1 Ift square, connected with the chancel by a low passage 6ft wide. The nave had a single 
doorway on the south side and a single square square window near the pulpit The chancel had one 
sashed window in the east end, with one of two lights in the south side ; and a two light window, 
trefoiled, was in the north wall of the chapel. All wasof the later part of the 15* century; but the 
church had been much mutilated, and badly treated at various times, specially by the insertion of 
square windows. 

The whole was at the time in a ruinous condition, the windows broken, the door unhinged, the roof 
of the north chapel fallen in, the rails of the communion table broken down, the font a plain 
octagonal bowl on a shaft uncovered, and filled with dirt; no seats remained within the church; 
everything was in a state of the most lamentable ruin and abandonment; and no service had been 
performed in it for a considerable period. 

This church, however , still contained three stone altars, two of them in situ in the north chapel and 
the third, the covering of the high altar, reared up against the wall of the side passage into the 
chancel. It is so unusual a circumstance to find such adjuncts of ancient Catholic service still 
remaining. They were perfectly plain - in fact rude of form - supported on bases of rough masonry. 



436 



These, the font, the remains of the modem communion table, and the pulpit were all that indicates 
any purpose of worship in this "neglected spot" 

The Church was dedicated to St Bernard, and one of the altars may have referred to him, while a 
second would probably be that of the Virgin. 

The Parish Church dedicated to St Brjaiach Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments. 




In 1861 this church is described as "ruined, with its three stone altars still remaining within the 

abandoned walls and its font open to all the birds of Heaven" (Arch Camb p21 1) . 

Later the little building was reverently restored, only the upper portions of the walls being rebuilt to 
carry the new roof. It consists of nave 23 Va ft by 15 ft, Chancel 12 ft by 9 /4 ft north transeptal 
chapel 1 1 V2 ft by 10 Va ft and south porch. There is a single bell cote above the west gable. The 
windows are modem. 

The chancel arch which is plain and pointed, is only 8ft across. A passage 5 V4 ft widening to 12ft 
connects the chancel with the the chapel. The font basin is square , with slightly chamfered angles, 
and stands upon a circular shaft and square base. 

Two of the three stone alters mentioned in Arch Cambfor 1865 (pi 79) have disapeared"two of the 
were in situ in the north chapel, the covering of the high altar, reared up against the wall of the side 
passage into the chapel... They were perfectly plain - in fact rude in form - supported on bases of 
rough masonry". The high alter slab, it is said, " now forms the sill of the entrance door." 



437 



Old Parish Churches - Salter. 

The church was a ruin in 1861. The small nave and chancel with a plain pointed arch between them 
are probably of c 1200. The north transept and squint are later. 

Pembrokeshire Parsons 

Pontfaen Rectory was part of the possessions of Pill Priory. In 1594 it was in the hands of the 
Crown. - Owen 's Pern. 

PontvajTie. - Eeclesia ibidem ex coUacione prioris de Pulla unde Griffinus Lloid est rector valet 
communibus annis 66s. 8d. Inde decima 6s. 8d. Valor Eccl. 

Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- Pont Faen R. (St. Bertlard). Prior de Pulla olim Patr.; 
The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly value, £7. £20 King's Books, £3 6s 8d. - Bacon's Liber Regis. 
On 18 Nov. 1903, a faculty was granted for the removal of a cottage. 

Grants 

Parish of PONTFAEN, St. David's diocese 1861-1863 
Grant Reason: Reseating/Repairs Outcome: Approved 
Notes: 

Grant appears to have been obtained on false pretences; scheme purportedly included repairs to roof 
and walls. 



I , r\ 



438 




Church of St Brynach, Cwm Gwaun Grade: II Date Listed:30 July 2002 
1406 Episcopal Registers p 369 

This church is mentioned in 1406 in a mandate addressed by the bishop of the diocese to the prior 
and convent of Pill 

The priory, although greatly oppressed with debt was inter alia "overcharged with superfluous and 
useless men" whom the prior was enjoined to expel within fifteen days. Among the delinquents 
was Thomas Newport, who had been presented to Pontvaen on the 28* March 1406, "because thay 
are talebearers and sowers of discord among you ...and also because the said Thomas Newport 
lightly laid violent hands on.... Sir Robert Martyn , rector of the church of Pontfaen 

Pembrokesliire Cliurcli Plate J T Evans 

Pontfaen (S. Brynack). — A tulip-shaped Chalice with its Paten cover, both pieces bearing the hall 
marks of 1759 with maker's mark RG for Richard Gosling. The cup is 7 in. in height; diam. of bowl, 
3 in.; depth, 3 in.; diam. of foot, 3 in,; weight, 8 oz. 5 dwts. On the bowl is engraved in script " 
Poculum Ecclesiae De Pontuayn", The stem is divided by the rudiments of a knop. The Paten cover 
is 4 in. in diam.; height, 1 in.; weight, 4 oz. 7 dwts. 

A small Credence Paten is of earlier date and bears the hall mark of the Britannia standard for 1710 
with the maker's mark IS for Thomas Issod ; diam., 6 in.; height, 1 in.; weight, 8 oz. It bears the 
following inscription " Doaum J L in usum Ecclesiae Pontvane Aimo Dom : 1710". The donor 
James Laugharae was the grandson of Francis Laughame of St. Bride's who married Lettice 
daughter and co-heiress of James Vaughan of Pontvaen. 

There are also two glass Cruets. 
Clergy CCED 

Rees, Theophilus 1673 Curate 



439 



Jones, David 1692 
Morris, Hugo 1717 
Morris, David 1720 
Morris, David 1728 

Llaugharne Allen , John 1765 



Rector 
Curate 
Curate 
Curate 

Perpetual Curate 



1774 
1774 
1785 
1788 
1801 



Morris , David 
Davies , Thomas 
Davies , Thomas 
Foley , John 
Higgon , William 
Higgon , William 
Laugharne Allen, John 1804 
Allen , Laugharne 
Higgon , William 
Davies , Howell 
Higgon , Wilham 
Davies , Howell 
James , John 
James , John 
James , James William 1815 
Davies , Lewis 1 825 
Davies , Lewis 1831 



1765 Vac (natural death) Perpetual Curate 



Stipendiary Curate 
Stipendiary Curate 
Curate 

Stipendiary Curate 
Stipendiary Curate 
Curate 

1 809 Vac (natural death) Perpetual Curate 
1809 Perpetual Curate 

1813 Perpetual Curate 

1813 Vac (natural death) Perpetual Curate 



1813 

1815 
1815 



Perpetual Curate 
Stipendiary Curate 
Stipendiary Curate 
Perpetual Curate 
Stipendiary Curate 
Perpetual Curate 



Davies , Howell 1831 Vac (natural death) Perpetual Curate 



1851 Pontfaen Parish Church "The Church has been some time in a dilapidated state" 

Lewis Davies, Perpetual Curate, Temple Druid, Nr Narberth 

1929 St John Baptist Morvil & Parish Church (Pontfaen) & St Benno (Llanychllwydog) 
Incumbent and Curates; M H Jones 



440 



Nonconformist Chapels: None found 



Incised Crosses RCAM 

Erect and secured in the churchyard are two stone crosses. The taller stone 7ft high carries an bears 
inscised Latin cross on nearly the entire length of its exposed face. It had Iain prostrate and well 
nigh hidden in the soil for some years, until in 1901, it was re-erected by the parishioners. The 
shorter stone which also a similarly incised cross with a small circle at the crossing of the limbs, 
long served as the post on which hung the entrance gate to the churchyard -Visited 4"" June 1915. 



State of Education in Wales 1847 No Report 



Pontvain Hearth Tax 1670 



Lloyd John 


Pontvain 


H5 


Edward David 


Pontvain 


H 


Owen John 


Pontvain 


H 


Dedwith Elizabeth 


Pontvain 


H 


Nicholas Henry 


Pontvain 


H 


John David 


Pontvain 


H 


Lloyd John 


Pontvain 


H 


John Thomas 


Pontvain 


H 


Rees Thomas 


Pontvain 


P 


Morgan Griffith 


Pontvain 


P 


Rees Thomas 


Pontvain 


P 



441 



Owen Thomas Pontvain 



Pontfaen. Major Francis Jones - late Wales Herald Extraordinary. 




Pontfaen: An attractive 

commodious mansion standing near the parish church on a steep slope 

above the upper waters of the river Gwaun which flows for some seven miles to reach the sea at 
Fishguard. Behind the mansion, the land rises to the north-east, to the hill tops of Mynydd Morfil 
and Mynydd Cilciffeth, and before it, across the river the land rises to Mjmydd MeljTi in 
Llanychlwydog and M5aiydd Dinas in the parish of that name. The original mansion stood there in 
early medieval days, and, with a few architectural changes, has retained its status to the present day. 
The house is protected by a copse of well grown trees. 

In 181 1 Fenton observed: "Pontvaen which was inhabited by a family of considerable influence in 
this country within these sixty years, of the name of Laugharne, the heiress of which married 
Rowland Philipps Esq., of Orlandon, whose son John Philipps Laugharne Esq., my old friend and 

school-fellow, is the present proprietor." 

Some thirty years afterwards S. Lewis wrote, "Pontvaen House, formerly residence of the 
Laughames, and now, by purchase, together with the estate, including the whole of the parish, the 
property of Henry Rees, Esq., is a handsome mansion, pleasantly situated and surrounded with 
thriving plantations." 

In 1863 the Pontfaen estate in Pontfaen, Morfil, Llanychlwydog, and Llanychaer parishes, was 
442 



advertised for sale, and we are informed the demesne having been in the proprietors (Henry Rees) 
own hands for some years, has been farmed, drained, and improved at a very considerable outlay, 
under the best system of husbandry, and is now in splendid condition. The mansion and offices 
having been built of late years and in thorough repair . 

Pontfaen had been the house of three successive families for many centuries. The first known 

proprietors descended fi-om the Dyfed princeling, Gwynfardd Dyfed, whose arms were: azure a lion 

rampant or between an orle of eight roses of the second, was borne by his descendants. 

In the years 1350-1400 the owner was Rhys ap Robert ap Owen, said to have been the first of his 

7081ine to settle at Pontfaen, and was followed by his son Gwilym Vychan who was there in the 
1440s. 

His son Lleweljoi, succeeded him and the estate passed to his only child, the heiress, Llenca. She 
married shortly before 1491, John Vaughan of Abergavenny descended from the Breconshire 
chieftain, Moreiddig Warwyn whose coat of arms was: gules three boys heads each with a snake 
proper entwined around each neck. 

John settled at his wife's house, and was the first of the Vaughans there. In those days Pontfaen was 
a substantial building, and in 1670 contained five hearths. Six generations of Vaughans continued at 
Pontfaen which eventually passed to the ultimate heiress, Lettice Vaughan who married in 1625 
Francis Laughame, younger brother of Major General Rowland Laughame, who took a prominent 
part in the Civil War in West Wales. Ann Vaughan, granddaughter and heir of the said John and 
Llenca, married her kinsman, John Laughame of St. Brides. Six generations of Laughame lived at 
Pontfaen until the marriage of the ultimate heiress, Anne Laughame in 1750, to Rowland Philipps 
of Orlandon a cadet of the Picton Castle family, who there upon adopted the sumame Philipps 
Laughame. Later descendants inherited the baronetcv of the Picton Castle family, the last of them 
being Sir Godwin Philipps who died aged 17 in 1857. 

Most of the properties of the Laughames lay in St. Brides and Haverfordwest, and the later 
generations took little interest in their Pontfaen inheritance and in 1 823 the Pontfaen estate was sold 



443 



to Henry Rees of Roch parish. Thus after over five and a half centuries, Pontfaen passed to a 
stranger. 

Some time after 1845, Henry Rees sold Pontfaen to the Gowers of Castle Maelgwyn in North 
Pembrokeshire. In 1863 it was sold to Richard Arden, a wealthy London lawyer. It eventually came 
to the Buckinghamshire family called Camm. In 1941 C.B. Camm sold Pontfaen and part of the 
estate to Major John Francis D.L. of Carmarthen, father of Captain John Francis, O.B.E., D.L. 
whose daughter is the owner at the time of writing. 

Refs: Pembs. RO, LT 1786; Dwnn, ii, 172-3, 244; NLW, Poyston Deeds; Francis Jones, Tontfaen 
in.Journal NLW ?977; Fenton Tour Pembs. 1812; S. Lewis Top. Dictionary of Wales. 



St Brynach's Church, Pontfaen Set in the grounds of Pontfaen House, St Brjoiach's Church dates 
right back to the saint himself, who settled for while in the valley before going on to Nevem. 

The church was first established here by St Brynach in the year 540 A.D., but unfortunately there 
are no surviving records dating from its early years. What is known is that the state of the church 
deteriorated badly during the 17th century, until, in 1684, there was no cloth on the altar, no cover 
on the font, and no sort of land whatsoever owned by the church. 

RUINED 

In 1859-61, the church was described as "Ruined with all three altars still remaining within the 
abandoned walls, and its font open to all the birds of heaven". It was near to ruin - the windows 
were broken, the roof had fallen in, the communion rails were broken, the font, a plain basin, was 
full of mud, and no service had been held in the church for quite some time. The only signs that it 
had some religious purpose were the filthy font, what was left of the communion table, and the 
pulpit. 

At this time the church was shaped very much the way it is today. It consisted of a main body, a 
chancel, and a small chapel on the right connected to the chancel by a low tunnel-like passage 
called a squint or hagioscope. This word is from 'hagios', Greek for glory, and the purpose of the 
hagioscope was for people in the chancel 'to see the glory', i.e. to be able to see the bread and wine 
being consecrated on the altar. 

RESTORED 

This would have been the end of St. Brynach's, had it not been for the Arden family who bought the 
estate of Pontfaen. When Mr. Percy Arden saw the state of the church, he decided that restorations 



444 



should be made at once, and a Vicarage built. When the restoration work began in the late 19th 
century, it was found that the floor of the church had at some time been filled in with earth to a 
depth of two feet. Under the supervision of Mr George Morgan & Sons of Carmarthen, the floor of 
the church was sunk and a new tiled floor put in. Also, the roof was repaired and rebuilt where 
necessary, the walls painted, the drainage system improved, the whole building strengthened, and a 
new porch built in an early English style. 

That was the end of the restorations until 1987, when it further work was undertaken - rewiring, 
replastering, repairing the wooden dado panelling, and rebuilding of the porch as the sandstone had 
weathered badly. The work was completed and on a beautiful Sunday morning in October 1987 the 
church was re-opened by the Archbishop of Wales. 

The church also owns an elaborately embroidered set of vestments which were given by the Arden 
family, but had also deteriorated badly. They have also been restored and can be seen in the glass 
display case in the hagioscope. 

The painting, or icon on the church wall has also been restored. It is a copy of "The Tabernacle of 
the Madonna of the Stars" by Fra Angelico, made by R. Cipriani (Florence) in 1902. He was one of 
the numerous Italian copyists who made a living copying famous pictures for collectors, and 
sometimes for ecclesiastical use. It was probably given to the church by the Ardens in the 1900's. 

Who was St. BrjTiach? 

St Brynach was an Irish nobleman who, after being converted to Christianity, went to Rome in 
41 SAD, then Brittany, and from there to what is now Milford Haven. From there he made his way 
to Pontfaen, where he is said to have cast out many evil spirits and founded the church here. He 
soon moved on and ended up in Nevern, where he established another church. Carn Ingli, or 
"Mountain of the Angels", was the place where he is said to have had many angelic visions. Among 
his converts was Brecan (an Irish chief), the ruler of South Wales, about the year 425, and this 
Brecan founded numerous churches in Brecknockshire, Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire, 
Denbighshire, and Anglesey. From the Welsh "Lives" we learn that St. Brjoiach died 7 April 570 
AD, on which day his feast is celebrated. 

Pillar Stones 

Two 6-9th century pillar stones with inscribed Latin crosses (perhaps near-contemporary with the 
Saint himself) stand in the circular churchyard, which is a characteristic feature of the earliest 
Christian settlements in Pembrokeshire. 



Sites of Interest 

Pontfaen House, Pontfaen RCAHMW 



445 



17th century stone, roughcast, South East elevation, has 4 gables with 19th century barge boards, 
slate roof, 2 and 3 storey. South West elevation has hipped roof. 



Pontfaen House, Farmbuildings 

Yard surrounded by whitened stone farm buildings. Probably late 1 8th century. All openings with 
arched heads and keystones. 



Kilkiffeth, Pontfaen RCAHMW 

Remains of vaulted building, partly below ground level. No superstructure. Adjacent farmhouse 
considerably rebuilt. 

Vault has a flattened semi-circular profile with three deeply splayed openings in the lateral wall and 
one in the gable. The present farmhouse has been rebuilt; a large square chimney has been 
demolished. A. J. Parkinson. 2/12/2004 



Pillar Stones, Pontfaen Church 

Two cross-inscised pillar stones in Pontfaen churchyard dated to the 7th-9th century, 2.0 and 1.1m 
high. One stone bears the stigmata of a former gatepost, and so is not in situ. RCAHMW J. Wiles 
15.03.02 



Caer-Wen, Pontfaen 

Earthworks of a field system and probable deserted rural settlement, which may date back to 
medieval times, approx. 100m south of Caer-wen farm, on the lower northern slopes of Mynydd 
Cilciffeth. Heavily denuded earthworks of field boundaries and enclosures are evident, with 
suggestions of house platforms. The northern-most boundary is overlain by a minor road. The site 
was discovered during aerial reconnaissance by RCAHMW (December 15th 2008) and has not been 
visited on the ground. L. Osborne, 11th May 2012. 



446 



Puncheston 

Puncheston is a small village situated approx 6 miles SE of Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, on the Afon 
Anghof. It lies on the western edge of the Presili Hills. The Scheduled Ancient Monument of 
Castell Mael is on the eastern edge of the viUage. 
L. Osborne, 19th Nov 2010. 



1839 Topographical Dictionary of Wales Lewis 

PUNCHESTON, a parish, in the poor-law union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of 
Pembroke, South Wales, 12 miles (N. N. E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 255 inhabitants. 
This parish is also called "Castell Mael," probably from an ancient encampment, of which there 
are still some vestiges. It comprises a considerable tract of arable and pasture land, the greater 
portion inclosed and in a good state of cultivation: the total area is 2200 acres. The surface is 
boldly undulated, in some parts rising into mountainous elevations; the soil is various, but in 
the low grounds fertile and productive. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's 
books at £5. 6. 8.; patron, the Rev. James Williams James: the tithes have been commuted for a 
rent-charge of £105; the glebe comprises forty-five acres, valued at £40 per annum, and there is 
a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is not remarkable for any architectural 
details. Here are meeting-houses for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists, in each of which a 
Sunday school is also held; and the Society of Friends had formerly a place of interment in 
Puncheston. Of Martel, in the parish, the ancient seat of the family of Symmons, before their 
removal to Llanstinan, nothing now exists but the site. The remains of the encampment above 
noticed occupy the summit of a rocky eminence, inaccessible on one side by the precipitous 
steepness of the acclivity, and defended on the other sides by a deep intrenchment. The Rev. 
Mr. Gambold, father of the bishop of that name, and compiler of a Welsh, Latin, and English 
Dictionary, was for some years rector of this place. 



The Parish Church dedicated to St Mary, Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 

The present church is modem - a nave and chancel without structural division, and a single bell 
cote above the west gable - Visited P' June 1915. 



447 




The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 1994 



Church on ancient 

foundations but has 
been completely 
rebuilt and lack old 
features 




448 



Pembrokeshire Parsons 

According to the Valor Eccl. the rectory of Puncheston was in the patronage of divers persons, but 
George Owen states that it was appendant to the manor ad Puncheston, and that in 1594 the patron 
was Owen Johnes. - Owens Perns. 

It is certain that Owen Jones [Johnes] of Trecoen owned the manor and advowsons of Puncheston 
till his death in 1622. - Inq. PM. of Owen Jones, 21 Jac. I. 

There is no doubt that the church was held in 1326 by the Lord of Kemes, as in that year the 
advowson, being of the annual value of 8 marks, was assigned to James de Audeley, as kinsman and 
coheir of William, the son of William Martin - Close Rolls. 

On 14 Feb., 1338 licence was granted by the king to James de Audeley to alienate in mortmain to 

the warden of the chantry of St. Mary, Punchardon, the adowson of the church there (said to be held 

in chief), to find two chaplains to celebrate divine service daily in the said church for the good 

estate of Philip le Dyere, Margaret his wife, William le Dyere, and Isabella his wife in life, arid 
for their souls after death, and for the appropriation of the church by the said warden. - Rolls. 

In 1291 the church was assessed at £6 13s. for tenths to the King - Taxatio. 

Ponchereston. - Ecclesia ibidem es coUacione diver-sorum patronorum ibidem unde WUlielmus 
Jenk)^! est rector valet communibus annis 106s. 8d. Inde decima 10s. 8d. - Valor Eccl. 

Under the heading "Livings Discharged": - Poynges-ton alias Puncheston alias Ponchardeston alias 
Castel Maul R. (St. Mary). Divers. Patron., 1535; John Vaughan, Esq., 1728; Thomas Warren, Esq., 
1729; Thomas Williams, Esq., and Anne his wife, 1762. Clear yearly value, £22. Kings Books, £5 
6s. 8d. - Bacon 's Liber Regis. 



449 



Pembrokeshire Church Plate 



Puncheston — The only piece of silver now belonging to this church is a bell-shaped Chalice; 
height, 9 in.; diam. of bowl, 4in.; depth, 4 in.; diam. of base, 4in.; weight, 15 oz. 17 dwts. It 
bears the hall mark of 1725 with maker's mark R B for Richard Baytey. The bowl is 
ornamented with a shield of arms with mantling — Concerning this coat Mr. C. F. Egerton Allen 
writes " I have no doubt that the Arms on the Puncheston Chalice are those of John Symons of 
Llanstinan, High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 1713. 

There are two pewter Plates, each 8 in. in diam. and bearing the maker's mark, viz. a rose on a stem 
crowned, for ALLEN BRIGHT (London). 



Clergy 

Llewis, Jenkin 


1661 


Rector 


Owen, Richard 


1679 


Rector 


Owen, Richardus 


1679 


Rector 


Fford, Alexander 


1690 


Rector 


Fford, Alexander 


1692 


Rector 


Phillips, David 


1692 


Curate 


Gambold, Gulielmus 


1709 


Rector 


Price, Gulielmus 


1715 


Curate 


Gambold, Gulielmus 


1717 


Rector 


Davies, Rodericus 


1720 


Curate 


Davies, Rodericus 


1721 


Curate 


Jones, Griffithius 


1726 


Curate 


Price, David 


1728 


Rector 


Gambold, Gulielmus 


1728 


Vac (natural d( 


Thomas, Johannes 


1729 


Rector 


Rees , David 


1761 


Curate 


Evans , William 


1762 


Rector 



450 



Thomas , John 


1762 


Vac (natural death) 


Rector 


Evans , William 


1762 


Rector 




Owen , Thomas 


1784 


Curate 




Williams , Walter 


1787 


Curate 




Davies , Howell 


1795 


Curate 




Phillips , John 


1796 


Rector 




Evans , William 


1796 


Vac (natural death) 


Rector 


Davies , Howell 


1801 


Curate 




Phillips , John 


1802 


Vac (natural death) 


Rector 


Bateman , Thomas 


1802 


Rector 




Davies , Howell 


1804 


Curate 




Watkins Cullis , George 


1818 


Curate 




Williams James , James 


1825 


Rector 






1 895 


\/jir* iTiafiivjil npatni 




Hughes , John 


1831 


Curate 




Richard Griffiths , James 


1834 


Curate 





1851 Puncheston Parish Church William Davies, Curate 



1929 St Mary & St Peter (Little Newcastle) Incumbent and Curates; D Morgan 



Smyrna Welsh Baptist Chapel, Puncheston 

Smyrna Baptist Chapel was built in 1827, after Puncheston Baptists, led by Benjamin Davies and 
John George, pushed to create a daughter chapel here from Beulah. A fracture came in 1870 



451 



when differences of opinion caused Smjona to split from the mother chapel, something that 
came a difficult time as the chapel was in the middle of being . The new chapel opened in 1871 
desite still needing decoration and a lighting system, and was ofBcially reopened May 1872. 
The chapel was restored in 1928 when the current heavy concrete render was applied. 



The chapel is stone built with a concrete render, and is constructed in the gable entry form in the 
sub Classical style, the facade contains a central doorway with a simple round-headed fanlight 
with radiating bars and a mixture of plain and coloured glass. Above is a short, segmentally 
jheaded window and a dateplaque inscribed "SMYRNA CAPEL Y BEDYDDWYR 1827-1871- 
1928". There are tall round-headed windows flanking the door, and pronounced quoins to the 
comers. In the pediment is a narrow, round-headed vent. 



Internally a platform pulpit is reached by a plain flight of steps to either side, while to the rear is a 
matchboarded arch topped with a winged pediment identical to that at beulah. Little Newcastle. 
There are two pulpit windows flanking the pulpit on the rear wall, a late use of such a feature. 
The small sedd fawr and gallery front are of relatively plain moulded and fielded panels, the 
brass handrail to gallery having been added recently for health and safetey purposes. The 
ground floor pews are laid out in 7 blocks, there being two blocks facing towards the pulpit on 
either side instead of the more usual one. 



In May 2014 the number of members is around 17 and services are held once or twice a month. 



RCAHMW May 2014. 

Bethel Welsh Calvinist Methodist Chapel, Puncheston 

Bethel Chapel was built in 1827 thanks to Shem Evans, son of the Rev. Arthur Evans, as members 
of the cause in Puncheston had to travel to Woodstock or Castlebythe for services. The cause 
soon flourished and by 1851 it was recorded as able to seat 100, with standing room for another 
200. The chapel was rebuilt in 1891/2 by Griffth Jones and Son of Penffbrdd who were also the 
designers. 

It is built in the Simple Round-Headed style with stone walls, a slate roof and a gable entry 
plan. The external walls are concrete rendered with inscibed lines to mimic ashlar stonework. 
The central door has a fanlight with marginal glazing,. This glazing with pattern galss to the 
centre panels and red glass to the margins is also used in the tall round-headed windows which 



452 



flank the doorway and are in the side elevations, and the two, much smaller, windows above 
the doorway. In the pediement is a plaque "BETHEL CALVINISTIC METHODISTS BUILT 
1827 REBUILT 1891". In 1926/7 the trustees bought a plot of land and built a manse. A vestry 
was added 1949-51 at a cost of £1233-9s-lld. 

The interior is unusual, with a low plain plaster ceiling and the internal walls similarly concrete 
render with inscribed 'ashlar' as the exterior and devoid of any memorials, plaques or other 
embellishment. The plain panel platform pulpit has only low level matchboard panelling behind 
it, and there are five blocks of plain panelled pews. 

In May 2014 the chapel is still in use with monthly services. RCAHMW, May 2014 



Quakers Burial Ground & Meeting House, Puncheston 

Meeting house existed by 1700, discontinued in 1725, no remains. Burial ground was first 
mentioned in 1683 (xef., The Quaker Meeting houses of Britain, Vol. ii) 



Royal Commission of Ancient Monuments Quakers Burial Ground Puncheston 

The Society of Friends once owned a meeting house and burial ground in this parish. The latter 
was situated about two thirds of a mile south west of the village, Midway between Puncheston 
and Little Newcastle. The field , known locally as "Pare back hen fynwent" exhibits the outline 
of a square enclosure, of about one acre in extent. The surface has long been ploughed over, 
and traces of the foundations of the enclosing wall are becoming faint. The meeting house is 
said to have stood on part of what is now the yard of Pen y graig farm on the southern outskirts 
of the village, but nothing remains above ground by which the actual spot can be identified - 
Visited 2 P' October 1914. 

The Puncheston Friends are alluded to in a MS presentation of 1684, preserved in the Diocesan 
Registry Carmarthen. " There are several persons called by the name of Quakers - viz., 

Hugh Sjmimins, 

James Gwynne alias Symmins, 

Thomas Sjmimins sen, and Mary his wife, 

John Sjmimins. 

Francis Symmins, 

Whos live in ye parish and refuse communion with the Church of England " 
1668 - Further references appear in Besse's Sufferings (p 752) 



453 



" Thomas Simmonds of Pembrokeshire for suffering meetings at his house had his cattle taken away 
at one time, worth £24, which were sold for £8. 

At another time some household goods of his worth 26s were sold for 7s. 

And at athird time corn hay and thatch taken from him to the value of £20 were sold for £5 of which 
one third was ordered at sessions to be given to the poor. 



Some Quaker Records 

Edwards David of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to agree not to go to 
any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment brought to Trial at the 
Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and acquitted. The Persecution 
of Quakers 



Edwards Henry of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to agree not to go to 
any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment brought to Trial at the 
Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and acquitted. The Persecution 
of Quakers 

Edwards Laurence committed to Prison for Absence from the National Worship, Edwards Laurence 
of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to agree not to go to any more 
meetings- recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment brought to Trial at the Assizes, 
where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and acquitted. The Persecution of 
Quakers 

Edwards Margaret of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to agree not to 
go to any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment brought to Trial 
at the Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and acquitted. The 
Persecution of Quakers 



Ellis, Thomas 1683 of Puncheston , Quaker, emigrated- daughter married Lawrence, David Quaker, 
Immigrated to Pennsylvania Glenn 's Welsh, Founders of Pennsylvania 



454 



Gambold Hector b Puncheston 1714 son of William Snr he emigrated to USA in 1742 and d. in 
Pennsylvania in 1788 Journal of the Hist Soc. Presb. Church of Wales , Sept, 1961 



Lawrence David of Puncheston, Quaker, married daughter of Thomas, Ellis, Quaker, Immigrated to 
Pennsylvania Glenn 's Welsh, Founders of Pennsylvania 

Simons Evan 1682 son of Thomas of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused 
to agree not to go to any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment 
brought to Trial at the Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and 
acquitted,He married Jane, the daughter of David John, died in 1682, buried at Puncheston The 
Persecution of Quakers 

Simons Hugh son of Thomas of Puncheston married Anne Thomas of Llanddewi Velfrey, 

committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to agree not to go to any more meetings - 
recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment brought to Trial at the Assizes, where the 
Evidence was found insufficient to convict and acquitted, The Persecution of Quakers 



Simons Jane wife of Thomas of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to 
agree not to go to any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment 
brought to Trial at the Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and 
acquitted. The Persecution of Quakers 



Simons John son of Thomas of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to 
agree not to go to any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment 
brought to Trial at the Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and 
acquitted. The Persecution of Quakers 



Simons Thomas of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused to agree not to go 
to any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment brought to Trial at 
the Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and acquitted. The 
Persecution of Quakers 



455 



Simons Ursula daughter of Thomas of Puncheston committed to Prison till the next Assizes refused 
to agree not to go to any more meetings - recommitted After eighteen Months Imprisonment 
brought to Trial at the Assizes, where the Evidence was found insufficient to convict and 
acquitted, The Persecution of Quakers 



[ The Church of England Rector of Puncheston from 1679 to 1690 was the Rev Richard 
Owen who would have been the one to bring the charges ] 



Poncheston Parish,Hearth Tax 1670 



Lewis Jenkin 


Poncheston 


H2 


Edward Lawrence 


Poncheston 


H 


Symins John 


Poncheston 


H 


Symins Evan* and 






Comockel John 


Poncheston 


H 


Symins Thomas Symins 


Poncheston 


H4 


Sjmiins Hugh 


Poncheston 


H 


Comocke John 


Poncheston 


H 


Griffith William 


Poncheston 


H 


Morgan John 


Poncheston 


H 


William David 


Poncheston 


H 


Thomas Morice 


Poncheston 


H 


David Evan 


Poncheston 


H 


Jenkins Evan 


Poncheston 


P 


Griffith John 


Poncheston 


P 


William Owen 


Poncheston 


P 



456 



Lewis Mathias Poncheston P 

* brother of Hugh 



Education 

State of Education in Wales 1847 

There is no resident clergy. It is an agricultural parish with labourers receiving 7d a day with food 
and Is a day on their own finding. There is no resident land proprietor and only one farmer 
paying more that £100 rent per annum. Many of the population can read but not write. 




National School Opened 1855 — According to RCAM —A school house has been erected within 
the enclosed area of Castell Mael a horseshoe shaped work standing immediately east of the 
parish church, and on the parish boundary,- Visited 2P' October 1914 RCAM 

New School buih 1953 

Sites of Interest 
March Mound 

A long narrow plot of ground near Marsh cottage is known as "Pare law [?lan] cam". At its 
southern end ia a low and circular mound, which form external appearance would seem to be 
sepulchral. It is slightly domed, with a base circumference of 1 80ft, and has not been disturbed 
-Visited P' June 1915 RCAM 

Stones 



457 



In the field some 10yds south of the ruined farmhouse of Pen mjoiydd bach are two stones both 
erect, which are said locally to be all that is left of a small cromlech. The taller stone is 3ft 
above ground and is somewhat pointed; the shorter stone is distant from it about 6ft -Visited 
June 1915. RCAM 

Stone 

In the western hedge of the field next to Pare Carreg is an erect monolith; height above ground 7ft 3 
in. it is said that to a former generation, it is known as "Carreg quoitan" "the quoit stone" - 
Visited 2 June 1915 RCAM 

Stone 

This is an erect monolith standing on the field called "Pare maen Ilwyd" directly west of Capel 
Smyrna in the village of Puncheston. It has a clear height above ground of 10ft. Its broad sides 
40 in and 54 in across, face north and south respectively - Visited 21" October 1914 RCAM 

Stones 

In the field known as "Pare Maenhir" 150 yds north of the farm house of FagwjT fran west is an 
erect and somewhat slender stone leaning slightly to the west. It has three sides 38,33 and 26 in 
broad, facing east west and north respectively. Its height above ground is 9ft. 

In the adjoining field and distant some 260 yds north west of the above mentioned maenhir is a line 
of 5 striated boulders. Ehilst they have evidently been placed in position by man, they cam 
hardly be classed as an alignment. The stones, which have an average height of 2ft are not set 
in the ground but rather stand on it. They may possibly be the remains of a ruined cromlech, of 
which the capstone has vanished, and to which the standing stones may have been a "pointer" - 
Visited P'June 1915. 

Castell Mael 

This is a horseshoe shaped work standing immediately east of the parish church, and on the parish 
boundary, near the river Anghof which skitrts the steep slope that forms the boundary to the 
east. It is protected by a much disturbed rampart which rising at its best 6ft , falls about 12 ft to 
a ditch now largely filled in. the summit of the slope may have carried a mound of which faint 
traces may be detected. The length of the slope is about 220ft'; the rock has been scarped in 
places. The entrance was midway in the rampart; it has been ruined. A school house has been 
erected within the enclosed area - Visited 2P' October 1914 RCAM 



458 



St Dogmaels 



Notes 

Western Mail April 2002: 

Village to be made whole once more, 170 years on; 

"170 years after it was first torn apart, St Dogmaels is to be made whole again. Traditionally 

belonging to Pembrokeshire, the village of St Dogmaels on the banks of the Teifi was split into 
two in 1832 when a chunk of it was taken out of Pembrokeshire and given to Cardiganshire. 
The National Assembly has now approved a Boundary Commission recommendation to unify 
the village within Pembrokeshire. Historically always part of Pembrokeshire- the river 
traditionally acted as the boundary marker between it and Cardiganshire-it was first divided up 
in 1832 for electoral reasons when a third of the village moved into Cardigan. Today there are 
307 villagers living in the Cardigan section and 777 in Pembrokeshire. Villagers first asked to 
be reunified in 1885 and again in 1976 but were tumed down. The Boundary Commission has 
also decided to swap over 2200 hectares of land around Clunderwen, presently in 
Carmarthenshire, into Pembrokeshire." 

St. Dogmaels is a Seaport Town. A fishing village on the Teifi estuary much enlarged over the last 
150 years by housing developments. The site is beautiful with houses clinging to steep hillsides 
above the water St Dogmael's Abbey was founded in the 12th century; the ruins are now well 
looked after, and are full of interest. The spacious parish church (dating mostly from 1 847) occupies 
part of the old abbey site. Opposite the entrance to the Abbey is Y Felin a restored fiourmill, which 
is now in full production. The mill wheel is driven by water from the millpond and the old 
machinery can be seen in operation. 



1091 The battle of Llandudoch (St. Dogmaels) 

Fought in 1091 between Gruffydd ap Maredudd and Rhys ap Tewdwr: 



459 



"In 1091 . . . once again Rhys [ap Tewdwr] was triumphant; in the battle of Llandudoch, fought 
near the mouth of the Teifi, Gruffydd [ap Maredudd] was defeated and slain." 
J.E.Lloyd, A History of Wales, 1912, vol II, p. 398 

1091 : "And against [Gruffudd ap Maredudd] fought Rhys ap Tewdwr in the battle at 
Llanwddach; and he drove him to flight and pursued and captured him, and at last he slew 
him." 

Thomas Jones, The Chronicle of the Princes, 1955, p. 3 3 

"In the reign of William Rufus, Llewelyn and Einon, sons of Cadivor ab CoUwjoi, and Einon ab 
CoUwjoi, their uncle, formed a conspiracy against Rhys ab Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales; and 
having prevailed upon Grufydd ab Meredydd, another nobleman of that country, to join them, 
advanced with their united forces to St. Dogmael's, where Rhys at that time resided, hoping to 
attack him by surprise. But Rhys was fully prepared for the encounter, and a severe and well- 
contested battle took place near the village, in which, after much slaughter on both sides, the 
confederates were totally defeated. Llewelyn and Einon were both killed in the engagement, 
and Grufydd ab Meredydd was taken prisoner after the battle and beheaded, as a traitor to his 
country." 

Samuel Lewis, Topographical Dictionary of Wales,! 833. 

Dyfed Archaeological Trust records give a date of 1087 for the battle of Llandudoch and also 
refer to a battle in 1089 at Colwyn, nearby, recording a "tradition of a battle between Rhys ap 
Tewdur and the son of Colwyn"; however, none of the above sources refer to another battle. 
B.A.Malaws, RCAHMW, 10 July 2006. 



1604 St DogmeUs Owen 

St DogmeUs towne is a corporation thoughe now much decayed and had at the first fundation 
thereof Cv houses vzd Ixxi hole burges and xxxiiii halfe burges, as maybe gethered from the 
Rent of the towne, yt is governed by a Port reefe chosen and chaunged yearlie at the leete next 
after St Meygans ffaire and the said William Bradshawe esquior is .. thereof & so was the 
abbott in former tyme. The said William Bradshawe esquior dwellwth in the said Abbey, his 
mother was Elizabeth daughter to Gilbert Gerrard ..of Chess sheer esquior. 

1802 Barber 

Early in the morning after my reaching Cardigan, I made an excursion in search of St Dogmael's 
Priory, about a mile and a half distant. This fi-agment of antiquity is very much dilapidated, and 
boasts scarcely any picturesque appearance; the few parts standing are converted into bams. 



460 



sheds, and habitations: but enough remains to show the original extent of the church; which 
was cruciorm of no considerable dimensions, and of the early Gothic style; in the cemetery 
adjoining the ruin, and the village church " a churchyard yew Decayed and worn with age " has 
a pleasing characteristic effect; and here the scene , finely interspersed with , and overlooking 
the Tivy is undoubtedly picturesque. This priory was founded for Benedictine monks by 
Martin de Turribis, a Norman chieftain, who first conquered the surrounding territory called 
Kames or Kemish, and deluged it with the blood of its natives. This was a common trick for 
cheating the devil, practised by the organized plunderers of that day. After pillaging a country, 
and enslaving or massacring the legitimate proprietors, they hoped to expiate their crime and 
quell the rising qualms of conscience, by appropriating a part of their booty to a monkish 
foundation. 

1811 Fenton Tours St Dogmaels 

We shoot Cardigan Bridge and land a little way below it, to examine the small remains of St 

Dogmael's Abbey, which if we may judge by the few fine specimens of arches and ornamental 
mouldings in the existing remnants of the choir as well as foundations and other fragments of 
buildings, everywhere for a great compass to be traced, was a splendid building, and must have 
covered a very considerable space. The choir occupied the area of the lanthorn or steeple, as at 
St David's but on a smaller scale. Within this area are two canopied recesses, as I find by some 
additions to Leyland from Edward LUiwyd's MSS that once enclosed the effigies of the founder 
and his son. The refectory, a curious structure still perfect, but now used for a bam, is a large 
room with a lofty vaulted roof in good preservation, formerly well lighted by a handsome end 
window, as well as side ones of fine tracery. Over the end window, they say, there is on a stone 
a date cut, which , on account of the height and the darkness of the place I could not make out , 
so as to presume to found any credit on it. 

The present parish church is of mean appearance, but very long, and evidently raised from the ruins 
of the abbey, as the windows of the chancel though now without glass, exhibit remains of 
workmanship that could never have been meant originally to furnish such an edifice. The only 
monumental record it contains that has any claim on notice, is a square free stone lying loose 
against the wall inscribed thus 

HIC JACET JOHANNES BRADSHAW, ARMIGER, QUI OBIIT DIE MAII ANNO DOMINI 
1588. 

To this John Bradshaw, at the dissolution of the religious houses, this abbey was granted, whose 
posterity resided there for several generations; but the parish church in old times stood between 
the two mills, on a spot still known by the name of Yr hen Eglwys and whose faint ruins may 
be fraced. 



461 



1839 Topographical Dictionary of Wales -Dogmael's, St. (St. Dogfael) Lewis 

DOGMAEL'S, ST. (ST. DOGFAEL), a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, 
county of Pembroke, South Wales, 1 mile (W.) from Cardigan; containing 2478 inhabitants. 
This place is of considerable antiquity, and is connected with some events of importance during 
the earlier periods of the history of the principality. In 987, the Danes, who had effected a 
landing on this part of the coast, after ravaging and laying waste the surrounding country, 
plundered and burnt the church here. In the reign of William Rufus, Llewelyn and Einon sons 
of Cadivor ab CoUwyn, and Einon ab CoUwyn their uncle, formed a conspiracy against Rhys 
ab Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales; and having prevailed upon Grufydd ab Meredydd, another 
chief of that country, to join them, advanced with their united forces to St. Dogmael's, where 
Rhys at that time resided, hoping to attack him by surprise. But Rhys was fully prepared for the 
encounter, and a severe and well-contested battle took place near the village, in which, after 
much slaughter on both sides, the confederates were totally defeated. Lleweljoi and Einon were 
both killed in the engagement, and Grufydd was taken prisoner after the battle, and beheaded as 
a traitor. Einon ad CoUwyn, the only leader who escaped, fled for refuge to lestyn ab Gwrgan, 
lord of Morganwg, who was at that time at enmity with Rhys; and, suggesting to him the fatal 
expedient of having recourse to Norman auxiliaries, introduced into that part of the country a 
power which afterwards displayed itself in violent acts of aggression, finally depriving lestjoi 
of his dominions, which were distributed among the Norman knights. 

A monastery of the order of Tirone was begun here by Martin de Tours, who forcibly obtained 
possession of the district of Kemmes, in the reign of WUliam the Conqueror. It was completed 
by his son, Robert Fitz-Martin, in the reign of Henry I.; and was dedicated to St. Mary. Its 

revenue, at the time of the Dissolution, was estimated at £96. 0. 2., and the monastery was 
granted to John Bradshaw, who lies buried beneath the chancel, under a tombstone bearing the 
following inscription: — "Hie jacet Johannes Bradshaw, Armiger, qui obiit ultimo die Mali, AD. 
1588." Of this family was Bradshaw who presided at the trial of Charles I. The buildings, 
which were in the early style of English architecture, appear to have been substantial, and on a 
considerable scale: the remains consist of part of the choir and transept of the church, and the 
refectory, which has been converted into a bam. 

The village is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Teivy, and is intersected by a small 

rivulet, across which, and serving as a foot bridge, was a Roman monumental stone, about five 
feet and a half in length, bearing the inscription "Acrani Fill: Cvnotami:" it has, however, been 
removed, and is now placed in the corner of a wall near the church. The parish comprises 5900 
acres. The surrounding scenery is pleasant, and in some parts picturesque; the view embracing 
the course of the river Teivy to its influx into the sea, with the town of Cardigan and its ancient 
bridge, is exceedingly interesting. The lands are nearly all inclosed and in a good state of 
cultivation, and the soil is generally fertile and productive. A salmon fishery is advantageously 
carried on during the summer, and a herring fishery in the autumn and winter, affording 
emplojonent to such of the inhabitants as are not engaged in agricultural pursuits. A portion of 



462 



the town of Cardigan extends into the hamlet of Bridge-End, in this parish, and is now, under 
the provisions of the Boundary Act, included within the enlarged limits of that borough: one of 
the Cardigan fairs is held here. 

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £4. 13.4., and endowed with private 
benefaction and royal bounty; net income, £143; patron, the Lord High Chancellor; 
impropriator, W. Deedes, Esq. The impropriate tithes of St. Dogmael's have been commuted for 
a rent-charge of £408. 11., and the vicarial for one of £70. The church is dedicated to St. 
Thomas. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists; 
and six Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Established Church. The union 
workhouse is situated here. The sum of £3 per annum, partly bequeathed by William Rowland 
in 1738, and partly by his grandson, is distributed in clothes and money among the poor on 
Easter Monday. There is a strong chalybeate spring in the parish. 



1895 Nooks and Corners of Pembrokeshire Timmins 

About a mile distant from the county-town of Cardigan, but on the Pembrokeshire side of the river, 
stands the before-mentioned village of St. Dogmaels. The little place is perched upon a rather steep 
declivity, its comely dwellings clambering up the slope, so that, from the top of the village, one's 
eye follows the course of the Teivy to the foam fringed shores of Cardigan Bay, and the headland 
called Pen-Kemaes. 

Here the cottage gardens are gay with heliotrope, fuchsias and hydrangea, which brave the winter 
out in the more sheltered comers ; while the ftiU-rigged flagstaffs that rise amidst the garden plots 
bespeak the nautical proclivities of the residents. 

This village derives its name from the ancient Welsh monastery of St. Dogmaels, which stood about 
a mile away at a place still bearing the name of Yr Hen Mynachlog (the Old Monastery). Of this 
venerable structure, founded by Robert de Turribus, but scanty fraces now remain, in the shape of a 
few ivy-mantled walls pierced with Gothic arches, whose crumbling stones retain the ballflower 
ornamentation of the Decorated period. The neighbouring parish church has, alas! been swept and 
garnished by iconoclastic hands, which have ruthlessly bereft the fabric of every feature of interest. 

1923 Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments St Dogmaels 

The present Welsh name for the parish of St Dogmaels is Llandudoch, between which and 

Llandogfael or Llandygwal is no phonetic connection. It is, however certain that in pre Norman 
times there was an important church at Llandudoch, though its exact situation (apart from its 
identification with St Dogmael') has not been satisfactorily established. A medieval life of 
Tydecho a Breton saint of the 6* century, states that this saint, with a companion Dogfael, lived 
together at Llandudoch "which lies in Pembrokeshire on the river Teifi, below Cardigan town, 
where there has been a large monastery called St Dogmaels" This is probably the foundation 
for the statement that " the nucleus of the abbey of St Dogmaels was furnished by the ancient 



463 



church of Llandudoch, near the outlet of the Teifi" {Lloyd Hist Wales p43iy^\xt a freshly 
arrived Norman knight is not likely to have adopted for his newly founded monastery the 
dedication to a British saint 

That there existed in pre Nomam period a small ecclesiastical foundation in the district which 

became the medieval parish of Llandygfael or St Dogmael's is not to be doubted, and a possible 
explanation of the association of the two saints is the original joint dedication to the two 
missionary founders Tudoc and Dogfael;or it may be that there was a second church, perhaps a 
capella bearing the name of one or other of the founders, and that it was the church dedicated to 
St Tudoc which suffered destruction in the Danish inroad of AD987. 

The parish of St Dogmaels was in fact until comparatively recently divided into two portions y plwy 
and yplwyback - the big and little parish respectively - thase divisions closely corresponding 
to the eastern and western halves of the parish. Moreover, if the contemporaneous existance of 
two chapels, one dedicated to St Dogfael, the other to St Tudoc, be considered as in itself 
probable, the two divisions might be synonymous, St Dogfael's portion with the "big" parish 
and St Tudoc's with the "little" parish. 

In further confirmation of the view that in the pre Norman period the medieval parish of St 

Dogmaels consisted of two separate parishes, those of St Dogmael; and St Tudoc respectively, 
or of two distinct portions or townships, the authority of the Rev H J Vincent - A cultured 

clergyman and sound antiquary, and vicar of St Dogmaels for fourty years (1825 - 1865) 
writing in Arch Camb 1864 p299) upon the earthwork of Caerau and other antiquities in and 
around the parish may be quoted " About 200 yds to the west of the earthwork of Caerau was a 
square stone building called 'Caerau Bach' which may have been an outpost between Caerau 
and the sea. A little below Caerau Bach were found about the latter part of the 18* Century, 
seven urns of which no description can be given, nor have I been able to ascertain what became 
of them". Mt Vincent continues; " My attention has been lately directed to Caerau by a stone 
coffin enclosure found between the second and third lines of fortification on the east,in what 
appears to have been an old cemetary extending to the east, north and south of the earthwork. 
In this place called variously 'Llain yr Eglwys' 'y Fjoiwent' 'yr Eglwys ddiflodan' [the 
flowerless church] .. several graves have been found during the past seventy years" The 
earthworks of Caerau and the adjacent farm of the same name , are about two miles west of the 
village of St Dogmaels, and about % of a mile inland from a little creek formed by the 
embouchure of the Ceibwr stream. The township or hamlet is called Pant y groes, and about a 
mile to the north is the farm of Hendre. There can be little doubt that the site immediately 
adjoining the defensive enclosure is that of the burial ground of the destroyed church of St 
Tudoc, the church itself having stood on the north side of the enclosure where the 
circumvallation has been entirely swept away 

It is interesting to find that the name of Dogmael or Dogfael is not met with in connection with the 
parish of with the abbey, until about the year 1115, when it is first used for both the abbey and 
parish in the charter of Robert de Turribus, founding the abbey and endowing it with the parish. 



464 



Llandudoc is heard of no more, execpt as the Welsh name of the parish which as the Welsh 
name of the parish which was known to the Normans as St Dogmaels; while it is not without 
significance thatb the name of St Dogmael of Dogfael, though , of couse, as Welsh as that of 
Tudoc, is never used in the form Llandogfael for the parish, though it is quite possible that both 
Llandudoe and Llandogfael were comtemporaneously in vogue for the two divisions of the 
"big" and "little" parish. 

Moreover, as regards the original bipartite division of the parish, it should be noted that though 
there can be no doubt the entire present parish of St Dogmaels with much lands besides, was 
included in the patrimony of Martin de Turribus, the grant, the grant of the village church and 
its tithes to the Normanized monastic foundation carried only the tithe accruing from the plwy 
mawr, which consisted of the abbey and Bridgeend [of Cardigan]. The tithe of the St Tudoc 
hampet of Pant y gres and Cippyn by some process of which there is no record, had become 
vested in the bishop and chapter of St David's. A farm near Caerau id called Penrallt yr Esgob 
to this day. 

Further, as evidencing the existence of the parish of Llandudoch, os the statement in the Pern Arch 
Survey that a craved stone fie of an ecclesiastic was found about the year 1850, built into a 
wall on the farm of Hendre which is situated in the township of Panyt y groes and in the 
distrrict asscoiated with St Tudoc. Hendre, the seat of the descendants of a line of Welsh 
chieftains, continued to fiourish as the Welsh counterpart of an English Manor house and in the 
year 1442 the member of the Lloyd family then in possession obtained an indulgence from 
pope Eugenius to install therin a portable altar "- altare portabile ad missa at alia divina ofBcia 
etiam ante diem st locis interdictis celebranda" ( PRO Papal Registers ix 306). This probably 
marks the abandonment of St Tudocs, and an attempt tp provide for divine worship for a district 
that could not be served from the single remaining church of St Dogmaels. 

Finally the tall squared monolith bearing incised characters within compartments usually referred to 
as the manian Fawr stone from its preservation at that residence prior to its recent removal to 
the abbey ruins, was at an earlier period used as a gate post on the farm of Pant Tiron, whence 
it was removed to Manian Fawr. Now Pant Tirion is less than a mile from the earthwork of 
Caerau and the suggested site of St Tudoc church. It is, therefore , highly probable that this 
stone was brought from the ruins of the small building, and in such case would actually be one 
of the few surviving memorials of St Tudoc. 

The parish church of St Dogmaels would seem to have always stood on or near the spot occupied by 
the present church , and the beautiful situation probably led Robert de Turribus to place his 
monastic foundation near to it. Whether the buildings described by Mr Bury as seeming to be 
"of an earlier date than the [abbey] church" was the earlier church of the parish, it is now 
impossible to ascertain for "this interesting and well preserved little structure was 
demolished.... and its materials used in the rebuilding of the vicarage and the construction of 
the present stable which stands near the pond at the extreme eastern end of the abbey 
enclosure" (HM Vaughan F. S. A. iny Cymmrodor 1917 xxvii 10.) Mr Vaughan is of the 



465 



opinion that this building was the chapter house of the abbey, but this is not probable. It is more 
likely to have been the tha chapelof St Julian, which the first ministers Account of the Abbey 
properties taken after the dissolution of the house, shows to have stood on the manorial 
demesne, and to have been converted tinto a private dwelling in the occupation of a certain 
Howel ( Pub Rec Office: Ministerial Accounts 27-8 Henry VIII no 5287) The parish church is 
dedicated to St Thomas the Martyr, which points either to a substitution for an earlier 
dedication or the erection of a new church subsequently to the martyrdom of Becket in 1 170; 
and as to the parish church of St Thomas of St Thomas itself Mr Vaughan ads (op cit pl4): " 
Apparently in medieval times the village church stood on a hillock between the two mills due 
east of the abbey, at a spot now called Shingrug. Here in October 1905 when a couple of old 
cottages were pulled down to make room for a new villa, a number of graves were discovered. 
The eastern wall of one of these cottages Iso exhibited some tracery in local red sandstone, and 
on examination I considered it to have formed part of the chief window of a small ancient 
church or chapel. Apaprently it was not before the close of the 17"* century that the original site 
of the parish church was abandoned and a new building erected, largely of materials taken fi-om 
the monastic ruins, a little north of the abbey church. The west end of this second parish 
church is shown in Buck's view as existing in 1740; whilst Gastineau's sketch of a later date 
included its chancel of bastard Gothic. In or about 1847 this church was replaced by the larger 
edifice which now exists". 



466 



Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments Church of St Thomas St Dogmaels 



The present parich church os a modem 
structure , buih within the precincts o 
the former abbey of St Dogmael's, 
and probably out of much of its 
remains. Beyond two oak chairs, 
bearing the dates 1700 and 1738 repectively, no furniture of fittings that may have belonged to 
any earlier edifice have been preserved -Visited 12* June 1914 

[ The present edifice seems to have had several predecessors. Of the immediately preceding church 
the following interesting particulars are to be found in the churchwarden's presentment for 
1684 

"Our bells want casting anew, and our chancel to be rebuilt.... Welsh and English Bible of ye last 
translation .. There is no mansion( vicarage) house, and there never was any belonging to ye 
minister of our parish ...Our Minister doth not himself, or suffer any other to keep or appoint a 
conventicle within our parish... Henry Poulton, John Poulton, Thomas Poulton and Rees ap 
John and his wife have all been excommunicated long ago for non conformity. Our parish clerk 
doth not perform his duty , either in reading, writing, or in singing; he was not chosen by our 
minister, neither doth he duly attend in all divine services, being a fisherman by trade, and 
frequently absent for a long time together. And when he is at home he is so negligent of his 
duty, yt after he has opened ye church door upon Sundays and holydays, he goes away, leaving 
the same open, so yt a horse grazing in ye churchyard lately ran into ye church in ye heat of ye 
day to ye great offence of ye parishioners" MS Dioc Reg.] 




In the list of Church Plans for St Dogmells Rural , St Thomas 1847 to 1853 it hsts besides a 
completion plan a grant being given for rebuilding the church. The architect is Arthur Ashpitel 
of London (died 1869) 



467 




Pembrokeshire Parsons 

The church of St. Dogmaels, the old Welsh name of which was Llandudoch, was a very old 
foundation, and was originally dedicated to St. Dogfael, the son of Ithel ap Ceredig ap Cunedda 
Wledig, and was possibly established by that Saint. Very little is known about St. Dogfael, and it is 
impossible to fix even approximately the date of the foundation of Llandudoch Church. It would 
appear however that the church must have been in existence prior to the year 988, as the Annales 
Cambric state that in that year St. Davids, Llanbadam, Llan lUtyd, Llancalvan, and Llan Deth-och 
[Llandudoch] were devastated by pirates. 

On the conquest of Kemes by the Normans the church of Llandudoch was seized by the invaders, 
and Robert Martin, the son, and his wife Matilda or Maud, granted to William, the abbot, and the 
convent of Tiron, the ancient church of St. Dogmael, with the adjacent land called Landodog. This 
grant, which is recited in Letters Patent of 20 Ric. II., is undated, but according to George Owen, 
Robert Martin, the son founded the monastery of St. Dogmaels in the time of Henry I. (who reigned 
from 1 100 to 1 135), or else in the reign of Stephen. - Owens Pern, pt. II., p. 437. 

The Annales Cambric record that pirates in 1 138 plundered the town and church of Landedoch id 
est de Sancto Dogmaelo, and carried away great spoil to their ships, thus affording evidence as 
to the identity of the two names, and also suggesting that at that date the dedication of the 
church had not been changed to St. Thomas. 

On the dissolution of St. Dogmaels Abbey the patron-age of the church came into the hands of 
Henry. VIII., who on 10 Mar, 1537, granted a lease of the abbey of St. Dogmael and the rectory of 
St. Thomas in St. Dogmaels, and other property to John Bradshaw of Ludlow. Salop, for 21 years, 
at the annual rent of £3 4s. On 10 Nov., 1543, the fee simple of the site of the abbey with other 
property, part of which was included in the lease, was acquired fi-om the Crown by John Bradshaw 
of Pres-tende [Presteign], Radnorshire, for £512 , but the patronage of the church of St. Dogmaels 



468 



was not included in the purchase. - Pat. Rolls. 

Vicaria Sancti Thome Apostoli de Sancto Dogmaele. — Vicaria ibidem ex eollacione abbatis ibidem 
unde domi-nus David Howell est vicarius valet communibus annis dare 46s. 8d. Inde decima 4s. 8d. 

- Valor Eccl. 

Under the heading "Livings Discharged":- St. Thomas Dogwell alias Dogmaels St. Thomas V., vith 
Llantwood (St. Iltyd) and Monington (St. Nicholas). Abb. St. Dogmaels Propr. Bishop of St. 
Davids, 1698. The Prince of Wales. Clear yearly value, £15. Kings Books, £4 13s 4d. - Bacon 's 
Liber Regis. 

In this parish were two pilgrimage chapels called Capell Cranok and Capell Degwel, the latter being 
situated in Cwm Degwel; their names occur in George Owens list of these edifices, most of which, 
he says, were then in ruins. - Owen 'sPem., Pt. 2, p. 509. 

Pembrokeshire Church Plate J T Evans 

St. Dogmael's (S. Dogpael, also S. Thomas in post Norman Times). — The Plate consists of an 
Elizabethan Chalice and Paten cover similar to those at Amroth. Within the lower band on the 
bowl of the chalice appears the following rudely engraved inscription " + POVLVM » 
EGLESIE * DE » SANT « DOGMELS". Diam. of bowl, 3 in.; depth, 3 in.; weight, 9 oz. 5 
dwts; height, 6| in. The foot is badly damaged. The Paten cover is quite plain; diam., 3 in.; 
height, lin.. The only mark the maker's which appears on both pieces. 

A pewter Flagon, Chalice (broken) and Plate, bearing no marks. 

A pair of Chalices, a tankard Flagon, Credence Paten, and Plate, all of plated metal. 



Clergy 

Proband , Edward 


1623 


Vicar 


Edwards, Franciscus 


1663 


Vicar 


Howell, Thomas 


1671 


Curate 


Evans, Johes 


1687 


Vicar 


Evans, Johannes 


1692 


Vicar 


Evans, David 


1714 


Curate 



469 





1 790 


V_/U.lClLC 


T Invfl F)fiviH 


1728 


V A^CIA 


TTnf1o"P T^aarn^ 


1730 




vJWyiill, iVlUl^ctil 


1 / j!7 


V IL/dl 




1 747 

1 / H- / 


V iCal 


AA/dltf^fc T f^wT'i c 
VVcULCia , J_/CWli3 


1 / yjy 


V_/UlclLC 


Tnnp^ W^illiaTTi 


1770 


V-^UA Cl-Lw 


JUllCo , W llllalll 


1 776 


V ICal 


\JWyililC , IVlUl^all 


1 776 


V ok/ ^iCol^llaLlUll ^ V ic-al 


JUllCo , W llllalll 




V IL/cll 




1820 


V_/ UA CI I, W 


Morgan , David 


1825 


Curate 


Jones , William 


1826 


Vac (natural death) Vicar 


Vincent , Henry James 


1826 


Vicar 



1994 The Old Parish Churches of South West Wales - Mike Salter 

Church is on ancient foundations but has been completely rebuilt and lacks old features. 

St Thomas The Apostle Church, St Dogmaels 

The present church of St Thomas the Apostle is a modern construction, having been built within St 
Dogmaels Abbey precincts in 1847 using materials from the ruined buildings. Within the 
church is the Sagranus Stone, inscribed in both Latin and Ogham and dating from the fifth 
century, which helped provide the key to deciphering the Ogham alphabet.B.A.Malaws, 
RCAHMW,21 September 2004. 



Nonconformist Chapels: 

Bethsaida Baptist Chapel, St Dogmaels 

Bethsaida Baptist Chapel was built in 1813, modified in 1833, rebuilt in 1856 and restored in 1936 



470 



when the vestry was built. The present chapel, dated 1936, is built in the Art Deco style of the 
gable-entry type. Still open 1993 RCAHMW, October 2010 



Blaenywaun Welsh Baptist Chapel, St 

Blaenywaun Baptist Chapel was first built in 1745 with a thatched roof. This was rebuilt in 1795, 
1838 and again in 1885. The present chapel, dated 1895, was designed by architect Owen 
Lewis of London and built in the Sub-classical style. The chapel has a gable entry plan, 2 
storeys, a 3-bay facade and slate gable roof. Each end bay has a tall semi-circular headed 
window opening with keystone and projecting cill and 18-panes with radiating heads. A similar 
window to the end bays is located above the porch - 6-pane with radiating heads. The semi- 
circular headed porch contains a small semi-circular headed stained glass windows on each side 
of the wall. 

RCAHMW, May 20 11 
Gerazim, near Cippin [Baptists, 1848]. 

Soar Baptist chapel, Ty'r Bont, Cippyn Small medieval single-chamber structure, disused by 
1904 

Sapel Sion Calvinistic Methodist Chapel, High Street, 

Capel Sion Methodist Chapel was built in 1838 and restored in 1926. The chapel was built in the 
Simple Round-Headed style of the long-wall entry type and by 1993 had been converted into 
cottages. RCAHMW, October 2010 

Capel Degwel Welsh Independent Chapel;Capel Dogmael;Capel Degwell, St Dogmaels 

Capel Degwel Independent Chapel Was Built In 1820 And Restored In 1877. The Present Chapel, 
Dated 1877, is built in The Sub-Classical Style Of The Gable Entry Type.still open Dec 2006 
RCAHMW, October 2010 

Bryn Salem chapel, Cippin, near Trecwn [Independents, 1852]. Built 1850 Not still open 1993 



471 



Inscribed and Carved Stones. RCAM 

Of the collection of carved and inscribed stones, some were almost ceri:ainly associated with eariy 
ecclesiastical sites in distant pari:s of the present parish and the rest probably belong to one or 
other of the St Dogmael edifices. They have been brought together and housed either in the 
parish church or the abbey ruins. They comprise the following:— 

The Sagranus Stone 

A bilingual inscription cut on a hard gritstone; 80in in length and 14in wide, broken in two. The 
Roman capitals read SAGRANI FILI CUNOTAMI. The ogam reads SAGRAGNI MAQU 
CUNATAMI. 

In the Abbey ruins 

A pre Norman Cross Inscribed stone 

The lower portion of a pillar 5ft lOin in height which, when entire, probably stood about 7ft above 
ground. 

It bore a cross of the usual Celtic type, having the cross arms confined in a circle, and with an 

extension of the lower limb down the stone to about the same Iength(7in) as the diameter of the 
circle. In the present instance the surface of the stone did not possess sufficient width for the 
intended sircle, with the result that the circle assumed the shape of an irregular and sharp 
pointed oval. Possibly for the express purpose of defacing the most revered emblem of the 
christian faith, the stone has been broken almost exactly along the line of the cross arms. Some 
comparatively modem vandal has carved his initials in the surviving quadrants of the circle. 

Wheel Cross Head 

This fragment of an interesting carved stone was discovered by our Assistant Inspecting Officer on 
the occasion of his official visit to the abbey ruins. The stone is 55in in length and 22 in in 
width, and has uncised upon it the upper part of a wheel cross of simple design, 3 Sin long and 
19in wide. The stone has been split horizontally. Further search would probably reveal the 
missing fragments. The type of cross is that seen upon the Capel Colman stone and the 
Dobituci stone at Clydey. RCAM 

The Manian Fawr Stone . 

This stone stands 7ft high , is 16in wide and 14in thick. On its face is carved an unusual pattern of 
crosses, circles, lines and dots RCAM 

Cross Stone 

A stone, 56 in high and 1 1 ins wide. On its face (slightly broken at the top) is a cross within a 
double circle; The lower limb is extended for about two thirds of the length of the stone =; 
midway the inner lines of the ornament ae twisted into spirals on either side of the line running 
to the foot of the cross which terminates in two concentric rings. RCAMs 



472 



A Cross Stone, imperfect 

A stone 53 in in length, and 22 in wide; being a fragment. The figure that remains is that of a lower 
limb of the cross. It has been placed upside down in its new position in the church. RCAM 

The Altar Stone 

This is now placed upright against the east wall of the chancel on the south side of the altar. On its 
face are five incised crosses. It has a length of 80 in a width of 35 in and a thisckness of 3 % in. 
One angle is slightly damaged. It is probably coeval with the first Norman church RCAM 



1859 St Dogmaels Abbey -Visit by Archaeology Cambrensis Association Report 

Friday August 19*^ 

The members started out this morning ,on foot to visit St Dogmael's Abbey and Church, where they 
were received by the Rev H J Vincent, who pointed out the general oiutline of the ruins, which 
are his private property, and which are most carefully protected fi-om further dilapidation. 

Mr Talbot Bury then proceeded to describe the more particular features of the ruins. After pointing 
out the only remaining portions, namely, the west and north walls, the north transept and the 
remains of some buildings attatched to the east side, MR Bury observed that there was no 
difficulty in arriving at the plan of the original structure. It had been a cruciform church, having 
a nave with no aisles and transepts, and a very extensive choir. In the west wall are the remains 
of a very large window, but without any vestiges of tracery. The jamb mouldings , however, 
may be referred to a date between 1280 and 1320, which date is confirmed by a doorway at the 
western end of the north wall having the ball flower running round the arched head. In the 
north wall are some curious recesses evidently intended for sepulchral monuments , but there is 
no evidence of their ever having been used for that purpose, unless they have been 
subsequently stripped of the freestone with which they must have been lined and moulded, or 
they may have been purposly left unfinished and walled up, to be opened and completed when 
required. The north transept has undergone considerable alterations at a later period, and been 
used as as a Lady, or other chapel, perhaps a sepulchral one, as the same kind of recesses before 
described occvur on east side of the altar. The roof is of stone, and of good design of fan tracery 
groining, springing from richly ornamental corbels; only a few feet however of the springers of 
this rich groining remain. The windows of this transept are of the same character as the roof 
namely of the period of the reign of Henry VII. The other portions of the building avove 
graound ,are on the south side, and consist of a part of the cloister walls and the south side of 
the refectory. This portion of the domesti buildings is very interesting , from having the 
staircase constructed within the wall leading to the remains of the pulpit, which had a window 
at the back, as in the well known examples of the refectores of the abbeys at Beaulieu, 
Walsinghan,Chester and elsewhere. About 150 ft east of the refectory, and nearly n the same 
line, is a building in more perfect condition than any other part of the ruins, about 38ft long hy 



473 



20ft 6in ; but it is not easy to determine its character, unless it belonged to the abbots residence 
and was either a chapel or refectory, as some thought for strangers. The recesses in the south 
wall, apparently occupied by a sedilia with the remains of a piscina do not favour the latter 
supposition. There is also a recess , about 5ft deep by 14ft long in the centre of the south wall, 
which may as well be supposed to have been used for a pulpit as for any other purpose. The 
building seems to be of an earlier date than the church, and its construction is of better 
masonry, which exhibits alternate rows of light and dark stones being an very early example of 
a style of decoration supposed to be exclusively Italian. The roof is of stone, vaulted, in the 
form of a pointed arch, but without ribs, and has been ingeniously constructed to avaoid all 
outward thrust of the walls. Over the panel of the east window is a corbel supported by and 
angel. That this , and probably other parts of the abbey now not existing above ground are of a 
date prior to the principal remains of the church is evident from the large quantity of fragments 
of mouldings or piers and arches found in different portions of the the ruins. Some are 
transotional between Norman and Early Pointed styles - undoubted remains of the original 
church completed in the time of henry I, by Robert son of Martin de Tours who was seized of 
the Lordship of Cemaes in the reign of William the Conquerer. In concluding his observations 
Mr Bury congratulated the members on the fact that these interesting ruins were under the 
protection of so worthy a proprietor as Mr Vincent had shown himself, by the care he had 
taken, not only in preventing further destruction, but by the labour and great expense he had 
incurred, at various times , in strengthening weaker portions of the buildings, without which 
precautions the ruins would not have been so well preserved as they are at present; and he 
wished most heartily that all other proprietors of such remains could be induced to follow the 
example which their Local secretary for Pembrokeshire has set them. 



St Dogmael's Abbey. RCAM 



474 




SITE or 

CLOISTER 

SuSS Modern 

lO o to fo »o ■40 50 ep 70 
[■■■■d l l I I ' ' I I 

3/4m W of Cardigan Bridge, Dyfed, West Wales. 
Founded about 1 1 15 for a prior and 12 monks of the order of Tiron, by Robert FitzMartin Lord of 
Cemaes on the site of St Dogmael's cell (6th C prince who became a monk in order to help crippled 
children). St Dogmaels occupied the site of a pre-Norman monastery. It was raised to the status of 
abbey in 1 120, and the monks followed an austere life based on the rule of St Benedict. The 
surviving ruins span four centuries of monastic life and show much alteration. Parts of the church 
and cloister are 12th century. However, the west and north walls of the nave, which stand almost to 
their full height, are of the 13th century, and a fine north doorway has 14th-century ballflower 
ornament. The north transept is Tudor, retaining elaborate corbels which supported the stone 
vaulting. Notice here the carved figures with an angel representing St Matthew, a lion for St Mark 
and the Archangel Michael. The footings of the chapter house can be seen to the west of the cloister, 
475 




with the adjacent monks infirmary standing almost to roof level. At the Dissolution, the church 
continued to be used for a time by the parish, and a rectory was built into the southwest comer of 
the cloister. 

Cadaver Tomb and cross slabs made in spotted dolerite. Ogam/latin Stone SAGRANI FILI 
CVNOTAMI Sagrani son of Cunotami. 

1914 St Dogmaels Abbey Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments 
The Benedictine Abbey of St Dogmaels 




The ruins of the abbey of St Mary the Virgin founded in 1115 for monks of the reformed 
Benedictine Order of Tiron, stand south of the parish churchyard , from which they are 
separated by a wall. 

The remains of the abbey church consists of the north transept and the north and west walls of an 
aisleless nave. To the southeast of the church portions of two buildings are still standing, of 
which the eastern appears to have been a chapel, possibly attatched to the infirmary; the 
western building is a mere fragment containing two recesses with segmental pointed heads 
which may date from the late 13* century .The nave of the church belongs to the 14* century 
and the north transept to the 15* century. On the day of his visit our Inspecting Officer found an 



476 



interesting stoup concealed behind a thisk growth of ivy. The basin has a diameter of 15 in; on 
its front in high relief ,is a bearded face crowned with a circlet. These details are much defaced. 
It may be of the 14* century date -Visited 10* June 1914. 



FHE SOr/TH-U'I': ST r/CII' OF DOGM A t. L S-PRIORK /A' r///: ror^/Tr OF FEAf/iROA / 




Buck 1740 



1917 The Benedictine Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - H M Vauglian F.S.A. 

No doubt there existed at or near the present St Dogmaels of Llandudoch in pre Norman times a 
small Celtic monastical foundation which derived its name from Dogfael, the great grandson of 
Cunedda Wledig, who flourished in the 5* century. This former Celtic house however did not 
occupy the site of the later Benedictine Abbey of Robert Fitz Martin, son and heir of Martin, 
commonly named Martin de tours, the original conqueror and grandee of the lord-ship of 
Camaes or Kemeys. Of this Martin the Elder we have on the authority of Mr Horace Round, 
our leading mediaeval historian that "nothing is really known about him" beyond the 
circumstances of this conquest and grant of land in Dyfed. Nevertheless, Mr Round suggests 
that he may be identical with "Martinus de Wales" whose name appears first in the foundation 
charter of Totnes priory in Devon, which shire was the home of this powerful family. In any 
case it was the son and heir of this knight, Robert Fitz Martin, second Lord of Cemaes, acting 
probably under the expressed wish of his late father and certainly with the warm approval of 
his mother, who in 1 113 founded a priory of French monks at St Dogmaels, which five years 
later he enlarged and raised to the rank of an abbey dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. 

" A certain Robert of most noble birth approached a holy man beyond the seas and taking with him 
13 of his disciples passed through Norman and English territories and reaching the farthest 
limits of the land of Wales on the coast of the Irish sea close to the river Teifi he established 
first indeed a cell but afterwards with an equal number of monks together with with an abbot at 



477 



their request as we have mentioned he estabhshed a Monastery fitted with all appurtenances" ( 
J H Round Calendar of Documents of France , Preface, p. xxxv) 

Now "the holy man beyond the seas" was undoubtedly the Blessed Bernard of Abberville, who 
according to the Petits Bollandistes, was bom in 1046 and died April 14"^ 1 1 16. This Bernard 
founded in or about 1113a community or reformed order under the Benedictine rule at Tiron au 
Perch near chartres. Special points of discipline marked this new order, a salient feature being 
the insistence on skilled labour by the monks themselves for the support of the new 
foundation.. They were to be painters,carvers, joiners, smiths etc. Their habit was at first a light 
grey, but later changed to black. The Order was started under favourable auspices in France, 
and quickly attracted the attention of King Henry 1 of England, who probably himself 
recommended the new Order to Robert Fitz Martin. Only this one house at st Dogmaels, 
however seems to have been formed in England and Wales, Though four were founded in 
Scotland under royal patronage. The Order of Tironian Benedictines continued to exist in 
France until the close of the 17"* century. 

The date of Robert Fitz Martin's first visit to the newly founded house of the Blessed Bernard of 
Abberville at Tiron was apparently the year 1 113, and the date of his second visit 1118, two 
years after the death of the Saint. On the first occasion Robert brought over thirteen of these 
Tironian monks to St Dogmaels, and with that number founded a priory as a cell, or subsidary 
house to the mother abbey of Tiron; whilst five years later he again crossed to france and 
returned with an additional thirteen monks fi-om Tiron, whom he also installed at St Dogmaels 
with an abbot at their head, one Fulchard by name. 

Henceforth St Dogmaels ranked as an independent house, no doubt in close inter-communication 
with the parent abbey of Tiron during the whole period of its existence, but in no wise 
subordinate to it. That this abbey was founded as such in or about the year 1 1 1 8 is proved by 
the two facts that at the consecration of Abbot Fulchard there was present Bernard, Bishop of St 
David's who was only elected in 1115; and that the original confirmation of the grant by Henry 
I includes the name of Prince william, the English king's heir, who was drowned in the sinking 
of the White Ship on November 28*^ 1 120. ( Cartulary of the Abbey of the Holy Trinity of Tiron 
vol i p 41). The hitherto usually accepted date of September 1 126 for the abbey's original 
charter, which is given by dugdale is therefore eight years too late. 

In this pious and munifcent foundation at St Dogmaels. Robert Fitz Martin was also generously 
aided by his wife Maud Peveral, as well as by his mother Geva (? Genevieva), the widow of the 
first lord of Cemaes, and such being the case there seems no reason to discredit the popular 
tradiition that both parents of Robert Fitz Martin, as well as himself and his wife Maud were 
buried "m medio choro "of the newly erected church. 

Of the many possessions of the Abbey we need only state here that they included the namor of St 
Dogmaels, which extended from the little stram called Brenan or Piliau to the mouth of the 
Teifi; the cchapeMes of St Dogmaels, Llantood, Monington, Moylgrove, Eglwyswrw, Baj^il, 



478 



Maencloshog, Monochlog - du Fishguard and Llandeilo; the island and subsidiary priory of 
Caldey (Geva 's gift); the rich cell of Pill Priory on Milford Haven and the valuable manor of 
Rattrey in South Devon, which English estate was retained by the Abbey till its dissolution. Of 

the two cells, Caldey paid the annual sum of £5 10s lid to the Abbey and Pill £9 6s 8 d. This 
last mentioned cell was founded towards the close of the 12* century by the de la Roche family, 
and had a considerable private income of its own. In addition to Caldey and Pill, the Abbey also 
owned the small Tironian cell of Glascareg in co. Wexford, which paid annually to the mother 
house £3 6s 8d., though the last abbot of St Dogmaels declared to the Royal commissioners in 
1534 that his Abbey had received no payment from this Irish source for forty years past. 

The record of the Abbey's existance over four centuries seems on the whole to have been 

prosperous and uneventful, if we except the successful raid carried out by Scandinavian pirates 
at the estuary of the Teifi in 1138, when the newly founded Benedictine Abbey suffered 
considerably. Of the many abbots the names of eleven only have been preserved for us and 
none of these rose to any public eminence. 

In 1 188 the celebrated Gerald de Barri withArchbishop Baldwin spent the night here as the guests 
of Prince Rhys during the English Primate's famous Itinery of the Welsh sees. 

At the close of the 12* century one Walter, a cousin of Gerald's and a rival candidate for the vacnt 
bishopric of St David's, was abbot of St Dogmaels. Gerald speaks of this man as "an illiterate 
monke who could not read his Psalter".; but then the versatile historian was rarely justified in 
his sweeping charges of vice or incompetence against those who opposed his will. That the 
Abbey was well endowed and kept in good repair is evident from the surviving architectural 
fragments, which go to prove there were constant embellishments and rebuilding in progress 
here during four hundred years 

In July 1504 during a visitation of the deanery of Cemaes, Dom. Lewis, lord Abbot of St Dogmaels, 
as well as the priors of Pill and Caldy were interrogated as to the condition of their houses, and 
stated in their replies (as one would naturally expect!) that "all the brethren were of good and 
honest conversation and obedient at their free will" 

1534 Thirty years later and we have the dismal story of the suppression of the Abbey. 

This matter is clearly set forth in a well preserved document acknowledging the Royal supremacy, 
which is now in the Records Office London. The deed of surrender is signed by the last Abbot, 
William Hire (to whom an annual pension of twenty marks was subsequently granted) and by 
eight of his monks. It is sealed with the Abbatial Seal, elliptical in form and representing the 
Virgina and Child seated beneath a gothic canopy and bearing on its bordure the legend "S. 
COMUNE.SANTI. DOG[MAE]LIS.DE KEMMEYS." 

It did not take long to disperse the estates of the Abbey whose revenue is variously stated at figures 
which in one instance are put as low as £68 and in another place described as amounting so 
high as £120 and over, so that probably the commonly quoted rental of £96 derived from the 



479 



Valor Ecclesiasticus may be accepted as fairly correct. Of the Pembrokeshire estates it is 
sufficient here to mention the manoir of St Dogmael's and the monastic buildings and grounds, 
otherwise called Llandre were, together with Caldey Island , aquired by John Bradshaw of 
Presteign for the sum of £512 odd. This grand did not ,however, include the patronage of the 
parish church of St Thomas at st Dogmaels, and its chapelries of Llantood and Montington 
which remained with the Crown. 

Bradshaws 

In all probability large portions of the abbey were now pulled down and utalized for the building of 
the Bradshaw manor house, which remained the residence of this family for over one hundred 
years. The Bradshaws whose early pedegree is given in Lewtn Dwnn's Visitations 9Vol I p 257) 
are mentioned in local annals for some four or five generations, one of them, John Bradshaw 
being High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1571. This man, who was either the son or grandson of 
the original purchaser fi-om the Crown, is almost certainly the John Bradshaw whose 
monumental slab still exists . He died in 1588, and was apparently fater of William Bradshaw, 
MP for Cardigan Borough in 1603. Other members of this family appear in local history, 
including Captains Edmund and John Bradshaw who were amongst the captured Royalists 
Officers in the garrison of Pill Fort in 1643. 

Parry 

This event was shortly before the sale of the manor of St Dogmaels by the Bradshaws to David 
Parry of Neudd-Trefawr, near Cardigan. The Parrys held the manor for over two centuries but 
do not seem to have resided within the abbey precincts, where the old Bradshaw manor house 
was probably allowed to fall into decay, so that its actual site id now a matter of conjecture. In 
1 862 the ultimate heir of these parrys, David K W Webley-Parry sold this family estate; the 
farm of Pentood near the mouth of the Piliau and the foreshore rights of the manor being 
purchased by David Davies 

of Castle Green Cardigan; whilst the farms of Manian fawr, Manian fach, Poppit House and 
Ysgyborwen, whose names occur often in the lists of themonastic proberty, were sold to 
Thomas Harman Brenchley, of Glaneirw. 

Ruins 

It is of course certain that large portions of the abbey were demoliched to erect the Bradshaw 
residence, and it is also probable that much material was filched for building purposes in the 
village. On the whole, therefore it is remarkable that so much of the Abbey should survive 
today, for the ruins at st Dogmaels are more extensive and present greater features of 
architectural interest than do the existing monastic remains at Strata Florida, Talley, Cwnhir, 
Haverfordwest of Whitland. The ealiest view of the abbey we posses is that drawn by Buck in 
1740. This drawing, which is well executed , is taken from the south west and shows much of 
the salient features of the present time, with the exception of some tall ruins on the north side of 



480 



the Choir that have since totally disappeared. This plan, made two centuries after the 
Dissolution is particularly valuable to us being evidently the product of a skilled draftsman, 
whereas the various drawings in the illustrated books that appeared in the early part of the 
neneteenth century are often mere picturesque sketches, and consequently somewhat 
misleading. This is especially trie of Hassall's "Chapel of St Dogmael's Abbey", which gives a 
most incorrect impression of the intrior of the north transept. Gastineau's drawing in "Wales 
Illustrated" of the exterior of this transept is better, and better still is Hughes's charming little 
cut of the same subject in his "Beauties of Cambria". Both of these views are so planned as to 
introduce in the foreground the ancient gnarled yew tree which still flourishes opposite the 
porch of the present parish church of St Thomas. Of descriptions of the Abbey ruins we possess 
practically nothing till the visit of the Cambrian Archaelogical Association to Cardigan in 
august 1859 at a time when a really able and enthusiastic antiquary the Rev Henry James 
Vincent, was vicar of St Dogmaels. Here again however we are doomed to disapointment, for 
although the learned Vicar read aloud a paper on the abbey at one of the public meetings, his 
manuscript was for some reason of other never printed in the Arch Camb Journal, although its 
publication was promised by the Editor. In the summer of 1 865 Mr Vincent died , and in the 
subsequent notice recording his death allusion is again made to his MS history of the Abbey 
"which he had just completed and which was now being arranged for publication in the Journal 
of the Association". But the promished monograph never appeared and the manuscript itself 
seems to have been lost, though how and when does not transpire. 

Fortunately, however a short address on the abbey ruins in 1859 by Mr Talbot Bury, an antiquary of 
some standing has been preserved in the Arch Camb Journal for that year and this account is 
invaluable to us at the present day. Mr Bury describes the ruins carefully and although some of 
his deductions appear to me erroneous yet it is evident he understood his subject . Perhaps the 
most important statement of this brief lecture is Mr Bury's detailed account of a buildin within 
the Abbey precincts which unhappilyb no longer exists 150ft east of the so -called Refaectory 
mentioned by Mr Bury as"being in a more perfect condition than any other part of the ruins. 

I am of the opinion myself that this building was the Chapter House but in any case all speculation 
is useless, as about seven years later , shortly after Mt Vincents death , the interesting and well 
preserved little structure as demolished by the new vicat the Rev Daniel Jones and its materials 
used in the rebuilding of the Vicarage and the construction of the present stable which stands 
near the pond at the extreme eastern end of the Abbey enclosure. Mr Bury's account of this now 
destroyed appanagw of the Abbey is particularly fortunate , as Buck's view of the ruins in 1740 
does not apparently extend to the point where this building stood till so recently as 1866 

1859 great praise is bestowed by leading members of the Arch Camb Association on the care taken 
of the ruins by their natural guardian Mr Vincent, but with that excellent man's decease in 1865 
no further effort was made to to maintain still less to repair these precious monastic relisc. 
Apart from the flagrant piece of vandalism just related decay and neglect became visiblke 
everjrwhere, and it was only so lately as this present year (1916) that thanks to a generous gift 



481 



from Mr John T Lewis of Gwynfryn Llansrth, Cardiganshire that any steps have been taken 
towards their preservation. 




ST. dogmael's abbey 



In the summer of 1916 the whole of the ivy, the unchecked growth of half a century was completely 
stripped from the masonry, thereby exposing many features of interest that had been hidden for 
nearly two generations. 

Before however entering into closer details of this recent work, I think I had better describe the 
ruins themselves as they survey today. 

2007 St Dogmaels Abbey 

The medieval Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels was founded in 1 1 15 by the FitzMartin family of 
Cemais and was of the Order of Tiron. Caldey Priory, Caldey Island was a daughter house to 
St Dogmael's. established in The abbey was re-modelled in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries and in the sixteenth century the northern transept was given a fan vaulted roof. 
Substantial remains of the abbey church survive, including the western end wall, the north wall, 
northern transept and the eastern end walls of the crypt. Extensive monastic buildings also 
survive to the south of the Abbey, and a detached building of the late thirteenth century, 
possibly an infirmary chapel or infirmary is located to the south-east. RCAHMW, 3rd October 
2007. 



482 



1402 St Dogmells Abbey 

Guy etc., our beloved sons in Christ and of religious men brother Philip Vader, abbot of the 
monastery St.Dogmells in Kemmeys of the order of St Benedict of Tiron of our diocese, and the 
convent of the same, subject to our ordinary jurisdiction in head and members etc. (as above). 
Whereas by our ordinary authority making a visitation in every deed your said monastery, on the 
seventh and tenth days of the month January, lawfully continued, in the year of the Lord 1402. And 
fifth year of our consecration, found, among other things, in same visitation that first by pestilence 
then by your neglect the usual number of the canons serving God, in the same monastery is so 
diminished, in such excessive number that where there used to be a full convent of honest monks 
scarcely three monks, professed, are now conversant in the same, consuming the sustenance of a 
very large number, to the manifest withdrawal of divine worship. For which cause we enjoin on you 
that you make provision of honest persons to be clothed with you in the habit of regulars, whose 
conversation in times past may afford a good presumption for the future, so that by the feast of 
Pentecost next there may be conversant nine in number at the least, in order that by the 
multiplication of intercessors the gifts of spiritual grace may be increased. And because we found 
that fi-om the excessive Wandering of the lay brothers among secular persons and dishonourable 
frequenting of unlawfiil places, to wit taverns, very great evils and scandals have resulted to the 
same monastery in persons and things, by necessity of which things we are bound to find a fit 
remedy for the future, we for this cause can be approved of. Also we enjoin that from the opening of 
the kitchen of the convent until there shall be six in number, the abbot shall have the usual abbots 
portion, and after that they shall be more than six in number he shall have and take in all the portion 
of two monks twice a week at least. Also we enjoin that brother Howel Lange, your fellow monk 
and confrere, on account of his excess and the evil deeds committed by him, which for a reason we 
do not now set out, for one whole year from the day of the date of these presents, shall not drink 



483 



wine, nor metheglin, on which it has been his habit to get drunk, but he shall give away and 
distribute his portion of wine to the poor in the abbots presence; and in this year he shall not go out 
of the bounds of the said monastery unless in the abbots company. Also we enjoin on the same 
monks and lay brothers that none of them shall go out of the bounds of the monastery without the 
special licence of the abbot or in his absence of his deputy, and that such license shall not be too 
liberal or too continuous. Also that no women suspected in regard to the monks shall by any means 
lodge in the town itself but they shall be removed altogether, under the penalty written below: also 
that no lay brother there shall have the witness of his iniquity in the monastery aforesaid that the 
goods of the monastery be not prodigally consumed by the sustenance of such. Also since we have 
been informed, as found by experience, that brother David Lloid, your fellow monk, has culpably 
lapsed into the crime of apostasy (we say it with grief), going forth from the monastery itself and 
holding himself aloof among secular persons, neglecting the discipline of his order and deserting 
the cloister, we therefore, since by the judgement of a strict balance his blood may be required at 
your hands, enjoin on you under the penalty written below that you diligently enquire for this your 
brother and when found bring him back to the fold and the cloister itself, so treating him with the 
charity that leads the way and chastising him according to the discipline of the order, that his 
reproof may turn out for an example to others, and that for his reversion and conversion from error 
according to the in your church and cloister and the too ready means of entrance to the same and 
exit from the same, at all hours as it were, the silence and contemplation of the religious, according 
to the requirement of their religion, cannot be observed, we enjoin on you therefore that on the 
north side of your church and monastery, no door and no gate and no means of access to the town 
be left open by day or night, except from the beginning of the mass of the Blessed Mary until the 
end of high mass in the choir, and except for a sudden passing of the abbot or the cellarer to view 
the husbandry in the field on that side, after whose passing they shall be closed at once. Also we 
have found in the same visitation that on account of the excessive and day and night vigils of the 
monks in the house of mercy, not for the sake of contemplation but of idle gossip together and 



484 



drinking, the bowels of mercy are burst asunder, evil speaking arises and drunkenness reigns, for 
which cause we wishing to apply a remedy for this disease and take away from among you the 
occasion of evil, enjoin on you that in the same house of pretended mercy, except in the vigil of All 
Saints the week of Christmas and the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary, no fire shall be 
made or kept up, or except at the coming of frost or intolerable cold and while these reign they shall 
have a fire at the middle hour, by dispensation of the abbot not for the sake of converse together but 
of warmth, for a suitable time and the portion of the monks in drink and candles shall be diminished 
according to the discretion of the abbot, since all which is excessive is counted for a vice; and no 
layman or secular person shall be permitted to be present at the monks collations except only a 
servant appointed for these by the abbot. On you all and singular in virtue of the holy obedience etc. 
(as above as far as the word excused.) In witness whereof, etc. Dated at Carmarthen, 14 January, 
1402, etc. 



Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 



Fulchard 1118 St Dogmaels First Abbot present Bernard Bishop of St David's 

founded by Robert Fitz Martin Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M 

Vaughan F.SA. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Fitz Martin Robert 1113 St Dogmaels Founded priory subsidiary to mother abbey 
of Tiron 1118 founded Abbey of st Dogmael's as an independent house Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.SA. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 191 7 

Fitz Martin Geva(Genevieva) 1118 St Dogmaels Mother of Robert aided foundation 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Fitz Martin nee Peveral Maud 1118 St Dogmaels Wife of Robert aided foundation 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 



485 



Walter Late 1 lOO's St Dogmaels Abbot - cousin of Geraldus Cambrensis 
( Geraldus describes him as "an illiterate monk who could not read his Psalter) Abbey 
of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Hire William 1534 St Dogmaels last Abbot - at surrender there was 8 monks there 
William Hire received and annual pension of 8 marks) Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 191 7 

Bradshaw John 1543 St Dogmaels Of Presteign - Purchased the Abbey ( but not all 
the possessions) for ?5 12+ Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan 

F.S.A. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Bradshaw John 1571 St Dogmaels High Sheriff- son or grandson of John Bradshawof 
Presteign Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. Society of 

Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Bradshaw William 1603 St Dogmaels MP for Cardigan Borough - probably son of 
John Bradshaw 1571 Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. 

Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Bardshaw Edmund 1643 St Dogmaels Captain part of the garrison of Pill Fort 
captured by Commonwealth forces Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M 

Vaughan F.S.A. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Bradshaw John 1643 St Dogmaels Captain part ofthe garrison ifPill Fort captured by 
Commonwealth forces Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan 

F.S. A. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Parry David cl 660 St Dogmaels Of Neuadd-Trefawr purchased the Manor Abbey 
of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 191 7 

Webley-Parry David KV 1862 St Dogmaels sold the estate Abbey 
of St Mary at St Dogmaels - Herbert M Vaughan F.S.A. Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Thomas John Phillip 1536 St Dogmaels Accounts - collector of the rents and 
ferms(?) Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 2 7-28 Henry 

VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Yonge Lewis 1536 Nevem My He Broke -8s Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

ap Phillip ap Powell Griffin 1536 St Dogmaels? Haber Berkethelley 6s 8d 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 2 7-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Hew William 1536 Nevem Bowlghe Abbey of St Mary at St 



486 



Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

Webbe Phillip John 1536 St Dogmaels estates Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

Roger Phillipp 1536 St Dogmaels estates Lease 2 Aug 27 Henry VIII for 80 years 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Williams Elizabeth 1536 St Dogmaels estates "Heiress of William - one burgage, 

one orchard,4 ac landdemised by indenture" Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 191 7 

ap Jenkyn ap Owen Thomas 1536 St Dogmaels estates Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Hew David 1536 St Dogmaels estates tenement Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

Lloyd Rotheroth 1536 St Dogmaels estates land surrounded by the roadway 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap John Griffith Rotheroth 1536 St Dogmaels estates land by deed of 21 July 24 
Henry VIII for 97 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 

27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Jenkyn ap Griffith leuan 1536 St Dogmaels estates Aruard Plac' terr' Roos 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Jenkyn ap Owen Howell 1536 Capell St Julian Tenement Abbey 
of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Phillip Owen 1536 St Dogmaels estates Tenement Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

Gryn John 1536 Cardigan orchard Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Lewes John 1536 St Dogmaels estates Tenement next the Bridge of Cardigan— lands 



487 



demised for life Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO. Ministers Accounts 2 7-28 

Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Thomas William 1536 Tynbie Tenement at Penralte Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO. Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap John Awbery Rice 1536 St Dogmaels estates land by deed of 8 June 23 Henry 
VIII for 80 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO. Ministers Accounts 27-28 

Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Price ap Powell Robert 1536 St Dogmaels estates one piece of land 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Hewes William 1536 St Dogmaels estates Various lands Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

ap leuan David 1536 St Dogmaels estates Certain lands Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

ap David Morice 1536 St Dogmaels estates Tenement Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Roger Jenkyn 1536 St Dogmaels estates Tenement Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

ap leuan ap Gwillam Jenkyn 1536 St Dogmaels estates dwelling 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Powle leuan 1536 St Dogmaels estates one acre Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

Sporyour John 1536 St Dogmaels estates lands with garden Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Mortymere John 1536 St Dogmaels estates Tenement Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 



488 



Parat 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement called Mjaij^h in the tenure of the heir of 

Parat who holds freely Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 

27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Thomas ap OwenHowell 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement by deed 8 Oct 27 
Henry VIII for 99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 

27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Owen ap Powell Howell 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement called Place Pant 
Rege by deed of 10 Oct 27 Henry Vlll for 99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Rice ap Owen David 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement called Come Kerwyn by 
deed 12 Oct 27 Henry Vlll for 99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 191 7 

ap leuan Lewis 1536 Manoghloke duy Two Tenements Landr Manachlog Duy by 
deed 1 0 Oct 27 Henry Vlll for 99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Jenkyn ap Owen Hoell 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement at Capall St Guliany 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap leuan ap Jenkyn Griffin 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement at Pont'r Ithe by 
deed 9 Oct 27 Henry VIII for 99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap David Eynonl536 Manoghloke duy Tenement in Blayne 1 Cowrse glebe by 
deed 27 Henry Vlll for 99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers 

Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap David gors Griffin 1536 Manoghloke duy lately held tenement near Y 

Vron Lase Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry 

VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Powell Owen 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenements by deed 9 July 25 Henry VIII for 
99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry 

VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Powell David 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenements by deed 9 July 25 Henry VIII for 
99 years Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 2 7-28 Henry 

VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Powell ap Bowen James 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 



489 



Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Powell ap leuan ap David leuan 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO. Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap leuan Pickton Llewellin 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement Abbey 
of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap Griffith Jenkyn 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Thomas Phillipp 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Willyams David 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

ap Dio Gwillam Thomas 1536 Manoghloke duy Tenement Abbey 
of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Daye John 1536 Haverfordwest Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

Smyth John 1536 Pembroke Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap David ap Gwillam Owin 1536 Ffysshyngarde Water Mill Abbey 
of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap David ap Phillip Thomas 1536 Grandyston Tenement term 60 years 10 June 27 
Henry VIII Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 2 7-28 Henry 

VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

ap leuan John 1536 Grandyston Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

Jonyns John 1536 Grandyston Wasteland Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 



490 



27 1917 

ap William Owen Thomas 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO. Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

Willyams John 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 191 7 

Why ting John 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Prowte Richard 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

Whyting Lewis 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Prowte Thomas 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St 

Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 
27 1917 

Webe Lewis 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Gough William 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Adam John 1536 Caldy Tenement Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels 

PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Lloyde Owen 1536 Caldy all tithes with site of Priory estimated as 1 Sac. 

Abbey of St Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 
Society of Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 

Jordane Lewis 1536 St Dogmaels clerk of the court Abbey of St Mary at 

St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of Cymmrodorion 
Vol 27 1917 

ap Powell Lewis 1536 St Dogmaels bailiff and collector of rents Abbey of St 

Mary at St Dogmaels PRO.Ministers Accounts 27-28 Henry VIII no 5287 Society of 
Cymmrodorion Vol 27 1917 



491 



State of Education in Wales 1847 

The parish has a resident clergyman and is mainly agricultural but also some fishing. The earnings 
of the fishermen unknown but the agricultural labourers get 8d a day with food and Is a day on 
their own finding. The moral character is not good with drunkeness to some extent and want of 
chastity. Landed proprietors are resident but there is no information on them subscribing for 
education or on how many farmer pay over £100 a year in rent. There was also no information 
on how many children were without education. Information from Henry J Vincent, St 
Dogmaels. 

Parish of St Dogmells - Mrs Bevan's Circulating Scliool - On the 27* of January I visited the 
above school; it was held in a chapel belonging to the church. There was no school furniture in 
the place. The master could scarcely speak any English; five only out of the 32 present could 
be formed into a class to read the Testament. They attempted to read a chapter in St Like, which 
all did wretchedly ill. They knew nothing beyond the answer to a few unconnected scriptural 
questions. 

David Lewis - Assistant 

Union Worldiouse School I visited this school on the 27* of January. It was held in a room in the 

workhouse. Everything about it seemed very comfortable. The children had just been dismissed 
and were preparing for dinner. The school was conducted by the house master's daughter. She 
told me that the attendance was very irregular in consequence of the children leaving the house 
for a time, and then returning. There was nothing taught at the time of my visit but reading 
— David Lewis - Assistant 

Chapel Hill Day School On the 27* of January I visited the above school. The children were not 
present to be examined. The school was kept in a small room, lighted by one window, and one 
small fireplace. Ther furniture consisted of one desk for the master, three small desks for the 
pupils and a few benches, all in indifferent repair. The schoolmaster seemed an intelligent man, 
spoke English well, and the Vicar gave him a good character. David Lewis - 

Assistant 



Former British School, St Dogmaels 

The former British School at St Dogmaels was opened circa 1869 and is marked on the first edition 
Ordnance Survey 25" map, of 1890. It was a single storey schoolroom with two projecting 
wings, two entrances at the front and a central ventilation tower in the roof 



The Old School (Former Chapel), David Street, St Dogmaels 

The old school in David Street was originally an early nineteenth-century chapel and converted to a school 
492 



in the later nineteenth-century. It comprises a single-storey two-room school with two low single 
storey wings projecting to west. S.L. Evans RCAHMW 2009 



St Dogmell,s Parish Hearth Tax 1670 



Parry, Thomas esq 


St Dogmell's 


H 


James George 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Thomas William 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Farry William smith 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Parry Thomas 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Poulton Elizabeth 


St Dogmell's 


H 


James John 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Davids Mary widow 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Bevan John 


St Dogmell's 


H 


John Rudderch 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Jenkin David Richard 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Mathias James deed 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Rowland William 


St Dogmell's 


H 


John Jane 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Lewis George 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Evan Abram 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Lloyd James 


St Dogmell's 


H 


William Francis 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Morice Evan 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Hughes John 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Jones Francis 


St Dogmell's 


H 



493 



Lloyd John 


St Dogmell's 


H2 


William Thomas 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Thomas Mathias 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Griffith Thomas David 


St Dogmell's 


H2 


Price Richard 


St Dogmell's 


H2 


Rowland Nicholas 


St Dogmell's 


H2 


Young'Evan 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Rowland William 


St Dogmell's 


H3 


John Evan of Llantoode 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Hughes John 


St Dogmell's 


H2 


Rees Martin 


St Dogmell's 


H 


John Rees ap 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Davies Nicholas ofPenyrallt 


St Dogmell's 


H5 


Thomas Howell 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Rees Thomas 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Griffith James 


St Dogmell's 


H 


David William 


St Dogmell's 


H2 


Price Evan ap Evan 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Llewhelin David Thomas 


St Dogmell's 


H 


John Owen 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Mathias William 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Nicholas Thomas 


St Dogmell's 


H 


Thomas Hugh 


St Dogmell's 


H 


SlaTTiTorlrp Tohn 

kJttllll VFVJVW J\_F11A1 


St Dornnell's 


H 


Jenkins Reynold 


St Dogmell's 


H2 


Bevan John 


Dogmell's 


H2 



494 



Webb David 
David George 
Pany David Thomas 
Phillips James, esq of Cardigan 
David Watkin 
Vaughan Rees 
Hugh Nicholas 
John Henry 
Thomas Phillip 
John Ursula 
Edward Thomas 
Parry John 
Bowen Thomas 
George Griffith 
Reece William 
Vaughan Richard 
William Rees 
David Rees Thomas 
William Richard 
Edward Christian 
Thomas Rees 
William Evan 
Harry James 
Watkin Mary 
Lloyd John David 
David John 



St Dogmell's H 

St Dogmell's H 2 

St Dogmell's H 

Priory St Dogmell's H2 



St Dogmell's 


H 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 


St Dogmell's 


P 



495 



Hugh Evan 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Phillip John 


St Dogmell's 


P 


David Thomas 


St Dogmell's 


P 


James Evan 


St Dogmell's 


P 


William Ellen 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Rees Hugh 


St Dogmell's 


P 


David Watkin 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Thomas David junior 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Pany John 


St Dogmell's 


P 


John Ellen 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Hugh Thomas , 


St Dogmell's 


P, 


David Mary , 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Harry , ,Mary 


St Dogmell's 


P 


John John ap 


St Dogmell's 


P, 


Mathias Evan , 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Watkin , Rees, , 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Phillip , James, 


St Dogmell's 


P, 


Rees , Owen, , 


St Dogmell's 


P, 


Lewis Mary 


St Dogmell's 


P 


Tames Rees 


St Doemell's 


p 


John Grace 


St Dogmell's 


P 


David Elizabeth 


St Dogmell's 


P 



Other Names St Dogmael's 



Bradshaw John of St Dogmaels — who on suppression of Monasteries obtained the Abbey of St 



496 



Dogmaels dies 1588 and was succeeded by his son John 1571 High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 



Winstanley Edmund of St Dogmaels 1591 High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 



Parry Thomas of St Dogmaels 1597 High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 



Deedes Julius of Exeter for his lands in St Dogmaels 1703 High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 



Abraham Maria 4 July 1788 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Burglary of prosecutor's house and 
stealing a looking glass and wearing apparel. Cardigan Date 4 July 1788 Prosecutor Bowen 
John, Cardigan, esq. Verdict Guilty of stealing to the value of lid. Punishment — To be 
whipped and 1 year imprisonment Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Bradshaw John 10 Nov 1543. Radnorshire fee simple of the abbey of Prestende Presteign of St 
Dogmael and the rectory of St Thomas, in St Dogmaels 



Bradshaw John 1610 St Dogmaels Sold Caldy Island to Walter Philpin of Tenby 
"Pembrokeshire in By,gone Days 



Cunningham Samuel 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels,Drummer in Pemb. Militia Offence Murder of 
William David by shooting him. St Dogmaels, Prosecutor Francis, Thomas, St Dogmaels 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



David David 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Rees John gent. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



David Elinor 22 May 1812 St Dogmaels Widow Offence Riot and assault St Dogmaels Prosecutor 
Mendus David Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



497 



David Elizabeth 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Married Offence Riot and assault Indicted with her 
husband St Dogmaels Prosecutor Vaughan Nicholas Yeoman 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



David Elizabeth 22 May 1812 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Mendus David Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



David Margaret 22 May 1812 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Mendus David Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



David Mary 22 May 1812 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault St Dogmaels Prosecutor 
Mendus David Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



David Mary 20 August 1805 Alias Mary Davy St Dogmaels Married Offence Receiving goods 
belonging to prosecutor stolen by two of his female servants Jenkin Margaret and David Ann 
who were not indicted Prisoner aged 33 Cardigan Prosecutor Lewis John Y Ferwig Vadict No 
prosecution Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



David Thomas 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault Indicted with his 
wife St Dogmaels Prosecutor Vaughan Nicholas Yeoman 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Davies David 19 March 1789 Rev St Dogmaels Clergjmian Offence Riot and assault St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Edwards William 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Evan David 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



498 



Evans Ann 1 1 July 1812 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault, St Dogmaels Prosecutor 
Margaret Mendus, spinster Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Evans Elizabeth 22 May 1812 St Dogmaels SpinsterOffence Riot and assault, St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor David Mendus Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Evans Maria 20 August 1805 St Dogmaels Widow Offence Receiving stolen goods belonging to 
prosecutor, stolen by two of his female servants, Margaret Jenkin and Ann David, who were not 
indicted. Prisoner aged 39, Prisoner removed by writ of habeus corpus to co, Pembroke Y 
Ferwig 

Cardigan Prosecutor John Lewis, Ferwig Verdict No prosecution, 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Francis Thomas 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Hughes Hugh 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Hughes William 3 December 1771 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Breaking and entering 

prosecutor's house and stealing money and a purse Llanfihangel Penbedw Prosecutor John 
Lloyd, Llanfihangel Penbedw, Yeoman Verdict Guilty of felony only - partial verdict 
Punishment 

Transported for 7 years Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730- 1830 



James Elizabeth 5 December 1756 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Infanticide of her male bastard 
child. St Dogmaels Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



James Elizabeth 1 1 July 1812 St Dogmaels Married Offence Riot and assault, St Dogmaels 



499 



Prosecutor Mendus,Margaret spinster Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



James Joshua 1734 Oct 5 Penrallt Kibwr St Dogmaels Rees ap Rees Agreed with Joshua James for 
his son James for a year for 24s "Pembrokeshire in By,gone Days 



Jenkin David 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Reesjohn gent Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



John David 10 April 1787 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Assault on Morris Morris and David John , 

constables, in the execution of their duty and obstructing them from distraining prisoner's and 
others' goods. St Dogmaels Prosecutor George Bowen & Thomas Lloyd, esq. 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



John James 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels Prosecutor 
Vaughan, Nicholas Yeoman Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Lewis David Evan 10 April 1787 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Assault on Morris Morris and 
David John,constables, in the execution of their duty and obstructing them from distraining 
prisoner's and others' goods. St Dogmaels Prosecutor George Bowen & Thomas, Lloyd esq. 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Lewis David 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Lewis Joshua 27 December 1805 John Owen St Dogmaels Yeoman Charged with Murder of Joshua 
Lewis by stabbing him following a quarrel over a girl in deceased's company. St Dogmaels 



500 



Prosecutor Richards, Richard. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Lewis John 5 June 1755 St Dogmaels fisherman Offence Assault. Recognizance indicates a 
prosecution for a riot and breach of the peace. St Dogmaels 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Lewis Roger 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Lilly James March 1745 Murdered St Dogmaels Fencing master Theft of wearing apparel. St 
David's Guilty Punishment Transported for 7 years, escaped, murdered see Owen William 
Captn Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Lloyd David 9 January 1817 St Dogmaels Tailor Offence Theft of cloth and wearing apparel from a 
warehouse. Goods originally came from a shipwreck of the ship 'Elizabeth and Mary' , Indicted 
with his brother indicted with larceny, not theft from a warehouse. Prisoner aged 37, Others 
implicated 

but not indicted St Dogmaels Prosecutor Davies Thomas,Capt,gent, Verdict Guilty, Punishment 
Transported for 7years Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Lloyd David John 5 June 1755 St Dogmaels fisherman Offence Assault. Recognizance indicates a 
prosecution for a riot and breach of the peace. St Dogmaels 
Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Lloyd Frances 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Vaughan Nicholas, Yeoman Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Lloyd George 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



501 



Lloyd John 9 January 1817 Llantood Servant Offence Theft of cloth and wearing apparel from a 
warehouse, Goods originally came from a shipwreck of the ship Elizabeth and Mary , Indicted 
with his brother indicted with larceny, not theft from a warehouse. Prisoner aged 34, Others 
implicated, 

but not indicted St Dogmaels Prosecutor Davies, Thomas, Capt Gent, Verdict Guilty, Punishment 
Transported for 7 years Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



Lloyd Llewellin 10 April 1787 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Assault on Morris Morris and David 
John, constables, in the execution of their duty and obstructing them from distraining prisoner's 
and others' goods. St Dogmaels Prosecutor George Bowen & Thomas, Lloyd esq. 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Mendus John 12 June 1780 St Dogmaels Offence Assault and rescue of Mendus,Thomas, St 
Dogmaels, from bailiffs' custody. St Dogmaels Prosecutor Lloyd, Herbert gent. 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Mendus Thomas 12 June 1780 St Dogmaels Offence Assault and rescue of Thomas, Mendus, St 

Dogmaels, from bailiffs' custody. Indicted with his son. St Dogmaels Prosecutor Herbert Lloyd, 
gent. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Mendus Thomas 12 June 1780 the younger StDogmaels Offence Assault and rescue of Thomas, 

Mendus, St Dogmaels, - his father? - from bailiffs' custody. His father also indicted. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Herbert Lloyd, gent. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Mendus Thomas 14 November 1780 St Dogmaels Carpenter Offence Assault. St Dogmaels 

Prosecutor Thomas, Lloyd Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Mendus Thomas 14 November 1780 St Dogmaels Carpenter Offence Theft of a boat. Recognizance 
refers to forcibly taking the boat away and destroying it. St Dogmaels Prosecutor Thomas, 
Lloyd & James Williams Verdict No true bill. Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



502 



Mendus Thomas, 1 July 1814 St Dogmaels Gent, Offence Obstructing the highway by erecting a 
dwelling house on it, Prisoner resided chiefly at 3, Carter Lane, Doctor's Common, London and 
possessed 'a violent and unbecoming manner St Dogmaels Prosecutor William Owen s, St 

Dogmaels, farmer Punishment To pay Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Michael Thomas 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Francis Owen Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

Morris Elizabeth 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Vaughan Nicholas, Yeoman Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Morris John 1 1 July 1812 St Dogmaels Carpenter Offence Riot and assault, St Dogmaels Prosecutor 
Mendus, Margaret spinster Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Morris John 22 May 1812 St Dogmaels Carpenter Offence Riot and assault, St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Mendus David Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Morris Mary 22 May 1812 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault, St Dogmaels Prosecutor 
Mendus David Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Nicholas Catherine 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Spinster Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Vaughan Nicholas, Yeoman Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 

Nicholas Thomas 7 February 1778 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Murder of David Williams by 
striking with a stone. St Dogmaels Prosecutor Williams George Verdict Guilty of manslaughter 
Punishment To be burned in the hand Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830, 



503 



Pany Thomas 1 597 of St Dogmaels High Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 



Price Isaac 10 October 1786 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Assault on Morris Morris and David 
John, constables, in the execution of their duty and obstructing them from distraining his goods. 
Indicted with his wife. St Dogmaels Prosecutor George Bowen & Thomas Lloyd, 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Price Sarah 10 October 1786 St Dogmaels Married Offence Assault on Morris Morris and David 
John, constables, in the execution of their duty and obstructing them from distraining her 
Husband's goods. Indicted with her Husband. St Dogmaels Prosecutor George Bowen & 
Thomas, Lloyd, esqs Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Price? Thomas 1615 Sept St Dogmaels Clerk- Keeping a common tippling house and selling ale 
and beer "Pembrokeshire in By,gone Days 



Richard David 10 April 1787 St Dogmaels YeomanOffence Assault on Morris Morris and David 
John, constables, in the execution of their duty and obstructing them from distraining prisoner's 
and others' goods. St Dogmaels Prosecutor George Bowen & Thomas Lloyd, esq. 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Richard David 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Richards Benjamin 1 September 1780 St Dogmaels Mariner Offence Theft from a ship called the 
Providence, of raw sugar belonging to the prosecutors. St Dogmaels Prosecutor John Dixon & 
Isaac Littledale, Whitehaven, Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 



Roberts John 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St Dogmaels 
Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 



Stephen William 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault.St Dogmaels 



504 



Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Thomas William 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. 

St Dogmaels Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1830 

Vincent Henry James Rev. 1865 June 1 1 St Dogmaels Obituary Bom Fishguard 1799 June 19 
educated at St David's and Haverfordwest Grammer School married Miss Jones who died in 
1 83 1 - sine prole- Arch Camb 1865 

Watts John 12 June 1780 St Dogmaels Offence Assault and rescue of Thomas Mendus, St 
Dogmaels, from bailiffs' custody. St Dogmaels Prosecutor Lloyd Herbert, gent. 

Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Williams David 7 February 1778 - Thomas Nicholas St Dogmaels Yeoman Charged with Murder of 
David Williams by striking with a stone. St Dogmaels Prosecutor Williams George Verdict 
Guilty of 

manslaughter Punishment To be burned in the hand Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

William David 19 March 1789 -Samuel Cunningham St Dogmaels Drummer in Pembrokeshire 
Militia Charged with Murder of David William by shooting him. St Dogmaels Prosecutor 
Francis Thomas, St Dogmaels Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Williams James 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St 
Dogmaels Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1730-1830 

Williams James 19 March 1789 St Dogmaels Yeoman Offence Riot and assault. St 
Dogmaels Prosecutor Owen Francis Before the Pembrokeshire Courts 1 730-1